US Labor History
January 18, 1909: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Moyer v. Peabody that a governor and officers of a state National Guard may imprison anyone—in the case at hand, striking miners in Colorado—without probable cause “in a time of insurrection” and deny the person the right of appeal.
January 18, 1939: at the 18th annual meeting of the American Birth Control League (ABCL), Margaret Sanger’s organization, the group agreed to merge with the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau to create the Birth Control Foundation of America. The new group eventually adopted the name Planned Parenthood Foundation, by which it is known today. Margaret Sanger, the founder of the birth control movement in America, was reportedly furious when the name “Planned Parenthood” was adopted. Throughout her career, she had always refused to accept the use of euphemism for the term “birth control.”
January 18, 1950: People's Republic of China formally recognized the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam and agreed to furnish it military assistance.
January 18, 1962: the US began spraying foliage with herbicides in South Vietnam, in order to reveal the whereabouts of Vietcong guerrillas.
January 18, 1971: in a televised speech, Senator George S. McGovern (D-South Dakota) began his antiwar campaign for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination by vowing to bring home all U.S. soldiers from Vietnam if he were elected.
January 18, 1957: Federal Judge Hobart H. Grooms ruled that University of Alabama officials were justified in expelling Autherine Lucy Foster. (see Autherine Lucy Foster for full story) January 18, 1960: the City of Atlanta approved a plan to desegregate schools.
January 18, 1965: B Elton Cox had been the leader of a civil rights demonstration in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, of 2,000 Black students protesting segregation and the arrest and imprisonment the previous day of other Black students who had participated in a protest against racial segregation. The group assembled a few blocks from the courthouse, where Cox identified himself to officers as the group's leader and explained the purpose of the demonstration. Following his refusal to disband the group, he led it in an orderly march toward the courthouse. In the vicinity of the courthouse, officers stopped Cox who, after explaining the purpose and program of the demonstration, was told by the Police Chief that he could hold the meeting so long as he confined it to the west side of the street. Cox directed the group to the west sidewalk, across the street from the courthouse and 101 feet from its steps. There, the group, standing five feet deep and occupying almost the entire block but not obstructing the street, displayed signs and sang songs which evoked response from the students in the courthouse jail. Cox addressed the group. The Sheriff, construing as inflammatory appellant's concluding exhortation to the students to "sit in" at uptown lunch counters, ordered dispersal of the group which, not being directly forthcoming, was effected by tear gas. Cox was arrested the next day and was convicted of peace disturbance, obstructing public passages, and courthouse picketing. The Louisiana Supreme Court affirmed the convictions, two of which (peace disturbance and obstructing public passages) were involved in this case. On January 18, 1965 in Cox v. Louisiana, the US Supreme Court ruled that held that a state government cannot employ "breach of the peace" statutes against protesters engaging in peaceable demonstrations that may potentially incite violence. January 18, 1965: Black civil rights advocates met at Brown Chapel. Following speeches and prayers, King and John Lewis lead 300 marchers out of the church. Selma Police Chief Wilson Baker allowed them to march in small groups to the courthouse to register despite Hare's (July 9, 1964) injunction, but Sheriff Jim Clark has them line up in an alley beside the courthouse, where they are out of sight, and left them there. None were registered.
January 18, 1966: Robert C. Weaver becomes the first HUD Secretary. He also became the first Black person appointed to the Cabinet. (see NYT article/obit)
January 18 – February 7, 1960: “Running Bear” by Johnny Preston #1 Billboard Hot 100. Second of three #1 songs in a row in which a person or persons die. The song was written by J. P. Richardson (aka The Big Bopper) with background vocals by Richardson and George Jones, who do the Indian chanting of "UGO UGO" during the three verses, as well as the Indian war cries. (see Running Bear for more) January 18, 1964: the Beatles' "I Want To Hold Your Hand" entered Billboard at No. 45.
World Trade Center
January 18, 1964: plans to build the New York World Trade Center announced.
Clarence Earl Gideon
January 18, 1972: after his acquittal, Gideon resumed his previous way of life and married again some time later. He died of cancer in Fort Lauderdale, Florida at age 61. Gideon's family in Missouri accepted his body and buried him in an unmarked grave. The local chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union later added a granite headstone, inscribed with a quote from a letter Gideon wrote to his attorney, Abe Fortas.
January 18, 1994: prosecutor Lawrence Walsh released his final report in which he said former President Reagan had acquiesced in a cover-up of the scandal. Reagan called the accusation "baseless."
Sexual Abuse of Children
January 18, 2002: defrocked Boston priest John Geoghan, 66, was convicted of indecent assault and battery as a priest sex scandal in the archdiocese widens. Geoghan, 66, has been accused of abusing 130 children while he was actively serving as a priest in the Archdiocese of Boston over a 30-year period. He faces more criminal and civil suits. On February 21, 2002 Geoghan was sentenced to 9-10 years in prison as the archdiocese continues to reel from the scandal. The extent of the cover-up and the sheer number of priests involved has shocked Boston's large Catholic community, leading to calls for Cardinal Bernard Law to step down. Meanwhile, new cases are being reported in several other states.