Tag Archives: February Peace Love Art Activism

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Slave Revolt: Newton, Long Island

February 28, 1708: seven white people were killed in Newton, Long Island. Following the rebellion, two black male slaves and an Indian slave were hanged, and a black woman was burned alive.

Slave Revolt: Virginia

In 1709 : a plot involving enslaved Indians as well as Africans spread through at least three Virginia counties—James City, Surry, and Isle of Wight. Of the four ringleaders, Scipio, Salvadore, Tom Shaw, and Peter, all but Peter were quickly jailed. (see April 20 (Easter) 1710)

Republican Party

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1854: about 50 slavery opponents met in Ripon, Wis., to call for creation of a new political group that became the Republican Party. (see Apr 29)

Detroit rebellion

February 28, 1943: the Detroit rebellion occurred. At 9 a.m Black renters, having signed leases and paid their rent, attempted to enter their homes. Many  left the area fearing trouble.

Fighting began when two blacks in a car attempted to run through the picket line. Clashes between white and Black groups continued into the afternoon when 16 mounted police attempted to break up the fighting. Tear gas and shotgun shells were used. Officials announced an indefinite postponement of the move. Detroit newspapers, union leaders, and many other whites campaigned for the government to allow the Black workers to move into the homes.


In April, 1,100 city and state police officers and 1,600 Michigan National Guard troops were mobilized and sent to the area to allow the renters to enter homes. (see Apr 17)

Columbia Tennessee riots continue

February 28, 1946: (see Feb 26 & 27 for preceding story) Columbia, Tennessee policemen killed two black prisoners in custody. During an interrogation of James Johnson, William Gordon, and Napoleon Stewart, the police reported that two of the prisoners grabbed guns from white officers and began shooting. In defense, the police retaliated, killing two and wounding the third suspect.

A federal grand jury was convened to investigate the charges of misconduct by the white policemen, but the local all-white jury absolved the police of any wrong doing. Eventually, twenty-five blacks were tried in for the shootings of the white officers during the riot. Two of the accused were found guilty but were never retried due to lack of evidence. The one valid conviction came in a second trial at Columbia in November. Lloyd Kennedy was found guilty and served time in jail for shooting at a white highway patrolman. (BH, see Apr 18; RR, see Aug 10)

George Whitmore, Jr

February 28, 1972: The U.S. the Supreme Court refused to disturb Whitmore’s conviction for the attempted rape and assault of a practical nurse Elba Borrero almost eight years earlier. (next BH, see June 4; see Whitmore for expanded story)

Ben Chester White

February 28 Peace Love Activism


February 28, 2003: on June 10, 1966 three Klansmen had approached Ben Chester White at his home near Natchez, Mississippi and asked for him help in finding a lost dog. White, a 67-year old sharecropper, was then driven to the Homochitto National Forest, where they shot White repeatedly, then dumped over him over a bridge into a creek bed below. Three men, Ernest , Claude Fuller, and James Lloyd Jones, had allegedly killed White in an attempt to lure Martin Luther King, Jr. to Natchez, Mississippi.  Ernest Avants was tried in 1967 but acquitted.

In 2003, the New York Times described Chester this way: Ben Chester White used twists of wire to hold the soles on his shoes, patched his own clothes with scrap and said “yes, sir,” to white men, and when he made a little money, he wrapped the $1 bills in wax paper so they would not be ruined by his own sweat. He was not registered to vote, and had never fought against the segregation that was as much a fact of life for him as a hoe handle or cotton sack.

On this date, because Homochitto National Forest was federal property,  the federal government could retry Ernest Avents for White’s murder. Allan Kornblum, the FBI agent who investigated the crime in 1967 testified that Mr. Avants said that his lawyer had told him that he would not be convicted in that case:


‘Because you can’t be convicted of killing a dead man.’ ”

‘Yeah, I shot that nigger,’ ” Mr. Kornblum said Mr. Avants told him. But Mr. Avants said that by the time he shot Mr. White, another man had shot Mr. White several times — investigators have said about 16 times — with an automatic carbine.

‘I blew his head off with a shotgun,’ ” Mr. Avants told him, Mr. Kornblum said. But by then, Mr. Avants told him that day, there was no life left in Mr. White.

”It’s been 37 years,” said Paige Fitzgerald, a trial lawyer with the United States Department of Justice. ”How do you remember?”

Mr. Kornblum answered, ”It’s one of those singular events in a person’s life…It’s burned in my memory,”

At that time, Agent  Kornblum was legal adviser to the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and had a national security clearance that is higher than top secret. (see Mar 1)

George Whitmore, Jr

February 28, 2014: from an article in The Paris Review by Sabine Heinlein. I mailed a copy of my book Among Murderers, about the struggles three men faced when they returned to the world after several decades behind bars, to Richard Robles.

Robles wrote back:

Remorse is a tough subject. It’s complicated by the human desire to avoid pain and punishment, which is actually stronger, I think. It includes feelings of shame and guilt. Then there’s the drive to rehabilitate oneself and change. It is complex and confusing. One has to take an honest look at himself and get rid of that “bullshit ego.”

He added:

I found it [the book] very honest and real. I think it will be an eye opener for those who have the misconception that parole is freedom. I’d like to see it as mandatory reading for all first offenders because they often think “parole is freedom” and are quickly, very negatively struck with profound disappointment when reality smacks or kicks them in the face.

Along these lines I would have liked to see more about the unrealistic expectations prisoners fantasize about in prison—and how fantasies inhibit reform/rehabilitation efforts. I think you tried to portray that but I’m not certain the average reader could get it. You portray a prisoner as saying “Expect the unexpected.” I’d rephrase that to “Expect to be disappointed in every dream you conjure in prison.” (next BH, see Mar 21; see Whitmore for expanded story)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1877: the US Congress ratified the Manypenny Agreement with the Lakota Sioux, under which the United States took control of 900,000 acres of the Black Hills.

The Lakota argue to this day that the Agreement was illegal, was obtained by coercion associated with starvation, and that the Black Hills should be returned to them. (see May 5)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History


February 28, 1898: Holden v. Hardy, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld a Utah state law limiting the number of work hours for miners and smelters as a legitimate exercise of the police power. The majority held that such a law was legitimate, provided that there was indeed a rational basis, supported by facts, for the legislature to believe particular work conditions were dangerous. The court was quick to distinguish this case from other cases of the era which imposed universal maximum hour rules, which it held unconstitutional under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment. (law dot jrank article) (see April 29, 1899)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

International Women’s Day

February 28, 1908:  the first International Women’s Day observed. In NYC, about 15,000 women marched demanding shorter hours, better pay, and the right to vote.  (see July 21)

Violence Against Women Act

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 2013: after the House plan endorsed by conservatives was defeated, the House or Representatives gave final approval to a renewal of the Violence Against Women Act, sending a bipartisan Senate measure to President Obama. (DoJ article) (see March 13)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

February 28, 1943: nine Norwiegian saboteurs successfully blew up Hitler’s heavy water plant, a critical part of his nuclear program. [NYT story] (see April 17, 1945)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestone

February 28 Peace Love Activism


February 28, 1953:  Cambridge University scientists James D. Watson and Frances H.C. Crick announced that they had determined the double-helix structure of DNA, the molecule containing human genes. (see March 26)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

February 28 Music et al

The Beatles

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1964: despite the arrival of “Beatlemania” Time magazine featured musician Thelonious  Monk on its cover reflecting the continued importance and popularity of jazz in the US. (see Mar 21)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism
The Road to Bethel and the Woodstock Festival

February 28, 1969: Joel Rosenman, John Roberts, and Michael Lang signed the contract creating Woodstock Ventures and its plan for 1) a recording studio in Woodstock, NY and 2) a festival in Saugerties, NY. Artie Kornfeld could not sign the contract because he was still under contract with with Capital. Michael Lang agreed to hold Kornfeld’s share until the Capitol contract expired. (see Mar 29)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Watergate Scandal

February 28, 1973: confirmation hearings begin for confirming L. Patrick Gray as permanent Director of the FBI. During these hearings, Gray revealed that he had complied with an order from John Dean to provide daily updates on the Watergate investigation, and also that Dean had “probably lied” to FBI investigators.(see Watergate for expanded story)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Irish Troubles

 February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1985:  the Provisional Irish Republican Army carried out a mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary police station at Newry, killing 9 officers in the highest loss of life for the RUC on a single day. (see Nov 15)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism
The Cold War &  Nuclear/Chemical Weapons News

February 28, 1987:  in a surprising announcement, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev indicated that the USSR was ready to sign “without delay” a treaty designed to eliminate U.S. and Soviet medium-range nuclear missiles from Europe. (CW, see June 12; NN, see Nov 24)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Dissolution of Yugoslavia

February 28, 1994, US F-16s shot down 4 Serbian J-21s over Bosnia and Herzegovina for violation of the Operation Deny Flight and its no-fly zone. (see Aug 4)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Pledge of Allegiance

February 28, 2003: the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that the addition of “under God” to the The Pledge of Allegiance was unconstitutional, refused to reconsider its ruling, saying it would be wrong to allow public outrage to influence its decisions. (NYT article) (see Mar 4)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

February 28, 2006:  The Washington Times reported that the Bush administration never drew up a comprehensive plan for rebuilding Iraq after the March 2003 invasion. (see Mar 19)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Crime and Punishment

February 28, 2017: in a one-paragraph memo, Attorney General Jeff Sessions rescinded the previous directive to the Bureau of Prisons to either reduce or decline to renew private-prison contracts as they came due.  “The memorandum changed long-standing policy and practice, and impaired the Bureau’s ability to meet the future needs of the federal correctional system,” Sessions wrote. “Therefore, I direct the Bureau to return to its previous approach.” (see May 11)

February 28 Peace Love Art Activism
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February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Pavonia Massacre

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1642: New Netherlands Governor-Director Willem Kieft led a raiding party against a helpless groups of Lenape Algonquins seeking refuge from rival Iroquois invaders. The mass killing was called the “Pavonia massacre,” and it prompted a full-scale retaliation from surrounding Algonquin tribes that utterly decimated the fledgling new colony. A report read…

“Infants were torn from their mother’s breasts, and hacked to pieces in the presence of their parents, and pieces thrown into the fire and in the water, and other sucklings, being bound to small boards, were cut, stuck, and pierced, and miserably massacred in a manner to move a heart of stone. Some were thrown into the river, and when the fathers and mothers endeavored to save them, the soldiers would not let them come on land but made both parents and children drown…” (Indian Country Today article) (see June 24, 1675)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

 Hiram R. Revels

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1870: Southern Democrats failed in their attempt to exclude Revels from the Senate and he  became the first black member of the United States Senate as he was sworn in to serve out the unexpired term of Jefferson Davis. [House dot Gov bio] (see Mar 31)

James Stephenson

February 25 1946: James Stephenson, a U.S. Navy veteran from the Pacific theater, accompanied his mother, Gladys Stephenson, to a local department store to pick up a radio that Mrs. Stephenson had left for repairs. She and a young white male clerk began to argue about the repair order; he became verbally aggressive, threatening her. James Stephenson stepped between the two and struggled with the clerk, who ended up crashing through a window in the department store. Local police arrested both Stephensons for disturbing the peace. They pleaded guilty and paid a fifty-dollar fine.

The incident was seemingly over until, on that same day, the police again arrested James Stephenson, this time due to a warrant brought by the white clerk’s father. The new warrant charged Stephenson with assault with the intent to commit murder, a felony. Julius Blair, a local black businessman, posted bond, however, and Stephenson was able to return home that evening.

A white mob gathered around the Maury County Courthouse. A block south, along the segregated black business section known as the Mink Slide, black citizens and military veterans gathered as well. The Columbia police chief sent four patrolmen to the Mink Slide. Someone shouted for the officers to stop; when they failed to do so, shots were fired, leaving all four wounded. Within hours, state highway patrolmen and the state safety commissioner, Lynn Bomar, arrived in town. Together with some of the town’s whites, they surrounded the Mink Slide district. (see Feb 26)

Alabama State College

February 25, 1960: six students at the Alabama State College for Negroes, a state operated institution of higher learning for prospective Negro school teachers. along with 20 other students entered a publicly owned lunch grill in the basement of the courthouse in Montgomery, and asked to be served. Service was refused and the lunchroom was closed. “The Negroes refused to leave,” and police were called. (see Greensboro for expanded story [see Greensboro 4 for expanded story]

Muhammad Ali

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1964: Clay, with a record of 19-0, fought the hard hitting and much-feared heavyweight champion, Sonny Liston. Clay said, “Sonny Liston is nothing. The man can’t talk. The man can’t fight. The man needs talking lessons. The man needs boxing lessons. And since he’s gonna fight me, he needs falling lessons.” Despite being a 7-1 underdog, Ali upsets Sonny Liston to win the world heavyweight championship at age 22. (NYT article) (see Feb 26)

Judicial Milestone

February 25, 1987: in the United States v Paradise, the US Supreme Court upheld a one-for-one promotion requirement (i.e., for every white candidate promoted, a qualified African American would also be promoted) in the Alabama Department of Public Safety, finding it to be narrowly tailored and necessary to eliminate the effects of Alabama’s long-term discrimination which the lower court had found “blatant and continuous.” (see June 30, 2014)

Rodney King

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1993: trial of Sgt. Stacey Koon and officers Laurence Michael Powell, Timothy Wind, and Theodore Briseno began. (King, see Mar 9)

James Byrd murder

February 25, 1999: John William King sentenced to death. [2018 loses appeal] (BH, see June 30; Byrd, see September 21, 2011)

Amadou Diallo

February 25, 2000: after two days of deliberations, a jury in Albany acquitted the officers of all charges. [NY Daily News article] (see Apr 18)

Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers

February 25, 2010: Edgar Ray Killen, serving a 60-year sentence after his 2005 manslaughter convictions in the deaths of Michael Schwerner, James Chaney and Andrew Goodman, filed a federal lawsuit seeking millions of dollars in damages and a declaration that the FBI violated his rights were violated when it allegedly used a gangster during its investigation. Killen claimed the FBI conspired to suppress his rights to “defend his society and culture.” (BH, see Sept 6; see Murders expanded story)

Alabama State College sit-in

February 25, 2010: in a ceremony commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the 1960 sit-in, Alabama State University (formerly Alabama State College) President William Harris reinstated the nine students, criticized Governor Patterson’s “arbitrary, illegal and intrusive” role in forcing the expulsions, and praised the student protest as “an important moment in civil rights history.” (BH, see Sept 6)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Chinese immigrants

February 25, 1886:  during the second half of the nineteenth century, an increase in mining activity and railroad construction led to a massive influx of Chinese immigrants into Washington Territory, which later became the State of Idaho. By 1870, Idaho was home to more than four thousand Chinese residents, and they comprised nearly 30 percent of the population. “Chinatowns” existed in many Idaho cities, and the new immigrants formed thriving communities.

Chinese immigrants in Idaho faced severe hostility, which manifested in discriminatory statutes, disparate treatment in courts, and even violence. In 1866, the Idaho Territorial Legislature levied a tax of five dollars per month on all Chinese residents. Chinese residents were not permitted to testify against whites in court, and acts of violence committed against the Chinese were rarely investigated or punished. Idaho public sentiment against the Chinese culminated in an anti-Chinese convention held in Boise on February 25, 1886. At the convention, white residents of Idaho voted to expel Chinese citizens.

In the decades following, white Idaho residents undertook a campaign of violent removal of Idaho’s Chinese population. Mobs frequently destroyed Chinese homes and businesses, and in 1887, a white mob murdered thirty-one Chinese miners in the Hell’s Canyon Massacre.

During the 1890s and 1900s, a number of towns including Bonners Ferry, Clark Fork, Hoodoo, Moscow, and Twin Falls forcibly expelled their Chinese residents. By 1910, Idaho’s once-thriving Chinese population had nearly disappeared. (see February 7, 1887)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Marijuana

Robert Mitchum

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1949:  actor Robert Mitchum was released from a Los Angeles County prison farm after spending the final week of his two-month sentence for marijuana possession there. In the fall of 1948, Mitchum, the star of classics such as Cape Fear and Night of the Hunter, was smoking a joint at a small party in the Laurel Canyon area of Los Angeles when detectives burst in and arrested him. There is some reason to believe that Mitchum’s arrest was less than fair and designed to bring publicity to the Los Angeles Police Department’s anti-drug efforts. Although high-priced studio lawyers questioned irregularities in the case, it was later agreed that Mitchum would accept 60 days in jail and several years’ probation. (see November 2, 1951)

Marijuana dispensaries

February 25, 2009:  Attorney General Eric Holder’s issued a statement that the Drug Enforcement Administration would end its raids on state-approved marijuana dispensaries. The new policy represented a significant turnabout for the federal government. During the Bush administration, DEA agents shut down 30 to 40 marijuana dispensaries. (see Oct 19)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

Hoa Binh

February 25, 1952: after more than three months of the French Union forces attempting to lure the Việt Minh out into the open and to force it to fight on French terms the  French colonial forces evacuated Hoa Binh in Indochina. (see May 20, 1953)

Pete Seeger

February 25, 1968: Pete Seeger re-appeared on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Show and CBS permitted him to sing Waist Deep in the Big Muddy. (Smothers Brothers, see April 4, 1969)

My Lai Massacre

February, 25, 1968: the 1st and 2nd Platoons of Charlie Company stumbled across a minefield, killing three men and wounding a dozen more. The month of February had been devastating for Charlie Company. Frustration and anger from the loss of their companions led to aggression from traumatized soldiers. Lieutenant Calley was a member of Charlie Company. (Vietnam, see Feb 27;  see My Lai for expanded story)

Muhammad Ali

February 25, 1970:  the US Supreme Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (New Orleans) turned down Ali’s request that his appeal from a conviction for refusing to be inducted into the Army be heard by all 15 judges of the court meaning that a regular three judge panel would hear the case. (NYT article) (Ali, see Oct 26; Vietnam, see Mar 6)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

February 25 Music at al

Roots of Rock

February 25, 1957: Buddy Holly and the Crickets recorded “That’ll Be The Day.” The song would be their first hit. A previously recorded version, on July 22, 1956, had poor production and different vocals. (see Mar 3)

Los Angeles Acid Test

February 25, 1966: Acid Test in Los Angeles.Hollywood. Cinema Theatre. (see Los Angeles Acid Test  for more) (next LSD, see March 19)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAY

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1961:  Kuwait independent from United Kingdom. (see Apr 27)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical Weapons News

February 25, 1962: five thousand people stood shivering in Trafalgar Square in London at a rally organized by the British anti-war group Committee of 100. (CW, see April; NN, see Apr 25)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

February 25, 1970: a grand jury indicted Silous Huddleson, president of Local 3228 of the United Mine Workers in the murder of Joseph Yablonski. (Labor, see Mar 18; Yablonski, see April 11, 1972)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

February 25, 1987: the US Supreme Court, in CALIFORNIA ET AL. v. CABAZON BAND OF MISSION INDIANS ET AL, on the development of Native American gaming. The Supreme Court’s decision effectively overturned the existing laws restricting gaming/gambling on U.S. Indian reservations.. (NA, see June 24; Gaming, see October 17, 1988)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Terri Schiavo

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1990: Terri Schiavo collapsed in her St. Petersburg, Florida home in full cardiac arrest. She suffered massive brain damage due to lack of oxygen and, after two and a half months in a coma, her diagnosis was a vegetative state. (see April 21, 2001)

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 2005, a Pinellas County (FL) judge ordered the removal of Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube. Several appeals and federal government intervention followed, which included President Bush signing legislation designed to keep her alive. (CBS News picture essay)  (see Mar 18)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

IRAQ War I

February 25, 1991: an Iraqi Scud missile hit a U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 Americans. [NYT article] (see Feb 26)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

February 25, 1993: Michigan Governor John Engler signed  legislation banning assisted suicide. It made aiding in a suicide a four-year felony but allowed the law to expire after a blue-ribbon commission studied permanent legislation. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

February 25, 1998: White House lawyers prepared legal briefs to defend the administration’s position that executive privilege should shield several of President Bill Clinton’s top aides from certain questions in the Lewinsky investigation. (see Clinton for expanded story)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism
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February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Judicial Milestone

February 24, 1803: Chief Justice John Marshall of the US Supreme Court ruled in Marbury v. Madison that any act of Congress that conflicts with the Constitution is null and void, thereby establishing the doctrine of judicial review. (Oyez article) (see February 20, 1809)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Siwinowe Kesibwi

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1835: “Siwinowe Kesibwi” (The Shawnee Sun) was issued as the first Indian language monthly publication in the U.S.  [Kansaedia article]

American bison

February 24 Peace Love Activism

1850s – 1870s: systematic military campaigns to destroy subsistence base of Plains people. e.g. near extinction of American bison. [Once numbering in the hundreds of millions in North America and basis of life for the Plains Indians, the population of the American Bison decreased to less than 1000 by 1890.] (see July 23, 1851)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Kentucky

February 24, 1865: Kentucky, a border state, remained in the Union but the state’s legislature did not fully support President Abraham Lincoln or his Republican administration because lawmakers worried that Lincoln would abolish slavery. Throughout 1861, Lincoln assured Kentuckians he had no intention of interfering with the state’s “domestic institutions.” In March 1862, Lincoln proposed a plan of gradual emancipation for the border states, offering to compensate slaveholders who released their slaves. When the congressional delegations for the border states turned down that offer, Lincoln issued a draft Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862 and signed the final version on January 1, 1863.

Kentucky legislators opposed all efforts to abolish slavery, and on February 24, 1865, the Kentucky General Assembly rejected the Thirteenth Amendment. Prominent politicians and other public figures harshly criticized President Lincoln and members of Congress, and the Kentucky legislature expressed their disapproval of the amendment’s adoption by politically siding with the former Confederacy throughout the post-Civil War era. Kentucky did not officially adopt the Thirteenth Amendment until 1976. (see July 5)

U.S. Sen. Harry F. Byrd Sr.

February 24, 1956: U.S. Sen. Harry F. Byrd Sr. called for a policy of massive resistance to unite white leaders in Virginia in their campaign to preserve segregation.

Virginia passed laws to deny state funds to any integrated school. After the courts ordered desegregation in a few schools, Gov. James Lindsay Almond Jr. ordered those schools closed. The courts eventually ordered the reopening of those schools. [Civil Rights article] (see Feb 29)

Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1965: Federal Judge William Harold Cox, an ardent segregationist, threw out the indictments against all conspirators other than Lawrence Rainey and Cecil Price on the ground that the other seventeen were not acting “under color of state law.” (see KKK Kills for expanded story)

Oscar voters

February 24, 2012: The Los Angeles Times published a study claiming that more than 90 percent of Oscar voters were white, and more than three-quarters were male. The statistics raised questions about whether minorities and women were getting fair chances of winning awards. [LA Times article] (see Mar 22)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Muller v. Oregon

February 24, 1908: in Muller v. Oregon, the US Supreme Court upheld a law limiting the workday to ten hours for women. Curt Muller, the owner of a laundry business, had been convicted of violating Oregon labor laws by making a female employee work more than ten hours in a single day. Muller was fined $10. Muller appealed to the Oregon Supreme Court and then to the U.S. Supreme Court, both of which upheld the constitutionality of the labor law and affirmed his conviction. (Oyez article)  (next Feminism, see July 21, 1908)

Voting Rights

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1919: National Women’s Party members picketed President Wilson in Boston upon his return from Europe. They carried banners reminding him of his pledge to support suffrage amendment and lobby him to pressure Senate to pass amendment before the March 3 recess. Twenty-one demonstrators arrested and sentenced to eight days in Charles Street jail, last women imprisoned for suffrage. [NWP site] (see Mar 4)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Fourth Amendment

February 24, 1914: Weeks v. United States, the United States Supreme Court unanimously held that the warrantless seizure of items from a private residence constituted a violation of the Fourth Amendment. It also prevented local officers from securing evidence by means prohibited under the federal exclusionary rule and giving it to their federal colleagues. [Oyez article] (see March 2, 1925)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAY

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1918:   Estonia independence from the Russian Empire. (see May 26)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Child Labor Tax Law

February 24, 1919: Congress passed the Child Labor Tax Law which imposed an excise tax of 10 percent on the net profits of a company that employed children. The law defined child labor as “under the age of sixteen in any mine or quarry, and under the age of fourteen in any mill, cannery, workshop, factory, or manufacturing establishment.”

The definition also included the use of children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who worked more than eight hours a day or more than six days a week, or who worked between the hours of 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. (LH, see Aug 26; Child Labor, see September 21, 1921)

Hilda Solis

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 2009: The US Senate confirmed Hilda Solis the Secretary of Labor by a vote of 80–17. Solis became the first Hispanic woman to serve as a regular U.S. cabinet secretary and the first cabinet secretary with Central American descent. [Latinaovations article] (see January 22, 2010)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Fear of Rock 

February 24, 1956: the city of Cleveland invoked a 1931 law that barred people under the age of 18 from dancing in public without an adult guardian. (see Apr 3)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

Academy Awards

February 24, 1957: the Academy Awards committee, it was reported on this day, voted to deny eligibility for an Oscar to anyone who either admitted to being a member of the Communist Party or who refused to cooperate with an official legislative investigating committee. The new rule, passed at the last minute, was directed at Michael Wilson, screenwriter for the film, Friendly Persuasion, which was under consideration for several Oscars, including best screenplay. Wilson was named an “unfriendly witness” by HUAC in its investigation of alleged Communist influence in Hollywood.

Wilson had a distinguished career before being blacklisted. He contributed to the famous film, It’s A Wonderful Life, and shared an Oscar for the acclaimed film, A Place in the Sun. After being blacklisted, he anonymously contributed to the scripts for Bridge on the River Kwai and Lawrence of Arabia. He was eventually allowed to work under his own name and wrote the script for the original version of Planet of the Apes (which includes a wicked parody of the House Un-American Activities Committee; see February 8, 1968). (see Mar 27)

Raúl Castro

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 2008: Raúl Castro was unanimously elected President of Cuba by the National Assembly  and replaced his brother Fidel Castro. (see December 17, 2014)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

STUDENT ACTIVISM

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1969: students occupied Administration building at Penn State (see Feb 24)

Tinker v Des Moines

February 24, 1969: Tinker v. Des Moines  Students do not leave their rights at the schoolhouse door. To protest the Vietnam War, Mary Beth Tinker and her brother wore black armbands to school. Fearing a disruption, the administration prohibited wearing such armbands. The Tinkers were removed from school when they failed to comply, but the Supreme Court ruled that their actions were protected by the First Amendment. (see Tinker for expanded story)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1988: the U.S. Supreme Court voted 8-0 to overturn the $200,000 settlement awarded to the Reverend Jerry Falwell for his emotional distress at being parodied in Hustler, a pornographic magazine. (see June 21, 1989)

In 1983, Hustler had run a piece parodying Falwell’s first sexual experience as a drunken, incestuous, childhood encounter with his mother in an outhouse. Falwell, an important religious conservative and founder of the Moral Majority political advocacy group, sued Hustler and its publisher, Larry Flynt, for libel. Falwell won the case, but Flynt appealed, leading to the Supreme Court’s hearing the case because of its constitutional implications.The Supreme Court unanimously overturned the lower court’s decision, ruling that, although in poor taste, Hustler’s parody fell within the First Amendment’s protection of freedom of speech and the press.

The Court: “We conclude that public figures and public officials may not recover for the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress by reason of publications such as the one here at issue without showing, in addition, that the publication contains a false statement of fact which was made with ‘actual malice,’ i.e., with knowledge that the statement was false or with reckless disregard as to whether or not it was true.” (see Dec 23)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

George W. Bush

February 24, 2004: President George W. Bush announced that he supported a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. He did not specifically endorse the wording proposed by Representative Marilyn Musgrave which had been questioned for the likelihood of also prohibiting states the ability to recognize same-sex civil unions and domestic partnerships. However, he did say that the wording to Musgrave’s amendment “meets his principles” in protecting the “sanctity of marriage” between men and women. (see Mar 7)

Attorney General Eric H. Holder

February 24, 2014:  Attorney General Eric H. Holder said that state attorneys general who believe that laws in their states banning same-sex marriage were discriminatory were not obligated to defend them. Mr. Holder was careful not to encourage his state counterparts to disavow their own laws, but his position, which he described in an interview with The New York Times, injected the Obama administration into the debate over gay marriage playing out in court cases in many states. [NYT article] (see Feb 26)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Hurricane Katrina

February 24, 2010: Katina shootings: Officer Michael Lohman, who had encouraged the officers to provide false stories in the shooting incident entered a plea of guilty to obstruction of justice in federal court. [NOLA article] (see Mar 11)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Marijuana

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 2015:  Alaska became the third U.S. state to end prohibition of marijuana, officially putting into effect Ballot Measure 2, approved by 53 percent of state voters in November.

Alaskans age 21 and older could legally possess up to one ounce of marijuana, grow as many as six marijuana plants in their homes (with no more than three flowering), and possess any additional marijuana produced by those plants. [Vox dot com article] (see Feb 26)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Trayvon Martin Shooting

February 24, 2015: US Justice Department officials met with Trayvon Martin’s family and told that it will not be filing charges against George Zimmerman, who shot their son after a confrontation in 2012. Federal prosecutors concluded there was not sufficient evidence to prove Zimmerman, a neighborhood watchman in Sanford, Fla., intentionally violated Martin’s civil rights.  (see December 16, 2017)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

February 24, 2015: President Obama rejected an attempt by lawmakers to force his hand on the Keystone XL oil pipeline, using his veto pen to sweep aside one of the first major challenges to his authority by the new Republican Congress.

With a 104-word letter to the Senate, Mr. Obama vetoed legislation to authorize construction of a 1,179-mile pipeline that would carry 800,000 barrels of heavy petroleum a day from the oil sands of Alberta to ports and refineries on the Gulf Coast.

In exercising the unique power of the Oval Office for only the third time since his election in 2008, Mr. Obama accused lawmakers of seeking to circumvent the administration’s approval process for the pipeline by cutting short “consideration of issues that could bear on our national interest.” [NYT article] (see Mar 4)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism
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