April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism


Henry Grizzard lynched

April 27, 1892: two white girls reported that black men had assaulted them. Four or five black men were quickly arrested and taken to jail, including Ephraim Grizzard, and his brothers Henry and John. On this date, a mob seized and lynched Henry Grizzard. [EJI article]  (next BH & Lynching, see Apr 30 or see 19th century for expanded lynching chronology)

Mitchell Daniel lynched

April 27, 1899:  Mitchell Daniel was lynched by a white mob in Lee County, Georgia, for “talking too much” about the brutal lynching of Sam Hose four days earlier.

As a Black community leader, Daniel reportedly spoke out against the injustice of lynching and denounced Hose’s fate. This soon made him a target.

And on April 27 Mitchell Daniel’s dead body was discovered on the side of a Lee County, Georgia, road—riddled with bullets. Sparse local news reports attributed the lynching to Mr. Daniel’s white neighbors, but no one was ever held accountable for his death. [EJI article] (next BH and Lynching, see June 4, 1899 or see Lynching for expanded chronology)

Voting Rights

April 27, 1903: Giles v. Harris, US Supreme Court upheld Alabama’s state constitution’s requirements for voter registration and qualifications. Although the plaintiff accused the state of discriminating in practice against black citizens, the Court found that the requirements applied to all citizens and refused to review the results in practice, which it considered overseeing the state’s process. 

The Souls of Black Folk

April 27, 1903: A. C. McClurg Co. published W.E.B. Du Bois’ book, The Souls of Black Folk. In it, Du Bois rejected the gradualism advocated by Booker T. Washington and called for active resistance to racist policies.  (next BH, see June 23)

Marcus Garvey

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1919: Garvey announced his plan to start the Black Star Line. The Black Star Line was to be the U.N.I.A.’s vehicle for promoting worldwide commerce among black communities. In Garvey’s vision, Black Star Line ships would transport manufactured goods, raw materials, and produce among black businesses in North America, the Caribbean, and Africa, and become the linchpin in a global black economy. (BH, see May 10 – 11; see Garvey for expanded story)

Viola Liuzzo

April 27, 1967: the US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upheld the conspiracy convictions of Viola Liuzzo’s murderers Eugene Thomas and Collie Leroy Wilkins, Jr. William O Eaton, the third person, had already died. (BH, see Apr 28;  see Liuzzo for expanded story)


April 27, 1977: anti-apartheid riots in Soweto, South Africa. (see Aug 18)

Nelson Mandela

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1994: general voting opened in the first election in South African history that included black participation. Despite months of violence leading up to the vote, not a single person was reported killed in election-related violence. When the voting concluded on April 29, the A.N.C. had won more than 62 percent of the vote, earning 252 of the 400 seats in Parliament’s National Assembly. Voters chose Mandela as president without opposition. (see May 10)

Integrated prom

April 27, 2013: for the first time in the history of Wilcox County, Georgia, black students and white students danced arm-in-arm at prom. Nearly 60 years after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was illegal, half of the students from rural Wilcox County High School ended their community’s tradition of segregation after raising money for an integrated prom dance. (BH, see June 20; School Desegregation,  see Sept 13)


April 27, 2015: Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Judge John P. O’Donnell declined to acquit Cleveland police officer Michael Brelo and bring an end to his voluntary manslaughter trial before hearing any defense witnesses. O’Donnell, ruling on a defense request for the acquittal, ruled that the prosecution has presented enough evidence in the trial to warrant hearing the other side’s case.

In his ruling, O’Donnell wrote, “taking the evidence in a light most favorable to the state, at least 34 of Brelo’s 49 shots were reasonable to deal with a perceived threat. If he is eventually found guilty of voluntary manslaughter beyond a reasonable doubt in the face of his affirmative defense that all of his shots were legally justified it will mean only that he was not justified in taking one or more of those last 15 shots to confront the perceived threat.” (see 137 shots for expanded story)

Freddie Gray

April 27, 2015: with the words “black lives matter” projected in capital letters on the walls, thousands of mourners crowded into a church …to bid an emotional goodbye to Freddie Gray, the 25-year-old who died from a spinal cord injury while in police custody, and to demand reforms in law enforcement and far beyond it.

Friends, neighbors, activists and government officials from the local level to the White House filled New Shiloh Baptist Church and filed past the open, white coffin bearing the body of Mr. Gray, whose death on April 19 fed claims of discriminatory and brutal policing, and set off a week of protests here. The church, with seating for 2,200, was filled to overflowing for the funeral, with many people standing inside and more standing outside, unable to crowd in. (B & S and FG, see May 1)

Minneapolis Police Discrimination

April 27, 2022: according to a damning investigation released by the Minnesota’s Department of Human Rights, the Minneapolis Police Department routinely engages in several forms of racially discriminatory policing, fails to hold officers accountable for misconduct and has used fake social media accounts to target Black people and organizations,

The investigation concluded that the department had a “culture that is averse to oversight and accountability,” and city and department leaders had failed to act with “the necessary urgency, coordination and intentionality required” to correct its extensive problems.” [NYT article] (next BH, see )

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism


Voting Rights

In 1908: while studying in England, American Alice Paul met Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, leaders of the Women’s Social and Political Union. Paul will bring their more militant tactics in pursuit of women’s suffrage back to America in 1910. (Feminism, see February 24, 1908; VR, see July 21, 1908)

US Labor History

April 27, 1911: James Oppenheim’s poem “Bread and Roses” published in IWW newspaper Industrial Solidarity. (see Oct 18)

As we come marching, marching, in the beauty of the day,

A million darkened kitchens, a thousand mill-lofts gray

Are touched with all the radiance that a sudden sun discloses,

For the people hear us singing, “Bread and Roses, Bread and Roses.”


As we come marching, marching, we battle, too, for men —

For they are women’s children, and we mother them again.

Our lives shall not be sweated from birth until life closes —

Hearts starve as well as bodies: Give us Bread, but give us Roses.

As we come marching, marching, unnumbered women dead

Go crying through our singing their ancient song of Bread;

Small art and love and beauty their drudging spirits knew —

Yes, it is bread we fight for — but we fight for Roses, too.


As we come marching, marching, we bring the Greater Days —

The rising of the women means the rising of the race —

No more the drudge and idler — ten that toil where one reposes —

But a sharing of life’s glories: Bread and Roses, Bread and Roses.

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Judicial Milestone

April 27, 1942: Goldman v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the conviction of Martin Goldman and a fellow lawyer for conspiracy to violate the Bankruptcy Act through a plan to defraud creditors, noting that the government’s use of eavesdropping to gather evidence did not violate the Fourth Amendment. After receiving notice of the lawyers’ intentions, federal agents had obtained evidence of the plan by surreptitiously listening to conversations through a wall in an adjacent room with a detectaphone device attached to the wall. (see June 1)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism


see Executive Order 10450 for more

April 27, 1953: President Dwight Eisenhower signed Executive Order 10450 banning homosexuals from working for the federal government or any of its private contractors.  [Complete text of order] (see September 14, 1953)

Boy Scouts

April 27, 2013: in a major step regarding openness in the Boy Scouts of America, Mormon Church officials approved the scout organization’s acceptance of gay scouts. The new ruling remained controversial because it continued to ban gay scout leaders. (BSA & LGBTQ, see Apr 29)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism


South Vietnam Leadership

April 27, 1955: The Battle of Saigon began. It was a month-long fight between the Vietnamese National Army of the State of Vietnam (later to become the Army of the Republic of Vietnam) and the private army of the Bình Xuyên organised crime syndicate. At the time, the Bình Xuyên was licensed with controlling the national police by Emperor Bảo Đại, and Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm issued an ultimatum for them to surrender and come under state control.

The VNA largely crushed the Bình Xuyên within a week.

Fighting was mostly concentrated in the inner city Chinese business district of Cholon. The densely crowded area saw some 500-1000 deaths and up to 20,000 civilians made homeless in the cross-fire.

In the end, the Bình Xuyên were decisively defeated, their army disbanded and their vice operations collapsed.

President Eisenhower had decided to cease US support for President Ngo Dinh Diem and let him be ousted, but on April 28… ( V & SVL, see Apr 28)

April 27, 1968
  • In New York, 200,000 students refused to attend classes as a protest.
  • Vice President Hubert Humphrey announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination. In an interview, he said he supported the current U.S. policy of sending troops “where required by our own national security.” (see May 9)
April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27 Music et al

Roots of Rock

April 27, 1959: “Your Hit Parade,” a successful radio music show that had begun in 1935 and then gone on to television in 1950, ended because the music it played could not compete in popularity with the emergence of rock and roll. (see April 21, 1960)

I Will Follow Him

April 27 – May 17, 1963, Margaret Annemarie Battavio’s very first single, “I Will Follow Him,” reached #1 on the U.S. pop charts. With her 15th birthday only six weeks behind her, and three more years of high school ahead of her, the singer better known as Little Peggy March became the youngest female performer ever to top the Billboard Hot 100, but she’d never crack the top 10 again. (see May 2)

In His Own Write

April 27, 1964: John Lennon’s “In His Own Write“, a collection of funny poems and drawings, was published in the U.S. (see May 2 – June 5)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Willow Island, West Virginia

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1978: a cooling tower for a power plant under construction in Willow Island, West Virginia collapsed, killing 51 construction workers in what is thought to be the largest construction accident in U.S. history. OSHA cited contractors for 20 violations, including failures to field test concrete. The cases were settled for $85,000—about $1,700 per worker killed. (see June 22)

Dolores Huerta


April 27, 2012: President Obama awarded Dolores Huerta the Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor. (see October 8, 2012)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism


April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1960:  Togo independent from France. 

April 27, 1961: Sierra Leone independent from United Kingdom. (see Independence for all days in 1960s)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Cultural & Technological Milestone

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 27, 1965:  R. C. Duncan was granted a patent for ‘Pampers’ disposable diapers. (see May 1)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

April 27, 1993: a California law judge suspended Kevokian’s medical license after a request from that state’s medical board. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

Abu Ghraib

April 27, 2004: CBS “60 Minutes II” showed the first photos of the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal were shown. (see May 16)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

World Trade Center

April 27, 2006: construction began on the 1,776-foot building on the site of the bombed World Trade Center in New York City. (see Apr 4)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

April 27, 2010: slick grew to 100 miles  across and 20 miles from Louisiana coast (see Apr 28)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

Affordable Care Act

April 27, 2015: the U.S. Supreme Court revived religious objections by Catholic groups in Michigan and Tennessee to the Obamacare requirement for contraception coverage, throwing out a lower court decision favoring President Barack Obama’s administration.

The justices asked the Cincinnati-based 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reconsider its decision that backed the Obama administration in light of the Supreme Court’s June 2014 ruling that allowed certain privately owned corporations to seek exemptions from the provision.

Obama’s healthcare law, known as Obamacare, requires employers to provide health insurance policies that cover preventive services for women including access to contraception and sterilization.

Various challengers, including family-owned companies and religious affiliated nonprofits that oppose abortion and sometimes the use of contraceptives, say the requirement infringes on their religious beliefs.

The high court threw out a June 2014 appeals court ruling that went in favor of the government. In March, the court took a similar approach in a case concerning the University of Notre Dame. (see May 19)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism


April 27, 2017: Arkansas executed Kenneth Williams in the state’s fourth lethal injection in eight days, concluding a frantic execution schedule officials said was necessary to carry out death sentences before one of their drugs expired. Witness accounts of the execution, the last one on the schedule in Arkansas, prompted immediate questions after journalists said they saw the inmate lurching and convulsing during the lethal injection. (see Sept 26)

April 27 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Emma Goldman

William Buwalda

April 26, 1908: Goldman lectured on patriotism at Walton’s Pavilion in San Francisco. A United States soldier Pfc William Buwalda, attended the lecture in uniform and was witnessed shaking her hand. Within two weeks, he was court-martialed in violation of the 62nd Article of War, and found guilty by a military court, dishonorably discharged and sentenced to five years at hard labor on Alcatraz Island, San Francisco, California. (text from The Damnedest Radical by Roger A Bruns) (see May 22)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

House Joint Resolution No. 184

April 26, 1924: the U.S. House of Representatives passed House Joint Resolution No. 184, a constitutional amendment to prohibit the labor of persons under 18 years of age. The Senate approved the measure a few weeks later, but it was never ratified by the states and is still technically pending. (see Apr 28)

Yale Hunger Strike

April 26, 2017: eight Yale graduate students began a hunger strike to pressure administrators to negotiate for union recognition. If a student has to stop fasting, another union member would take their spot.  (NPR story)  (Labor see May 2; Yale, see May 9)

Arizona Teacher walk-out

April 26, 2018: thousands of Arizona teachers walked off the job with no idea how long the strike would last, or under what circumstances they would return to their students.

Leaders of Arizona Educators United, the grass-roots group pushing for more education funding, had been noncommittal about how long the strike would go on and what realistic solution could bring it to a close, saying those decisions were going to have to come from the teachers themselves and that the organization was taking it day by day.

Gov. Doug Ducey had ignored the group’s demands to meet with him. Lawmakers had shown no real effort to approve the more than $1 billion in new revenue educators demanded to bring education funding back to pre-recession levels. (see May 21)

President Biden Task Force

April 26, 2021: President Biden signed an executive order creating a White House task force to promote labor organizing, an attempt to use the power of the federal government to reverse a decades-long decline in union membership.

Vice President Kamala Harris would lead the task force, to would include cabinet officials and White House advisers, would issue recommendations on how the government could use existing authority to help workers join labor unions and bargain collectively. It would also recommend new policies aimed at achieving these goals.

The administration noted that the National Labor Relations Act, the 1935 law governing federal labor rights, explicitly sought to encourage collective bargaining, but that the law had never been fully carried out in this regard. “No previous administration has taken a comprehensive approach to determining how the executive branch can advance worker organizing and collective bargaining,” a White House statement declared. [NYT article] (next LH, see June 23)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Free Speech

April 26, 1938: Jehovah’s Witness members Newton Cantwell and his sons, Jesse and Russell, were arrested in New Haven, Connecticut, and charged on this day with breach of the peace. They were later convicted. The Cassius Street neighborhood was 90 percent Catholic, and people took offense at the anti-Catholic propaganda the Cantwells played on a portable record player. (Justia article) (FS, see Nov 21; Cantwells, see May 20, 1940)

Dombrowski v. Pfister

April 26, 1965: a case brought forth by Dr. James Dombrowski along with William Kunstler, founder of the Center for Constitutional Rights, against the governor of Louisiana, law enforcement officers, and the chairperson of the state’s Legislative Joint Committee on Un-American Activities for prosecuting or threatening to prosecute his organization under several state subversion statutes.

A a three-judge Federal district court had dismissed the claim, stating that Dombrowski had failed to show evidence of irreparable damage and asserted the abstention doctrine, stating that State Courts had the right to refrain from ruling in Constitutional questions.

Represented by attorney and civil rights leader Arthur Kinoy, Dombrowski appealed the case directly to the Supreme Court under then-operational procedures. The Court overturned the earlier dismissal, making note of the “chilling effect” the ruling below would have had on First amendment rights. (Oyez article) (see May 24)

Fuck the Draft

April 26, 1968: police arrested 19-year old Paul Robert Cohen for wearing a jacket bearing the words “Fuck the Draft” inside the Los Angeles Courthouse in the corridor outside the division 20 of the municipal court. He was convicted of violating section 415 of the California Penal Code, which prohibited “maliciously and willfully disturb[ing] the peace or quiet of any neighborhood or person [by] offensive conduct,“ and sentenced to 30 days in jail. (Vietnam, see Apr 27; FS, see May 27; see Paul Robert Cohen for expanded story)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestone

Salk polio vaccine

April 26, 1954: the Salk polio vaccine field trials, involving 1.8 million children, begin at the Franklin Sherman Elementary School in McLean, Virginia. Children in the United States, Canada and Finland participated in the trials, which used for the first time the now-standard double-blind method, whereby neither the patient nor attending doctor knew if the inoculation was the vaccine or a placebo. (TM, see Oct 18;Polio, see April 12, 1955)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26 Music et al

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 26 – July 25, 1969: the original cast album Hair is the Billboard #1 album.

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism


Force level

April 26, 1971: the U.S. command in Saigon announces that the U.S. force level in Vietnam is 281,400 men, the lowest since July 1966. (see Apr 29)

Increased withdrawal

April 26, 1972: President Nixon, despite an ongoing communist offensive, announced that another 20,000 U.S. troops would be withdrawn from Vietnam in May and June, reducing authorized troop strength to 49,000. Nixon emphasized that while U.S. ground troops were being withdrawn, sea and air support for the South Vietnamese would continue. In fact, the U.S. Navy doubled the number of its fighting ships off Vietnam. (see May 7)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Student Rights

Matthew Fraser

April 26, 1983: Matthew Fraser, a Pierce County, Washington high school senior, gave a speech nominating classmate Jeff Kuhlman for Associated Student Body Vice President. The speech was filled with sexual innuendos, but not obscenity, prompting disciplinary action from the administration. School officials suspended Fraser from school for three days, prohibited him from speaking at his graduation ceremony, and struck his name from the ballot used to elect three graduation speakers. (SR, see May; Fraser, see July 7, 1986)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News


April 26,1986: an explosion occurred at one of  the four nuclear reactors at the Soviet Union’s Chernobyl power plant. The resulting fire burned for nine days and released at least 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Radioactive deposits were found in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere. Two people died in the explosion and another 28 from acute radiation sickness in the immediate aftermath. Some experts predicted thousands of extra cancer deaths as a result of the disaster. A huge cover, known as the New Safe Confinement, was expected to be completed by 2015 remains unfinished. (Chernobyl Gallery dot com article) (see Aug 22)


April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

Rachelle “Shelley” Shannon

April 26, 1994: Rachelle “Shelley” Shannon, who admitted shooting and wounding George Tiller (see August 19, 1993) outside his clinic, was sentenced in Wichita, Kansas.

She served her sentence at the Federal Correctional Institution in Waseca, Minnesota and was released in November 2018. (1995 NYT article) (see Dec 30)

Kansas ruling

April 26, 2019: The Kansas Supreme Court blocked a law that would have banned the most commonly used procedure for second-trimester abortions, arguing that the state Constitution protected the right of women to “decide whether to continue a pregnancy.”

The court sided in a 6-1 majority with the plaintiffs in the case, two physicians who performed the procedure, in a sweeping ruling that opened the door for abortion rights activists to challenge a series of other restrictions that the state’s Republican-controlled Legislature has enacted. [NYT article] (see May 2)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism



April 26, 2000: Vermont became the first state in the U.S. to legalize civil unions and registered partnerships between same-sex couples. (see June 28, 2000)

Zooey Zephyr

April 26, 2023: the Montana House of Representatives took the extraordinary step of blocking Representative Zooey Zephyr, a transgender lawmaker,l trom the House floor for the remainder of the legislative session after an escalating standoff over her remarks on transgender issues in House debate.

The vote was 68 to 32 in the Republican-controlled chamber. The speaker adjourned the session immediately after the vote. Zephyr, will still be allowed to cast votes during House proceedings for the remainder of the session, which concludes on May 5, but must do so remotely.

The move was the culmination of a week-long battle between House leadership and Zephyr, who was barred from participating in deliberations on the House floor after she made impassioned comments during debate over a bill that would prohibit hormone treatments and surgical care for transgender minors. The bill was sent to Gov. Greg Gianforte, who indicated that he will sign it. [NYT article] (next LGBTQ+, see June 2)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Stop and Frisk Policy

April 26, 2011: the NYPD argued that Stop-and-Frisk helped find illegal weapons, but an investigation by WNYC shows it may be leading to more low-level marijuana possession arrests. (see May 26)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

Wastewater Spill

April 26, 2015: the City of Abilene (Texas) Water Department experienced a spill of domestic wastewater from the City’s wastewater collection system. The area of the spill was cultivated agricultural farm land. The estimated spill volume was about 1.5 million gallons. The spill occurred due to a failure of the sewer force-main pipeline.

The city advised persons using private drinking water supply wells located within one half mile of the spill site or within the potentially affected area to use only water that was been distilled or boiled at a rolling boil for at least one minute for all personal uses including drinking, cooking, bathing, and tooth brushing. Individuals with private water wells should have their well water tested and disinfected, if necessary, prior to discontinuing distillation or boiling. (see May 19)

Incandescent Bulbs

April 26, 2020: President Joe Biden‘s Department of Energy finalized a new efficiency rule to phase out older, high-energy incandescent light bulbs.

The new rule states that light bulbs must emit a minimum of 45 lumens per watt. Lumens are a measure of brightness. The rule was an effective nail in the coffin for incandescent bulbs, which use a higher wattage than LED bulbs for the same amount of brightness.

Old bulbs that don’t meet the new standard will need to be phased out of production within 75 days, and the Department of Energy will work with manufacturers to ease the transition. Full enforcement of the rule will go into effect in July 2023, which is also the deadline for retailers to stop selling them. [CNN article] (next EI, see Aug 25)

Ocean Warming

April 26, 2023:  temperatures in the world’s oceans broke records, reaching new highs for more than a month in an “unprecedented” run that  led scientists to state that the Earth had reached “uncharted territory” in the climate crisis.

The rapid acceleration of ocean temperatures was an anomaly that scientists had yet to explain. Data collated by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), known as the Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) series, gathered by satellites and buoys, showed temperatures higher than in any previous year, in a series stretching back to 1981, continuously over the past 42 days.

And Earth was thought to be on the brink of a 2023 El Niño weather event, the cyclical weather system in the Pacific, that has a warming impact globally. But the El Niño system was yet to develop, so this oscillation could explain the recent rapid heating, at a time of year when ocean temperatures are normally declining from their annual March and April peaks. [Guardian article] (next EI, see May 31)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Voting Rights

April 26, 2016: U.S. District Judge Lynn Adelman struck down the Wisconsin’s voter ID law, saying it violated the Voting Rights Act and the U.S. Constitution.

The law known as Act 23 had already been blocked by a state judge.

There is no way to determine exactly how many people Act 23 will prevent or deter from voting without considering the individual circumstances of each of the 300,000 plus citizens who lack an ID,” Adelman wrote in his 70-page ruling. “But no matter how imprecise my estimate may be, it is absolutely clear that Act 23 will prevent more legitimate votes from being cast than fraudulent votes.” (see July 29)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Maine/Indigenous Peoples’ Day

April 26, 2019 Maine replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples’ Day, joining an increasing number of states and localities that have made the change.

“There is power in a name and in who we choose to honor,” Gov. Janet T. Mills of Maine said in a statement about the bill. [NYT article] (see May 20)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

April 26, 2019:  the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York released the names of 115 priests and five deacons who had been “credibly accused” of sexually abusing children.

In a letter to members and family of the archdiocese, New York’s archbishop, Cardinal Timothy Dolan, asked forgiveness “for the failings of those clergy and bishops who should have provided for the safety of our young people but instead betrayed the trust placed in them by God and by the faithful.” [NPR article] (see June 11)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Black History

BLACK & SHOT and Ahmaud Arbery

April 26, 2020: for two months, the shooting received little attention outside Brunswick, GA. As the coronavirus pandemic dominated headlines and shut down communities around the country, The NY Times spoke with Mr. Arbery’s friends and family, who were by then concerned the case might quietly disappear in their Deep South community, because social distancing restrictions had made it difficult for them to gather and protest. [NYT article]  (next B & S and AA, see May 5 or see AA for expanded chronology)

Harvard Amends

April 26, 2022: Lawrence S. Bacow, Harvard University’s president, announced that the university was committing $100 million to study and redress its ties to slavery and with that money will create an endowed “Legacy of Slavery Fund,” which would continue researching and memorializing that history, working with descendants of Black and Native American people enslaved at Harvard, as well as their broader communities.

With the announcement, Harvard joined many other universities — including Brown, Georgetown and Princeton Theological Seminary — that were not just grappling with their complicity in the institution of slavery but also putting financial resources behind efforts to make amends.

Harvard’s financial commitment rivaled the $100 million pledged by the leaders of the Jesuit conference of priests in March 2021 to be used for racial reconciliation and to benefit the descendants of 272 enslaved people sold in 1838 to pay off the debts of Georgetown University.

A report released with Harvard’s announcement said that at its roots, the university, which was founded in 1636, owed its immense wealth to patrons of the university whose fortunes were made on the backs of enslaved people, and whose names still festoon dormitories and other buildings that students walk in and out of every day.

“Harvard benefited from and in some ways perpetuated practices that were profoundly immoral,” Bacow said in an email to the university’s students, faculty and staff members. “Consequently, I believe we bear a moral responsibility to do what we can to address the persistent corrosive effects of those historical practices on individuals, on Harvard, and on our society.”  [NYT article] (next BH, see Apr 27)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

2020 Census

April 26, 2021: the Census Bureau reported that over the past decade United States population grew at the second slowest rate since the government started counting in 1790 due to a slowdown in immigration and a declining birthrate.

The bureau also reported changes to the nation’s political map: The long-running trend of the South and the West gaining population — and the congressional representation that came with it — at the expense of the Northeast and the Midwest continued, with Texas gaining two seats and Florida one, and New York and Ohio each losing one. California, long a leader in population growth, lost a seat for the first time in history. [NYT article] (next Census, see March 10, 2022)

April 26 Peace Love Art Activism

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

8-hour workday

April 25, 1886: The New York Times declared the struggle for an 8-hour workday to be “un-American” and calls public demonstrations for the shorter hours “labor disturbances brought about by foreigners.”  (see May 3)

National Child Labor Committee

April 25 Peace Love Activism

April 25, 1904: the National Child Labor Committee is formed. The NCLC is a private, non-profit organization and incorporated by an Act of Congress in 1907 with the mission of promoting the rights, dignity, well-being and education of children and youth as they relate to work and working. Despite years of enlightened laws and public scrutiny, the work of NCLC’s founding visionaries is still relevant and necessary today. (NCLC) (see June 8)


April 25, 1978: in the City of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power v. Manhart, the US Supreme Court ruled that employers may not require female employees to make larger contributions to pension plans in order to obtain the same monthly benefits as men. (Oyez article)  (LH, see Apr 27, F, see June 9)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism


Voting Rights

April 25, 1898: in Williams v. Mississippi, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled there was no racial discrimination in Mississippi’s 1890 Constitution, which required all voters to pay poll taxes and pass literacy tests. This ruling came despite public discussion by the framers of the state Constitution on how to maintain white supremacy and keep African Americans from voting. Many other Southern states followed Mississippi’s lead. (decision text from Justia) (see May 12)

Marcus Garvey

April 25, 1916: Garvey visited W.E.B. Du Bois, the editor of The Crisis, the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. (BH, see May 15; see Garvey for expanded story)

Mack Charles Parker lynched

April 25 Peace Love Activism

April 25, 1959: three days before his scheduled trial, Mack Charles Parker, a 23-year-old African American truck driver, was lynched by a hooded mob of white men in Poplarville, Mississippi. Parker had been accused of raping a pregnant white woman and was being held in a local jail. The mob took him from his cell, beat him, took him to a bridge, shot and killed him, then weighed his body down with chains and dumped him in the river. Many people knew the identity of the killers, but the community closed ranks and refused to talk. Echoing the Till case, the FBI would investigate and identify at least 10 men involved, but the U.S. Department of Justice would rule there were no federal grounds to make an arrest and press charges. Two grand juries — one county and one federal — adjourned without indictments. (Black Past article) (next BH, see May 1; next Lynching, see March 21, 1981; for expanded chronology of lynching, see also AL4)

George Whitmore, Jr

April 25, 1964: after 26 hours of interrogation, George Whitmore, Jr., a 19-year-old eighth-grade dropout with a 90 IQ, signed a 61-page confession admitting to

  1. a) the murders of Wylie, Hoffert
  2. b) the murder of Minnie Edmond
  3. c) attempted rape of Elba Borrero (see Whitmore for expanded story)
Harlem Riot

April 25, 1968: the Appellate Division ruled that Lieutenant Thomas Gilligan, who fatally shot a 15-year-old James Powell preceding the Harlem riots in 1964, had the legal right to press his claim for more than $5-million in punitive damages against those who had called him a murderer. (BH, see May 3; RR, see May 27)

US Labor History

April 25, 1969: South Carolina Governor Robert Evander McNair  declared a state of emergency in Charleston and ordered more than 100,000 state troopers and members of the National Guard to break a strike by predominantly African American Medical University Hospital workers seeking recognition for their union, Local 1199B of the Retail Drug and Hospital Employees. In the end, the employer promised to rehire the striking workers they had fired, abide by a newly established grievance process, and provide modest pay increases. (LH, see Dec 31)


April 25, 1969:  Black students at West Senior High School in Rockford, Illinois had presented their grievances to school administrators. When the principal took no action on crucial complaints, a more public demonstration of protest was planned.

On this date, approximately 200 people—students, their family members, and friends—gathered next to the school grounds of West Senior High School in Rockford, Illinois. Richard Grayned, brother and twin sisters attended the school, was part of the group. The demonstrators marched around on a sidewalk about 100 feet from the school building, which was set back from the street. Many carried signs which summarized the grievances: “Black cheerleaders to cheer too”; “Black history with black teachers”; “Equal rights, Negro counselors.” Others, without placards, made the “power to the people” sign with their upraised and clenched fists.

Grayned was convicted for his part in the demonstration. (BH, see May 4; FS, see May 15; Grayned, see March 31, 1970)

Sean Bell incident

April 25 Peace Love Activism

April 25, 2008: three detectives were found not guilty on all charges in the shooting death of Sean Bell, who died in a hail of 50 police bullets outside a club in Jamaica, Queens. The verdict prompted calls for calm from Mayor Bloomberg, angry promises of protests by those speaking for the Bell family, and expressions of relief by the detectives. (NYT Sean Bell articles) (see May 7)

Tamir Rice

April 25, 2016: federal court records indicate that the City of Cleveland announced that the family of Tamir Rice, the 12-year-old boy whose fatal shooting by the Cleveland police in 2014 prompted national outrage, would receive a $6 million settlement from the city.

The settlement, was the latest in a series of seven-figure payouts by major American cities to the families of African-Americans who died at the hands of officers, spares Cleveland the possibility of a federal civil rights trial that could have drawn new attention to Tamir’s death and to the city’s troubled police force. It also allowed the city to avoid the possibility of an even larger judgment.

Cleveland officials said the settlement was the city’s largest in a police-related lawsuit, though under the terms of the agreement, the city does not admit wrongdoing. The $6 million figure is in line with settlements in the deaths of Eric Garner in New York and Freddie Gray in Baltimore. (Cleveland dot com timeline)  (next B & S, see Apr 28; next Tamir Rice, see May 30, 2017)

Botham Shem Jean

April 25, 2019:  NewsOne reported that at least nine people who Amber Guyger had arrested had had their cases dismissed, The development could be damning for Guyger, the former cop who was indicted for breaking into the home of Botham Shem Jean before shooting him to death. (B & S, see June 14; BSJ, see )

Carolyn Bryant Dies

April 25, 2023: Carolyn Bryant, the 21-year-old white proprietress of the store where, according to her testimony in the September 1955 trial of her husband and his half brother for the murder, Emmett Till made a sexually suggestive remark to her, grabbed her roughly by the waist and let loose a wolf whistle and more recently known as Carolyn Bryant Donham, died at 88 in Westlake, a small city in southern Louisiana. [NYT article] (next BH, see June 16; next ET, see July 25 or see Till for expanded chronology)


April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

Margaret Sanger

April 25, 1951: Margaret Sanger managed to secure a tiny grant for researcher Gregory Pincus from Planned Parenthood, and Pincus begins initial work on the use of hormones as a contraceptive at The Worcester Foundation. Pincus sets out to prove his hypothesis that injections of the hormone progesterone will inhibit ovulation and thus prevent pregnancy in his lab animals. (NYT obituary 1966) (see January 1952)

Health funding

April 25, 2019: Judge Stanley A. Bastian of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington State issued a nationwide injunction temporarily blocking a controversial Trump administration rule that barred organizations that provided abortion referrals from receiving federal family planning money.

Bastian said in his order that the rule would cause family planning clinics “to face a Hobson’s choice that harms patients as well as the providers.”

He wrote that the plaintiffs in the case had “submitted substantial evidence of harm” if the administration’s rule were to take effect. “Yet,” he wrote, “the government’s response in this case is dismissive, speculative and not based on any evidence presented in the record before this court.”

The judge’s ruling granted an immediate preliminary injunction, preventing the imposition of the Trump administration rule, which was scheduled to take effect on May 3. [NYT article] (see Apr 26)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestones


April 25 Peace Love Activism

April 25, 1953: Cambridge University scientists, James D Watson and Francis Crick, published an article in Nature Magazine explaining the structure of DNA and that DNA was the material that makes up genes which pass hereditary characteristics in all life from one parent to another. They concluded that it consisted of a double helix of two strands coiled around each other and could even be considered the “secret of life”. (Your Genome article) (TM, see Dec 17; DNA, see April 25, 2003)

Hubble Space Telescope

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

April 25, 1990:  the $2.5 billion Hubble Space Telescope was deployed in space from the Space Shuttle Discovery into an orbit 381 miles above Earth. It was the first major orbiting observatory, named in honour of American astronomer, Edwin Powell Hubble. (NASA article) (see December 3, 1992;  next Space, see May 5, 2018)

Human Genome Project

April 25, 2003: The Human Genome Project to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA of the human genome consisting of 20,000-25,000 genes started in 1990 was published. The project started in the US with James D. Watson who was head of the National Center for Human Genome Research at the National Institutes of Health but over the next 10 years geneticists in China, France, Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom all worked together on the project helping the project end two years earlier than planned. One of the most important aspects of this research was that it was available to anyone on the Internet and not owned or controlled by any one company or government.

TV Households

2006: half of American households have three or more TV sets. (see January 9, 2007)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

April 25 Music et al

Stu Cook

April 25, 1945: Stuart Alden Cook, bassist for Creedence Clearwater Revival born. 

Stuck on You

April 25 – May 22, 1960: “Stuck on You” by Elvis #1 Billboard Hot 100, his first since his Army discharge and his thirteenth overall. (see Aug 15)

Nuclear/Chemical News

April 25, 1962: on the same day that the United States resumed nuclear testing after a 3-year moratorium, Bob Dylan recorded ”Let Me Die in My Footsteps” a song was inspired by the construction of fallout shelters. (Nuclear/Chemical News, see May 6; Dylan,  see June 8)

The Road to Bethel

April 25, 1990: the Fender Stratocaster that Jimi Hendrix played at the Woodstock festival was auctioned off for a record $295,000. (see Chronology for expanded Woodstock story)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism


Gen. William Westmoreland

April 25, 1964: President Lyndon B. Johnson announced that Gen. William Westmoreland would replace Gen. Paul Harkins as head of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) as of June 20. (see May 2)

Easter Offensive

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

April 25, 1972: North Vietnamese Army close to cutting South Vietnam in two. Hanoi’s 320th Division drives 5,000 South Vietnamese troops into retreat and traps about 2,500 others in a border outpost northwest of Kontum in the Central Highlands. This campaign was part of the ongoing North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive, also known as the “Easter Offensive,” which included an invasion by 120,000 North Vietnamese troops. (see Apr 26)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Falklands War

April 25, 1982: British Royal Marines retake South Georgia. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher refused to answer questions from the press on the operation, saying: “Just rejoice at that news and congratulate our forces and the marines.” (see Apr 30)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

The Cold War

April 25 Peace Love Activism

April 25, 1983: the Soviet Union released a letter that Russian leader Yuri Andropov wrote to Samantha Smith, an American fifth-grader from Manchester, Maine, inviting her to visit his country. Andropov’s letter came in response to a note Smith had sent him in December 1982, asking if the Soviets were planning to start a nuclear war. At the time, the United States and Soviet Union were Cold War enemies.

Andropov’s letter said that Russian people wanted to “live in peace, to trade and cooperate with all our neighbors on the globe, no matter how close or far away they are, and, certainly, with such a great country as the United States of America.” In response to Smith’s question about whether the Soviet Union wished to prevent nuclear war, Andropov declared, “Yes, Samantha, we in the Soviet Union are endeavoring and doing everything so that there will be no war between our two countries, so that there will be no war at all on earth.” Andropov also complimented Smith, comparing her to the spunky character Becky Thatcher from “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain.

Smith, born June 29, 1972, accepted Andropov’s invitation and flew to the Soviet Union with her parents for a visit. Afterward, she became an international celebrity and peace ambassador, making speeches, writing a book and even landing a role on an American television series. In February 1984, Yuri Andropov died from kidney failure and was succeeded by Konstantin Chernenko. The following year, in August 1985, Samantha Smith died tragically in a plane crash at age 13. (see August 11, 1984)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

April 25, 2007:  Laura Bush stated that “No one suffers more than the President and I do.”  (see June 7)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism


Connecticut Repeals DP

April 25, 2012:  Connecticut Democratic Gov. Dannel Malloy signed into law a repeal of the death penalty, making it the fifth state in recent years to abandon capital punishment. Malloy stated it was ‘a moment for sober reflection, not celebration.’ With the law, which replaced the death penalty with life in prison without the possibility of parole, Connecticut joined 16 other states and the District of Columbia that do not allow capital punishment. The repeal in Connecticut applied only to future sentences, and the 11 men on its death row now still face execution. However some legal experts have said defense attorneys could use the repeal measure to win life sentences for those inmates. (see May 2, 2013)

Melissa Lucio

April 25, 2022: in a case that had drawn bipartisan outrage Texas Court of Criminal Appeals ordered a halt to the execution of Melissa Lucio, an Hispanic mother of 14 convicted of killing her 2-year-old child more than a decade ago.

Lucio, had long maintained her innocence, and calls for leniency had become widespread in Texas, including among dozens of Democratic and Republican state legislators, as new evidence and expert testimony emerged that cast strong doubt on her guilt.

The three-page decision ordering the stay to the execution that had been set for April 27, the Court found that several of the claims raised by her lawyers needed to be considered by a trial court, including that prosecutors may had used false testimony, that previously unavailable scientific evidence could preclude her conviction and that prosecutors suppressed other evidence that would have been favorable to her.

The case returned to a lower court to resolve those issues, postponing the execution indefinitely. Ms. Lucio would have been the first Hispanic woman executed in Texas. [NYT article] (next DP, see )

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism



April 25, 2012:  Robert Spitzer, MD, apologized to the gay community for a study published in October 2003 that said some people were able to change their sexual orientation. In a letter to Ken Zucker, the editor of Archives of Sexual Behavior (which published the study), Spitzer wrote: “I offered several (unconvincing) reasons why it was reasonable to assume that the subject’s reports of change were credible and not self-deception or outright lying. But the simple fact is that there was no way to determine if the subject’s accounts of change were valid. I believe I owe the gay community an apology for my study making unproven claims of the efficacy of reparative therapy.”) [NYT article] (see May 8)

US Military/LGBTQ

April 25, 2018: at a Senate committee hearing, the Air Force Chief of Staff General Dave Goldfein said that he was not aware of any negative effects of transgender people serving in the military, joining the other three chiefs of staff. [General Dave Goldfein appeared at a Senate committee hearing ]

Senator Kirsten Gillibrand questioned Goldfein. She stated that “In the last two weeks General Milley, General Neller, and Admiral Richardson…told me that they have seen zero reports of issues of cohesion, discipline, morale as a result of open transgender service in their respective service branches,” referring to the chiefs of the Army, Marine Corps, and Navy.

She then asked Goldrein if he knew of any reports of such issues. Goldfein said he was not. He said that he talked to a few transgender service members and was impressed by the “commitment to serve by each of them.”

Last week, Army Chief of Staff Mark Milley testified that he had heard of “precisely zero reports” of problems with transgender soldiers. Marine Commandant General Robert Neller said he was “not aware of any issues in those areas.” Chief of Naval Operations Admiral John Richardson said “it’s steady as she goes” regarding transgender people in the Navy. (see May 11)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism
April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Voting Rights

April 25, 2016: Judge Thomas D. Schroeder of Federal District Court in Winston-Salem upheld Republican-backed changes to election rules, including a voter identification provision, that civil rights groups said unfairly targeted African-Americans and other minorities.

Schroeder’s ruling upheld the repeal of a provision that allowed people to register and vote on the same day. It also upheld a seven-day reduction in the early-voting period; the end of preregistration, which allowed some people to sign up before their 18th birthdays; and the repeal of a provision that allowed for the counting of ballots cast outside voters’ home precinct.

It also left intact North Carolina’s voter identification requirement, which legislators softened last year to permit residents to cast ballots, even if they lack the required documentation, if they submit affidavits. (see Apr 26)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Sanctuary cities 

April 25, 2017: Judge William H. Orrick of United States District Court for the Northern District of California temporarily blocked the Trump administration’s efforts to withhold funding from cities that limit their cooperation with federal immigration enforcement.

Orrick issued a nationwide preliminary injunction against the administration, directing it to stop trying to cut off aid to sanctuary jurisdictions. But the order does not prevent the federal government from moving forward on designating certain places as “sanctuaries,” nor does it keep the administration from enforcing conditions for doling out federal money if they already exist, as the Justice Department has already begun to do with some law enforcement grants.  (NYT article) (see May 12)


April 25, 2019: Judge Dana Sabraw of the Southern District of California gave President Donald Trump’s administration six months to identify migrant children who were separated from their families for reunification, a process the White House previously stated would take up to two years.

The Department of Health and Human Services Inspector General estimated in a report that thousands of children were separated even before the “zero tolerance” policy in May and June 2018 that prosecuted immigrant parents who crossed the border illegally while holding their children separately in HHS custody.

Lawyers representing the Trump administration said in a filing earlier that it would take one to two years to identify potentially thousands of children who fit into the category.

But Sabraw ordered the administration to have its plan completed by Oct. 25. According to Sabraw’s order, the timeline may be modified for a “showing of good cause.” [NBC News article] (next Immigration, see May 17; next Judge Sabraw, see May 17)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

April 25, 2017: CNN reported that Marie Collins had resigned from the commission that Pope Francis had set up to combat sex abuse. Collins, the only active member of the commission who was also a victim of abuse said in a statement that, “”It is a reflection of how this whole abuse crisis in the church has been handled: with fine words in public and contrary actions behind closed doors. (see June 23)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

April 25, 2019: for the first time renewable energy generated more electricity than coal-powered power plants in the U.S.

An analysis by the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA), a non-profit that supports the transition to clean energy, showed that in April, renewables were on track to surpass the roughly 2,000 to 2,200 thousand megawatt hours per day generated by coal.

The analysis also pointed out that, “To be fair, there are seasonal considerations. Of particular note, is the long-held practice of taking coal plants offline during the lower demand periods of the spring (and fall) to perform maintenance and upgrades to ensure that they are ready for the higher demand of the summer and winter seasons. In addition, spring tends to be peak time for hydro generation.” [Smithsonian article] (see June 10)

April 25 Peace Love Art Activism


April 25, 2023: Toy company Mattel revealed its first Barbie doll representing a person with Down syndrome.

Mattel collaborated with the National Down Syndrome Society to create the Barbie and “ensure the doll accurately represents a person with Down syndrome,” the company said and that the design features of the new Barbie were made under guidance from NDSS,

In addition to portraying some physical characteristics of a person with Down syndrome, the Barbie’s clothing and accessories carry special meaning.

The blue and yellow on the doll’s dress, accompanied by butterflies, represent symbols and colors associated with Down syndrome awareness. And the three chevrons on the Barbie’s necklace represent how people with Down syndrome have three copies of their 21st chromosome.

Also the Barbie wears ankle foot orthotics, which some children with Down syndrome use. [AP article] (next ADA, see )