April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

School Desegregation

April 28, 1855: Massachusetts desegregated the state’s public schools with a law that stated: “no distinction shall be made on account of the race, color, or religious opinions, of the applicant or scholar.” (primary research dot org article) (BH, see May 1856; SD, see May 18, 1896)

Mitchell v the United Sates

April 28, 1941: the case came on appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, challenging discriminatory treatment of railroad accommodations for African-American passengers on interstate train coaches passing through Arkansas, where a state law required racial segregation, but equivalent facilities. The Supreme Court had held in earlier cases that it was adequate under the Fourteenth Amendment for separate privileges to be supplied to differing groups of people as long as they were treated similarly well.

Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes delivered the unanimous opinion of the Court: “This was manifestly a discrimination against him [Mitchell] in the course of his interstate journey and admittedly that discrimination was based solely upon the fact that he was a Negro. The question whether this was a discrimination forbidden by the Interstate Commerce Act is not a question of segregation but equality of treatment. The denial to appellant equality of accommodations because of his race would be an invasion of a fundamental right which is guaranteed against state actions by the 14th Amendment.”  (cornell dot edu article

News Music

In 1942: Langston Hughes wrote the lyrics, Emerson Harper wrote the music, and Josh White sang “Freedom’s Road” in which they attempted to link the war abroad to the struggle for racial justice at home. (BH, see Jan 17; see News Music for more)

Ruby Hurley

April 28 Peace Love Activism

April 28, 1951: Ruby Hurley opened the first permanent office of the NAACP in the South, setting it up in Birmingham, Ala. Her introduction to civil rights activism began when she helped organize Marian Anderson’s 1939 concert at the Lincoln Memorial. Four years later, she became national youth secretary for the NAACP. She helped investigate lynchings across the South and received many threats, including a bombing attempt on her home. In 1956, she left Birmingham for Atlanta after Alabama barred the NAACP from operating. She served as a mentor for Vernon Jordan and retired two years before dying in 1980. In 2009, she appeared on a postage stamp. (women’s history dot org bio) (see Oct 27)

George Whitmore, Jr/April 28, 1964

April 28, 1964: Whitmore  indicted in for the Minnie Edmonds murder. His court-appointed attorney, Jerome Leftow, stated that Whitmore had repudiated the confessions, claiming he was beaten during interrogation, and would like to take a lie-detector test.

George Whitmore, Jr/April 28, 1965

April 28, 1965: Prosecutor Sidney A. Lichtman told the jury that the Wylie-Hoffert indictment was still pending in Manhattan. Whitmore’s attorney, Stanley Reiben argued, “How can the Wylie-Hoffert confession be bad and the others good beyond a reasonable doubt, given the same day to the same detectives  Is it possible for Wylie-Hoffert to be phony while the others are not?” (see Whitmore for expanded chronology)

Muhammad Ali

April 28, 1967: US Justice Department denied Ali’s claim. The Department found that his objections were political, not religious. Ali reported for induction ceremony, but refused to step forward when called.  (Black History, see April 30; Ali, see June 20)

Clifford Glover

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

April 28, 1973: in Jamaica, Queens, NYC two undercover officers, Thomas Shea, and his partner Walter Scott, shot 10-year-old Clifford Glover when he and his stepfather the officers stopped them. Immediately following the shooting, there were several days of riots in the South Jamaica neighborhood. At least 24 people, including 14 policemen were injured and 25 protesters arrested.  (Black Main Street article)(BH, see May Peace… ; RR, see June 12, 1974)

Baltimore riots

April 28, 2015: (from the NYT) Engines raced across…[Baltimore] early Tuesday as the Fire Department strained to extinguish blazes, even as the police said some firefighters were reportedly having cinder blocks heaved at them as they responded to emergencies.

As Baltimore residents recoiled from the rioting and looting that struck largely in the west of the city, the police said officers were deployed overnight alongside weary and harried firefighters to ensure their work was not disrupted by people with “no regard for life.” (see Apr 29)

BLACK & SHOT/Eric C Harris

April 28, 2016: Robert Bates was found guilty the manslaughter of Eric C Harris. Based on the jury’s recommendation, he was sentenced to four years in prison. (see July 5)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Eccles, WV mine collapse

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

April 28, 1914: coal mine collapsed at Eccles, WV, killing 181 workers. (mine disasters dot com article) (see Oct 15)

Benwood, WV coal mine disaster

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

April 28, 1924: 119 died in Benwood, WV coal mine disaster. (Archiving Wheeling dot org article) (see June 14)

Thornhill v. Alabama

April 28, 1940: in the case of Thornhill v. Alabama, decided on this day, the Supreme Court upheld a constitutional right to picket under the First Amendment. At issue was an Alabama state law that severely limited picketing. (Oyez article) (see Oct 24)

OSHA

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

April 28, 1970: Congress created OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The AFL-CIO set April 28 as “Workers Memorial Day” to honor the workers killed and injured on the job every year. (OSHA site) (see Sept 15)

Feminism/Labor History
April 28, 1993

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Religion and Public Education

Zorach v. Clausen

April 28, 1952: in Zorach v. Clausen, the United States Supreme Court ruled that New York’s “released time” program, which allowed public school students to leave school early in order to attend religion classes, was permissible because the religious instruction took place off school grounds. In an earlier case, McCollum v. Board of Education, the Court had ruled an Illinois released time program unconstitutional because the religious instruction occurred on public school grounds. (Oyez article) (see April 16, 1956)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

Japan

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

April 28, 1952:  Japan independent from US occupation. (see October 22, 1953)

Dissolution of Yugoslavia

April 28 Peace Love Activism

April 28, 1992: the two remaining constituent republics of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – Serbia and Montenegro – form a new state, named the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (after 2003, Serbia and Montenegro), bringing to an end the official union of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Montenegrins, Bosnian Muslims and Macedonians that existed from 1918 (with the exception of the period during World War II). (see August 3, 1994)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

South Vietnam Leadership

April 28, 1955: US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles told the National Security Council to hold off on allowing the ousting of Diem pending the outcome of the Battle of Saigon. (Vietnam & SVL, see July 27)

General Westmoreland

April 28, 1967: for the first time in American history an American general was ordered home from a battlefield to speak to a joint session of Congress. He summarized the war’s situation by saying that the American Achilles’ heel was its resolve. (see Apr 30)

Cambodian Invasion

April 28 Peace Love Activism

April 28, 1970: President Richard Nixon gave formal authorization to commit U.S. combat troops, in cooperation with South Vietnamese units, against communist troop sanctuaries in Cambodia. Secretary of State William Rogers and Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, who had continually argued for a downsizing of the U.S. effort in Vietnam, were excluded from the decision. (see Apr 29)

South Vietnam Leadership

April 28, 1975: ARVN general Duong Van Minh became the last president of South Vietnam. (see Apr 29)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

April 28 Music et al

The Road to Bethel

Week of April 28, 1969: Johnny Winter signed ($7,500); Janis Joplin signed ($15,000); and Jefferson Airplane signed ($15,000). (see Chronology for expanded story)

Fear of Rock

April 28, 1982: the California State Assembly consumer-protection-committee heard testimony from “experts” who claimed that when ‘Stairway To Heaven’ was played backward, contained the words: “I sing because I live with Satan. The Lord turns me off, there’s no escaping it. Here’s to my sweet Satan, whose power is Satan. He will give you 666. I live for Satan.” (see April 5, 1983)

 

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

Chesley Karr

April 28 Peace Love Activism

April 28, 1972: Chesley Karr, a minor, individually and John R. Karr, individually and as next friend and guardian ad litem on behalf of themselves and all others similarly situated, Plaintiffs-Appellees v Clifford Schmidt, Principal of Coronado High School, et al., etc., Defendants-Appellants. A male high school student with long hair sued the principal of a Texas high school after he was denied enrollment because his hair length violated the school’s “good grooming” policy. This policy prohibited any male student’s hair from hanging over his ears or collar, or from obstructing his vision. Issue: Whether a public school student has a First Amendment right to wear long hair to school. Holding: The US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held that a student does not have a constitutional right to wear his hairstyle however he sees fit. (U Mass  dot edu article) (see June 26)

Skokie Nazi March

April 28, 1977: Judge Joseph Wosik, a judge in the Chancery Department of the Circuit Court of Cook County, in a suit filed by the Village of Skokie against the Nationalist Socialist party, issues a preliminary injunction prohibiting members of the Nationalist Socialist party from marching in Skokie. In this suit, the Village asserts, as a matter of fact, that the Jewish population is approximately 40,000 out of a total population of 70,000. (see May 2)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

ADA in the late 70s & 80s

Judy Heumann

On April 5, 1977 demonstrators led by Judy Heumann  had taken over the Health Education and Welfare in San Francisco in protest of HEW Secretary Califano’s refusal to complete regulations for Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which made it illegal for federal agencies, public universities, and other public institutions receiving any federal funds to discriminate on the basis of disability.

On April 28, 1977  Secretary Califano signed the regulations into effect, making the take-over event  the longest occupation of a federal office by protesters in U.S. history. 

“We will ride!”

In 1978: in Denver, Colorado, chanting “We will ride!” nineteen members of the Atlantis Community block buses with their wheelchairs to demonstrate against the inaccessibility of public transportation. 

Fiesta Educativa

In 1978: Fiesta Educativa (Education Fest) formed to address the lack of Spanish-speaking support services to families with disabled children in southern California. 

National Council on Disability

In 1978: the National Council on Disability is established as an advisory board within the Department of Education. Its purpose is to promote policies, programs, practices, and procedures that guarantee equal opportunity for all people with disabilities, regardless of the nature or severity of the disability, and to empower them to achieve economic self-sufficiency, independent living, and inclusion and integration into all aspects of society. 

The Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act

In 1980: The Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA) gives the Department of Justice power to sue state or local institutions that violate the rights of people held against their will, including those residing for care or treatment of mental illness. 

Attention Deficit Disorder

In 1980: the term Attention Deficit Disorder is included for the first time in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). 

National Organization on Disability

In 1982: Alan A. Reich founds the National Organization on Disability (NOD) in 1982. NOD’s mission is to expand the participation and contribution of Americans with disabilities in all aspects of life and to close the participation gap by raising disability awareness through programs and information. As president of NOD, Reich builds the coalition of disability groups that successfully fight for the inclusion of a statue of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his wheelchair at the FDR Memorial. Reich is an international leader in the disability community until his death in 2005. 

ADAPT

In 1983: Americans with Disabilities for Accessible Public Transportation, now known as ADAPT, began its national campaign for lifts on buses and access to public transit for people with disabilities. For seven years ADAPT—under the leadership of Bob Kafka, Stephanie Thomas, and Mike Auberger—blocked buses in cities across the U.S. to demonstrate the need for access to public transit. After the passage of the ADA (and transit measures gained by ADAPT’s hard work), ADAPT began to focus on attendant and community based services, becoming American Disabled for Attendant Programs Today. 

The Air Carrier Access Act

In 1986: The Air Carrier Access Act is implemented, which prohibits discrimination by domestic and foreign air carriers against qualified individuals with physical or mental disabilities. It applies only to air carriers that provide regularly scheduled services for hire to the public. Requirements include boarding assistance and certain accessibility features in newly built aircraft and new or altered airport facilities. (see September 28, 1987)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Irish Troubles

April 28, 1981:  the private secretary of Pope John Paul II paid a visit to Bobby Sands in the Maze Prison but was unable to persuade him to end his hunger strike. Humphrey Atkins, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, stated that: “If Mr Sands persisted in his wish to commit suicide, that was his choice. The government would not force medical treatment upon him.” President Ronald Reagan said that America would not intervene in the situation in Northern Ireland but he was “deeply concerned” at events there. (see Troubles for expanded Chronology)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

The Cold War

Aldrich Ames 

April 28, 1994: Aldrich Ames, a former C.I.A. official, pleaded guilty to passing U.S. secrets to the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War. Ames further confessed that he continued spying for Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union. (see May 31)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

April 28, 1998: Nancy Hernreich, director of Oval Office operations, testified for the sixth time in the Lewinsky investigation. (see Clinton for expanded impeachment chronology)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Cultural Milestone

iTunes

April 28 Peace Love Activism

April 28, 2003: Apple Computer Inc. launched the iTunes store. (see February 4, 2004)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

April 28, 2004: images of torture by American forces at Abu Ghraib revealed. (see May 19)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

April 28, 2010: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration estimated that the leak was likely 5,000 barrels (210,000 US gallons; 790 cubic metres) a day, five times larger than initially estimated by BP. (see May 12)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

United Church of Christ

April 28, 2014: in a novel legal attack on a state’s same-sex marriage ban, the United Church of Christ, a liberal Protestant denomination, filed a lawsuit arguing that North Carolina was unconstitutionally restricting religious freedom by barring clergy members from blessing gay and lesbian couples.

The lawsuit, filed in a Federal District Court was the first such case brought by a national religious denomination challenging a state’s marriage laws. The denomination, which claimed nearly one million members nationwide, had supported same-sex marriage since 2005.

We didn’t bring this lawsuit to make others conform to our beliefs, but to vindicate the right of all faiths to freely exercise their religious practices,” said Donald C. Clark Jr., general counsel of the United Church of Christ. [NYT article] (see May 9)

Supreme Court hearing

April 28, 2015: in two and a half hours of arguments over whether the Constitution guarantees same-sex couples the right to marry, the Supreme Court was deeply divided over one of the great civil rights issues of the age, same-sex marriage. But Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, whose vote was probably crucial, gave gay rights advocates reasons for optimism based on the tone and substance of his questions.

Kennedy sent conflicting signals. At some points, he seemed wary of moving too fast and torn about what to do. But his demeanor was more emotional and emphatic when he made the case that same-sex couples should be permitted to marry. He was also the author of three landmark opinions expanding the rights of gay Americans. [NYT article]  (see May 4)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Marijuana

April 28, 2014:  a review conducted by specialists convened by the American Academy of Neurology suggested that marijuana can help alleviate multiple sclerosis symptoms such as pain, overactive bladder, and muscle stiffness.

The review also found that marijuana dd not help relieve the uncontrollable limb spasms that result from a drug used to treat Parkinson’s disease. And it concluded that there is insufficient evidence to know whether the drug reduces symptoms caused by neurological diseases such as Huntington’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, or epilepsy.

We wanted to inform patients and physicians, but we didn’t make specific treatment recommendations,” said study coauthor Dr. Gary Gronseth, a professor of neurology at the University of Kansas Medical Center in Kansas City. (see Nov 4)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

April 28, 2014: according to a sweeping new statistical analysis, the US might be putting more innocent people to death than previously thought. Authors of the study say that their “conservative estimate of the proportion of erroneous convictions” is 4.1 percent, or approximately twice the number actually exonerated and set free from death row. This could mean that approximately 120 of the roughly 3,000 inmates on death row in America might not be guilty, while additional scores of wrongfully convicted inmates are serving life in prison after their death sentences were reduced over technical legal errors. (see Apr 29)

April 28 Peace Love Art Activism
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April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Voting Rights

April 27, 1903: Giles v. Harris, US Supreme Court upheld Alabama’s state constitution’s requirements for voter registration and qualifications. Although the plaintiff accused the state of discriminating in practice against black citizens, the Court found that the requirements applied to all citizens and refused to review the results in practice, which it considered overseeing the state’s process. 

The Souls of Black Folk

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1903: A. C. McClurg Co. published W.E.B. Du Bois’ book, The Souls of Black Folk. In it, Du Bois rejected the gradualism advocated by Booker T. Washington and called for active resistance to racist policies. 

Lift Every Voice and Sing

In 1905: John Johnson, the brother of James Weldon Johnson who wrote the poem “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” put music it. (BH, see September 22, 1906;  see Lift for expanded story) 

Marcus Garvey

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1919: Garvey announced his plan to start the Black Star Line. The Black Star Line was to be the U.N.I.A.’s vehicle for promoting worldwide commerce among black communities. In Garvey’s vision, Black Star Line ships would transport manufactured goods, raw materials, and produce among black businesses in North America, the Caribbean, and Africa, and become the linchpin in a global black economy. (BH, see May 10 – 11; see Garvey for expanded story)

Viola Liuzzo

April 27, 1967: the US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upheld the conspiracy convictions of Viola Liuzzo’s murderers Eugene Thomas and Collie Leroy Wilkins, Jr. William O Eaton, the third person, had already died. (BH, see Apr 28;  see Liuzzo for expanded story)

SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID

April 27, 1977: anti-apartheid riots in Soweto, South Africa. (see Aug 18)

Nelson Mandela

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1994: general voting opened in the first election in South African history that included black participation. Despite months of violence leading up to the vote, not a single person was reported killed in election-related violence. When the voting concluded on April 29, the A.N.C. had won more than 62 percent of the vote, earning 252 of the 400 seats in Parliament’s National Assembly. Voters chose Mandela as president without opposition. (see May 10)

Integrated prom

April 27, 2013: for the first time in the history of Wilcox County, Georgia, black students and white students danced arm-in-arm at prom. Nearly 60 years after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was illegal, half of the students from rural Wilcox County High School ended their community’s tradition of segregation after raising money for an integrated prom dance. (BH, see June 20; School Desegregation,  see Sept 13)

137 SHOTS

April 27, 2015: Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Judge John P. O’Donnell declined to acquit Cleveland police officer Michael Brelo and bring an end to his voluntary manslaughter trial before hearing any defense witnesses. O’Donnell, ruling on a defense request for the acquittal, ruled that the prosecution has presented enough evidence in the trial to warrant hearing the other side’s case.

In his ruling, O’Donnell wrote, “taking the evidence in a light most favorable to the state, at least 34 of Brelo’s 49 shots were reasonable to deal with a perceived threat. If he is eventually found guilty of voluntary manslaughter beyond a reasonable doubt in the face of his affirmative defense that all of his shots were legally justified it will mean only that he was not justified in taking one or more of those last 15 shots to confront the perceived threat.” (see 137 shots for expanded story)

Freddie Gray

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 2015: with the words “black lives matter” projected in capital letters on the walls, thousands of mourners crowded into a church …to bid an emotional goodbye to Freddie Gray, the 25-year-old who died from a spinal cord injury while in police custody, and to demand reforms in law enforcement and far beyond it.

Friends, neighbors, activists and government officials from the local level to the White House filled New Shiloh Baptist Church and filed past the open, white coffin bearing the body of Mr. Gray, whose death on April 19 fed claims of discriminatory and brutal policing, and set off a week of protests here. The church, with seating for 2,200, was filled to overflowing for the funeral, with many people standing inside and more standing outside, unable to crowd in. (B & S and FG, see May 1 )

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights

In 1908: while studying in England, American Alice Paul met Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, leaders of the Women’s Social and Political Union. Paul will bring their more militant tactics in pursuit of women’s suffrage back to America in 1910. (Feminism, see February 24, 1908; VR, see July 21, 1908)

US Labor History

April 27, 1911: James Oppenheim’s poem “Bread and Roses” published in IWW newspaper Industrial Solidarity. (see Oct 18)

As we come marching, marching, in the beauty of the day,

A million darkened kitchens, a thousand mill-lofts gray

Are touched with all the radiance that a sudden sun discloses,

For the people hear us singing, “Bread and Roses, Bread and Roses.”

 

As we come marching, marching, we battle, too, for men —

For they are women’s children, and we mother them again.

Our lives shall not be sweated from birth until life closes —

Hearts starve as well as bodies: Give us Bread, but give us Roses.

As we come marching, marching, unnumbered women dead

Go crying through our singing their ancient song of Bread;

Small art and love and beauty their drudging spirits knew —

Yes, it is bread we fight for — but we fight for Roses, too.

 

As we come marching, marching, we bring the Greater Days —

The rising of the women means the rising of the race —

No more the drudge and idler — ten that toil where one reposes —

But a sharing of life’s glories: Bread and Roses, Bread and Roses.

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Judicial Milestone

April 27, 1942: Goldman v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the conviction of Martin Goldman and a fellow lawyer for conspiracy to violate the Bankruptcy Act through a plan to defraud creditors, noting that the government’s use of eavesdropping to gather evidence did not violate the Fourth Amendment. After receiving notice of the lawyers’ intentions, federal agents had obtained evidence of the plan by surreptitiously listening to conversations through a wall in an adjacent room with a detectaphone device attached to the wall. (see June 1)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

see Executive Order 10450 for more

April 27, 1953: President Dwight Eisenhower signed Executive Order 10450 banning homosexuals from working for the federal government or any of its private contractors.  [Complete text of order] (see September 14, 1953)

Boy Scouts

April 27, 2013: in a major step regarding openness in the Boy Scouts of America, Mormon Church officials approved the scout organization’s acceptance of gay scouts. The new ruling remained controversial because it continued to ban gay scout leaders. (BSA & LGBTQ, see Apr 29)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

South Vietnam Leadership

April 27, 1955: The Battle of Saigon began. It was a month-long fight between the Vietnamese National Army of the State of Vietnam (later to become the Army of the Republic of Vietnam) and the private army of the Bình Xuyên organised crime syndicate. At the time, the Bình Xuyên was licensed with controlling the national police by Emperor Bảo Đại, and Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm issued an ultimatum for them to surrender and come under state control.

The VNA largely crushed the Bình Xuyên within a week.

Fighting was mostly concentrated in the inner city Chinese business district of Cholon. The densely crowded area saw some 500-1000 deaths and up to 20,000 civilians made homeless in the cross-fire.

In the end, the Bình Xuyên were decisively defeated, their army disbanded and their vice operations collapsed.

President Eisenhower had decided to cease US support for President Ngo Dinh Diem and let him be ousted, but on April 28… ( V & SVL, see Apr 28)

April 27, 1968
  • In New York, 200,000 students refused to attend classes as a protest.
  • Vice President Hubert Humphrey announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination. In an interview, he said he supported the current U.S. policy of sending troops “where required by our own national security.” (see May 9)
April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27 Music et al

Roots of Rock

April 27, 1959: “Your Hit Parade,” a successful radio music show that had begun in 1935 and then gone on to television in 1950, ended because the music it played could not compete in popularity with the emergence of rock and roll. (see April 21, 1960)

I Will Follow Him

April 27 – May 17, 1963, Margaret Annemarie Battavio’s very first single, “I Will Follow Him,” reached #1 on the U.S. pop charts. With her 15th birthday only six weeks behind her, and three more years of high school ahead of her, the singer better known as Little Peggy March became the youngest female performer ever to top the Billboard Hot 100, but she’d never crack the top 10 again. (see May 2)

In His Own Write

April 27 Peace Love Activism

April 27, 1964: John Lennon’s “In His Own Write“, a collection of funny poems and drawings, was published in the U.S. (see May 2 – June 5)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Willow Island, West Virginia

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1978: a cooling tower for a power plant under construction in Willow Island, West Virginia collapsed, killing 51 construction workers in what is thought to be the largest construction accident in U.S. history. OSHA cited contractors for 20 violations, including failures to field test concrete. The cases were settled for $85,000—about $1,700 per worker killed. (see June 22)

Dolores Huerta

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 2012: President Obama awarded Dolores Huerta the Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor. (see October 8, 2012)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1960:  Togo independent from France. 

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1961: Sierra Leone independent from United Kingdom. (see Independence for all days in 1960s)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Cultural & Technological Milestone

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1965:  R. C. Duncan was granted a patent for ‘Pampers’ disposable diapers. (see May 1)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

April 27, 1993: a California law judge suspended Kevokian’s medical license after a request from that state’s medical board. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

Abu Ghraib

April 27, 2004: CBS “60 Minutes II” showed the first photos of the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal were shown. (see May 16)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

World Trade Center

April 27, 2006: construction began on the 1,776-foot building on the site of the bombed World Trade Center in New York City. (see Apr 4)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 2010: slick grew to 100 miles  across and 20 miles from Louisiana coast (see Apr 28)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

Affordable Care Act

April 27, 2015: the U.S. Supreme Court revived religious objections by Catholic groups in Michigan and Tennessee to the Obamacare requirement for contraception coverage, throwing out a lower court decision favoring President Barack Obama’s administration.

The justices asked the Cincinnati-based 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reconsider its decision that backed the Obama administration in light of the Supreme Court’s June 2014 ruling that allowed certain privately owned corporations to seek exemptions from the provision.

Obama’s healthcare law, known as Obamacare, requires employers to provide health insurance policies that cover preventive services for women including access to contraception and sterilization.

Various challengers, including family-owned companies and religious affiliated nonprofits that oppose abortion and sometimes the use of contraceptives, say the requirement infringes on their religious beliefs.

The high court threw out a June 2014 appeals court ruling that went in favor of the government. In March, the court took a similar approach in a case concerning the University of Notre Dame. (see May 19)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

April 27, 2017: Arkansas executed Kenneth Williams in the state’s fourth lethal injection in eight days, concluding a frantic execution schedule officials said was necessary to carry out death sentences before one of their drugs expired. Witness accounts of the execution, the last one on the schedule in Arkansas, prompted immediate questions after journalists said they saw the inmate lurching and convulsing during the lethal injection. (see Sept 26)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism
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April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Emma Goldman

William Buwalda

April 26, 1908: Goldman lectured on patriotism at Walton’s Pavilion in San Francisco. A United States soldier Pfc William Buwalda, attended the lecture in uniform and was witnessed shaking her hand. Within two weeks, he was court-martialed in violation of the 62nd Article of War, and found guilty by a military court, dishonorably discharged and sentenced to five years at hard labor on Alcatraz Island, San Francisco, California. (text from The Damnedest Radical by Roger A Bruns) (see May 22)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

House Joint Resolution No. 184

April 26, 1924: the U.S. House of Representatives passed House Joint Resolution No. 184, a constitutional amendment to prohibit the labor of persons under 18 years of age. The Senate approved the measure a few weeks later, but it was never ratified by the states and is still technically pending. (see Apr 28)

Yale Hunger Strike

April 26, 2017: eight Yale graduate students began a hunger strike to pressure administrators to negotiate for union recognition. If a student has to stop fasting, another union member would take their spot.  (NPR story)  (Labor see May 2; Yale, see May 9)

Arizona Teacher walk-out

April 26, 2018: thousands of Arizona teachers walked off the job with no idea how long the strike would last, or under what circumstances they would return to their students.

Leaders of Arizona Educators United, the grass-roots group pushing for more education funding, had been noncommittal about how long the strike would go on and what realistic solution could bring it to a close, saying those decisions were going to have to come from the teachers themselves and that the organization was taking it day by day.

Gov. Doug Ducey had ignored the group’s demands to meet with him. Lawmakers had shown no real effort to approve the more than $1 billion in new revenue educators demanded to bring education funding back to pre-recession levels. (see May 21)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Free Speech

April 26, 1938: Jehovah’s Witness members Newton Cantwell and his sons, Jesse and Russell, were arrested in New Haven, Connecticut, and charged on this day with breach of the peace. They were later convicted. The Cassius Street neighborhood was 90 percent Catholic, and people took offense at the anti-Catholic propaganda the Cantwells played on a portable record player. (Justia article) (FS, see Nov 21; Cantwells, see May 20, 1940)

Dombrowski v. Pfister

April 26, 1965: a case brought forth by Dr. James Dombrowski along with William Kunstler, founder of the Center for Constitutional Rights, against the governor of Louisiana, law enforcement officers, and the chairperson of the state’s Legislative Joint Committee on Un-American Activities for prosecuting or threatening to prosecute his organization under several state subversion statutes.

A a three-judge Federal district court had dismissed the claim, stating that Dombrowski had failed to show evidence of irreparable damage and asserted the abstention doctrine, stating that State Courts had the right to refrain from ruling in Constitutional questions.

Represented by attorney and civil rights leader Arthur Kinoy, Dombrowski appealed the case directly to the Supreme Court under then-operational procedures. The Court overturned the earlier dismissal, making note of the “chilling effect” the ruling below would have had on First amendment rights. (Oyez article) (see May 24)

Fuck the Draft

April 26, 1968: police arrested 19-year old Paul Robert Cohen for wearing a jacket bearing the words “Fuck the Draft” inside the Los Angeles Courthouse in the corridor outside the division 20 of the municipal court. He was convicted of violating section 415 of the California Penal Code, which prohibited “maliciously and willfully disturb[ing] the peace or quiet of any neighborhood or person [by] offensive conduct,“ and sentenced to 30 days in jail. (Vietnam, see Apr 27; FS, see May 27; see Paul Robert Cohen for expanded story)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestone

Salk polio vaccine

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26, 1954: the Salk polio vaccine field trials, involving 1.8 million children, begin at the Franklin Sherman Elementary School in McLean, Virginia. Children in the United States, Canada and Finland participated in the trials, which used for the first time the now-standard double-blind method, whereby neither the patient nor attending doctor knew if the inoculation was the vaccine or a placebo. (TM, see Oct 18;Polio, see April 12, 1955)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26 Music et al

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26 – July 25, 1969: the original cast album Hair is the Billboard #1 album.

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

Force level

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26, 1971: the U.S. command in Saigon announces that the U.S. force level in Vietnam is 281,400 men, the lowest since July 1966. (see Apr 29)

Increased withdrawal

April 26, 1972: President Nixon, despite an ongoing communist offensive, announced that another 20,000 U.S. troops would be withdrawn from Vietnam in May and June, reducing authorized troop strength to 49,000. Nixon emphasized that while U.S. ground troops were being withdrawn, sea and air support for the South Vietnamese would continue. In fact, the U.S. Navy doubled the number of its fighting ships off Vietnam. (see May 7)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Student Rights

Matthew Fraser

April 26, 1983: Matthew Fraser, a Pierce County, Washington high school senior, gave a speech nominating classmate Jeff Kuhlman for Associated Student Body Vice President. The speech was filled with sexual innuendos, but not obscenity, prompting disciplinary action from the administration. School officials suspended Fraser from school for three days, prohibited him from speaking at his graduation ceremony, and struck his name from the ballot used to elect three graduation speakers. (SR, see May; Fraser, see July 7, 1986)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

Chernobyl

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26,1986: an explosion occurred at one of  the four nuclear reactors at the Soviet Union’s Chernobyl power plant. The resulting fire burned for nine days and released at least 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Radioactive deposits were found in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere. Two people died in the explosion and another 28 from acute radiation sickness in the immediate aftermath. Some experts predicted thousands of extra cancer deaths as a result of the disaster. A huge cover, known as the New Safe Confinement, was expected to be completed by 2015 remains unfinished. (Chernobyl Gallery dot com article) (see Aug 22)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

Rachelle “Shelley” Shannon

April 26, 1994: Rachelle “Shelley” Shannon, who admitted shooting and wounding George Tiller (see August 19, 1993) outside his clinic, was sentenced in Wichita, Kan., to nearly 11 years in prison. (1995 NYT article) (see Dec 30)

Kansas ruling

April 26, 2019: The Kansas Supreme Court blocked a law that would have banned the most commonly used procedure for second-trimester abortions, arguing that the state Constitution protected the right of women to “decide whether to continue a pregnancy.”

The court sided in a 6-1 majority with the plaintiffs in the case, two physicians who performed the procedure, in a sweeping ruling that opened the door for abortion rights activists to challenge a series of other restrictions that the state’s Republican-controlled Legislature has enacted. [NYT article] (see May 2)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Vermont

April 26, 2000: Vermont became the first state in the U.S. to legalize civil unions and registered partnerships between same-sex couples. (see June 28, 2000)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Stop and Frisk Policy

April 26, 2011: the NYPD argued that Stop-and-Frisk helped find illegal weapons, but an investigation by WNYC shows it may be leading to more low-level marijuana possession arrests. (see May 26)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

April 26, 2015: the City of Abilene (Texas) Water Department experienced a spill of domestic wastewater from the City’s wastewater collection system. The area of the spill was cultivated agricultural farm land. The estimated spill volume was about 1.5 million gallons. The spill occurred due to a failure of the sewer force-main pipeline.

The city advised persons using private drinking water supply wells located within one half mile of the spill site or within the potentially affected area to use only water that was been distilled or boiled at a rolling boil for at least one minute for all personal uses including drinking, cooking, bathing, and tooth brushing. Individuals with private water wells should have their well water tested and disinfected, if necessary, prior to discontinuing distillation or boiling. (see May 19)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Voting Rights

April 26, 2016: U.S. District Judge Lynn Adelman struck down the Wisconsin’s voter ID law, saying it violated the Voting Rights Act and the U.S. Constitution.

The law known as Act 23 had already been blocked by a state judge.

There is no way to determine exactly how many people Act 23 will prevent or deter from voting without considering the individual circumstances of each of the 300,000 plus citizens who lack an ID,” Adelman wrote in his 70-page ruling. “But no matter how imprecise my estimate may be, it is absolutely clear that Act 23 will prevent more legitimate votes from being cast than fraudulent votes.” (see July 29)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Maine/Indigenous Peoples’ Day

April 26, 2019 Maine replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples’ Day, joining an increasing number of states and localities that have made the change.

“There is power in a name and in who we choose to honor,” Gov. Janet T. Mills of Maine said in a statement about the bill. [NYT article] (see May 20)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

April 26, 2019:  the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York released the names of 115 priests and five deacons who had been “credibly accused” of sexually abusing children.

In a letter to members and family of the archdiocese, New York’s archbishop, Cardinal Timothy Dolan, asked forgiveness “for the failings of those clergy and bishops who should have provided for the safety of our young people but instead betrayed the trust placed in them by God and by the faithful.” [NPR article] (see June 11)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism
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