Tag Archives: Lynching

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

Lucy  Fryer

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

On May 8, 1916 someone in Robinson, Texas murdered Lucy Fryer while she was alone at her house. She and her husband George were English immigrants and operated a farm. George continued to live in Robinson, unmarried, for the rest of his life. He died in 1938.

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive
Jesse Washington

An investigation determined that Jesse Washington, a seventeen-year-old black man who had worked on the Fryers’ farm for five months, was responsible. Washington denied the charges at first, but eventually confessed and indicated where the murder weapon, a hammer, could be found.

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive
Trial

On May 15, the jury took 10 minutes to reach a guilt verdict.

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive
Photographs

Fred Gildersleeve, a Waco-based professional photographer, arrived at city hall shortly before the lynching, possibly at the mayor’s request, and photographed the event. He later used some of the photos as postcards.

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive
from Equal Justice Initiative site

On May 15, 1916, after an all-white jury convicted Jesse Washington of the murder of a white woman, he was taken from the courtroom and burned alive in front of a mob of 15,000. When he was accused of killing his employer’s wife, seventeen-year-old Jesse Washington’ greatest fear was being brutally lynched – a common fate for black people accused of wrongdoing at that time, whether guilty or not. After he was promised protection against mob violence, Jesse, who suffered from intellectual disabilities, according to some reports, signed a statement confessing to the murder.

That morning, Washington was taken to court, convicted of murder, and sentenced to death in a matter of moments.

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

Abducted

Shortly before noon, spectators snatched him from the courtroom and dragged him outside, the “promise of protection” quickly forgotten. The crowd that gathered to watch and/or participate in the brutal lynching grew to 15,000. Jesse Washington was chained to a car while members of the mob ripped off his clothes, cut off his ear, and castrated him.

The angry mob dragged his body from the courthouse to City Hall and a fire was prepared while several assailants repeatedly stabbed him. When they tied Jesse Washington to the tree underneath the mayor’s window, the lynchers cut off his fingers to prevent him from trying to escape, then repeatedly lowered his lifeless body into the fire. At one point, a participant took a portion of Washington’s torso and dragged it through the streets of Waco.

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive
Elizabeth Freeman

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

Following news reports of the lynching, the NAACP hired a special investigator, Elizabeth Freeman. She was able to learn the names of the five mob leaders and also gathered evidence that local law enforcement had done nothing to prevent the lynching. Nevertheless, no one was ever prosecuted for their participation in the lynching of Jesse Washington. (see in May – June 1916)

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive
The Crisis

WEB DuBois helped found The Crisis in 1910 as the official magazine of the NAACP.  In the June 1916 edition of The Crisis published Lelia Amos Pendleton’s “An Apostrophe to the Lynched.”

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

An Apostrophe to the Lynched

by Lelia Amos Pendleton 

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

HANG there, O my murdered brothers, sons of Ethiopia, our common Mother: Hang there, with faces upturned, mutely calling down vengeance from the Most High God!

Call down vengeance upon this barbarous nation; a nation of hypocrites, timeservers and gold-worshippers; a nation of ranting, ramping, stamping creatures who call themselves evangelists and who practice the evangel of restriction and proscription; a nation of wolves who hunt in packs and who skulk away if caught alone; a nation always ready to “avenge” itself against the weak, but with mouth filled with ready excuses for not attacking the strong.

Hang there until their eyes are unsealed and they behold themselves as they are and as they appear “to an amazed world! Hang there until their ears are opened to the ominous sounds of warning! Hang there until their foresworn souls perceive the true meaning of Liberty and Justice, until they catch a glimmer of the meaning of Christianity!

Martyrs to lawlessness, bigotry prejudice, if you by dying can accomplish some of these things, Death will have been swallowed up in Victory. 

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

The First Waco Horror

Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive

In 2005 Patricia Bernstein published  The First Waco Horror. Her first sentence reads, “The setting for the Waco Horror was no dusty little dump of a town, no Tumbleweed Junction spring up at an isolated crossroads.” From there she continues to try to place one of the most horrendous events in American criminal history in context. She does not excuse the action.

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Jesse Washington Mutilated Castrated Burned Alive
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Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

After four years of Robert Newsom repeatedly sexually assaulting her, the girl Celia killed Newsom as he was about to rape her again

Missouri hung Celia.

December 21, 1855

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia
This may be a picture of the slave Celia
“Spiegel im Spiegel” from Alina by Arvo Pärt
Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

1850

It was 1850 and Robert Newsom owned 800 acres of land in Middle River, Missouri. He also owned five male slaves. During that summer Newsom purchased Celia, a fourteen-year-old girl from a slave owner in neighboring Audrain County

Newsom immediately began to rape Celia. Between 1851 and 1855 Celia gave birth to two children.

In late 1854 or early 1855, George, one of  Newsom’s slaves, began a relationship with Celia.

In early March 1855, Celia was again pregnant.  George told Celia that she must stop Newsom’s abuse. George would later say that  “he would have nothing more to do with her if she did not quit the old man.”

Celia asked Newsom’s adult daughters to intervene. They may or may not have, but if they did, nothing happened. Newsom continued to rape Celia. Celia asked Newsom to stay away while she was pregnant. He refused.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

June 23, 1855

On June 23, 1855 around 10 PM, Newsom entered Celia’s cabin. He advanced upon her, but she picked up a large stick and struck him in the head. He collapsed. She hit him again, killing him.

Celia  decided to burn Newsom’s body. She built a  large fire in the cabin’s fireplace, dragged Newsom’s body into it, and kept the fire burning.  Late in the night, with the body mostly ashes, she dispersed them in the outside yard.  She buried larger pieces of bone under the hearth.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

June 24, 1855

Noting the absence of Newsom the next morning, the worried family searched for him. Neighbors assisted, one of whom was William Powell. Powell knew of the relationship between George and Cilia (and also likely knew of Newsom’s abuse). Powell questioned George suspecting that George may have sought revenge.

George denied any knowledge and at first did not cooperate, but did eventually tell Powell that the last thing he knew Newsom had done was walk toward Celia’s cabin.  A search of the cabin turned up nothing.

Powell questioned Celia. He threatened to take away her children if she did not cooperate.  She did finally admit that Newsom had come to her cabin and that with him still outside she had hit him and that he had left.

Powell continued to question Celia, She finally confessed to the killing, but as self-defense. A more intense search of her cabin and the area revealed Newsom’s burnt bone fragments, buttons, a pocketknife, and other personal items. Authorities arrested Celia.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

June 25, 1855

At the June 25 inquest, Celia insisted that she did not mean to kill Newsom. Nonetheless, a six-person panel found probable cause to charge Celia with murder. She was brought to the Callaway County jail in Fulton, nine miles to the north of the Newsom farm.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

October 9, 1855

The trial began in the Callaway County Courthouse. Circuit Court Judge William Hall presided.  Hall chose John Jameson as Celia’s defense lawyer. Jameson was an experienced lawyer, but a slave owner. Hall also appointed two inexperienced lawyers to assist Jameson.

The twelve jurors were all white males (women were not allowed as jurors at the time), all but one married with children, and several were slave owners.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

October 10, 1855

The trial

Celia’s defense planned on demonstrating that her actions were in self-defense, but Judge Hall denied many defense requests that would have ameliorated the charge, including the request to instruct the jury that the killing was justifiable if done to prevent a sexual assault.

The jury returned a guilty verdict the same day.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

October 11, 1855

Defense lawyers moved to set aside the jury verdict and grant a new trial. Hall ruled two days later.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

October 13, 1855

Judge Hall denied the defense’s motion for a new trial and sentenced Celia to be “hanged by the neck until dead” on November 16.  Judge Hall refused to issue an order staying execution until the Missouri Supreme Court could rule on Celia’s appeal.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

November 11, 1855

While in jail Celia delivered a stillborn child. By November 11, the Missouri Supreme Court still had not ruled on the appeal. What probably happened next is that the defense team helped Celia escape and kept her hidden until the November 16 execution date passed.  In late November, they Celia returned to jail. Hall set a new execution date of December 21.

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

December 14, 1855

The Supreme Court ruled against Celia in her appeal on December 14. In part, the state justices said they “thought it proper to refuse the prayer of the petitioner,” having found “no probable cause for her appeal.”

Missouri Hangs Slave Celia

December 21, 1855

Celia died on the gallows at 2:30 P.M.

More: Another source

Slave Celia Hung, Slave Celia Hung, Slave Celia Hung, Slave Celia Hung, 

 

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US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

On July 15,1930 US Senator Blease proposed a lynch law for blacks (only) guilty of criminally assaulting white women.

As if that wasn’t enough, he had already read a poem entitled “Niggers in the White House” on the floor of the Senate.

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease
Coleman L Blease when governor of South Carolina
US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

Similar to others

The quick biographical description of Coleman L Blease reads like many other elected officials of his times: the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Blease was born on October 8, 1868 in Newberry, South Carolina. Of course that is just after the Civil War ended and where the Civil War was fought.

Coleman L Blease graduated from Georgetown University in 1889. He became a lawyer.

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

Elected official

Voters elected Blease to the South Carolina State House as a State Representative in 1890. He served in that capacity from 1890 – 1894 and again from 1899 – 1900.

He was mayor of Helena, SC in 1897 and became Governor of South Carolina in 1911 and served as governor until 1915. He had a determined personality and nearly came to blows once with a SC representative.

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

Elected Senator

The people of South Carolina elected Blease to the US Senate in 1924 and he served one term as senator until March 3, 1931.

In 1928, Blease proposed an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, requiring that would have set a punishment for interracial couples attempting to get married and anyone officiating an interracial marriage.

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

Jessie DePriest

Jessie DePriest was the wife of Illinois congressman Oscar DePriest. In June 1928, then First Lady Lou Hoover invited Mrs DePriest to the White House for tea. Blease was outraged at the invitation because the DePriests were black. Blease proposed a resolution to Congress to remind the Hoovers that they should show respect to the White House and to remember that they were only temporary residents of the White House.

As if his inference was not obvious enough, he then read an outrageous poem entitled “Niggers in the White House.”

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

The Senate expunged Blease’s comments from the Record.

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

July 15, 1930

In 1926, Blease had offered his services pro bono to Aiken County, South Carolina to help defend it from suits brought by the heirs of three blacks who had been lynched in that county.

And It was on July 15,1930 while Blease was US Senator that he advocated a lynch law for Blacks (only) guilty of criminally assaulting white women. He enthusiastically declared to a group of supporters that, “Whenever the Constitution comes between me and the virtue of the white women of the South, I say to hell with the Constitution!

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease

Out of office

Blease was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1930 and an unsuccessful candidate for the Democratic gubernatorial nomination in 1934 and 1938.

Blease died in Columbia, S.C., January 19, 1942. His family interred him in Rosemont Cemetery, Newberry, S.C. if you’d like to visit and pay your disrespects.

US Senator Coleman L Bigot Blease
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