Tag Archives: February Peace Love Art Activism

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

President Jefferson plans Native American removal

February 27, 1803: in a private letter to William Henry Harrison, Governor of the Indiana Territory, President Thomas Jefferson outlined an Indian policy that would result in the natives ceding land to the United States. He stated [my underlining]: To promote this disposition to exchange lands, which they have to spare and we want, for necessaries, which we have to spare and they want, we shall push our trading uses, and be glad to see the good and influential individuals among them run in debt, because we observe that when these debts get beyond what the individuals can pay, they become willing to lop them off by a cession of lands. He added, “…we presume that our strength and their weakness is now so visible that they must see we have only to shut our hand to crush them, and that all our liberalities to them proceed from motives of pure humanity only. Should any tribe be foolhardy enough to take up the hatchet at any time, the seizing the whole country of that tribe, and driving them across the Mississippi, as the only condition of peace, would be an example to others, and a furtherance of our final consolidation.” (complete letter from the National Archive site)  (see October 5, 1813)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism


Voting Rights

February 27, 1922: in Leser v. Garnett the US Supreme Court held, that the Nineteenth Amendment to the US  Constitution had been constitutionally established. (next Feminism, see Sept 22; VR, see March 7, 1927)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History


February 27, 1937: four hundred fifty Woolworth’s workers and customers occupied a store in Detroit for eight days in support of Waiters and Waitresses Union. (see Mar 1)

Sit-down strikes

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

February 27, 1939: the Supreme Court, in National Labor Relations Board v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corp., effectively outlawed sit-down strikes. (see June 5)

Montana Coal and Iron Company

February 27, 1943: an explosion at the Montana Coal and Iron Company mine killed 74 workers. It was the worst mining disaster in Montana’s history. The small communities of Washoe and Bearcreek, Montana, consisted almost entirely of mine workers and their families. Many of them worked Smith Mine #3 for the Montana Coal and Iron Company. On a cold Saturday morning, February 27, 77 men were working in the mine when, at 9:30 a.m., a huge explosion rang out. The people of Washoe and Bearcreek heard the roar and then the long, wailing siren that followed. The exact cause of the explosion is not known, though some of the company’s miners claimed methane gas had built up in some abandoned shafts and was ignited after a cave-in. Of the 77 workers in the mine at the time of the explosion, only three made it out alive. (see May 31)

WV teacher strike

February 27, 2018: teacher and service personnel union leaders said that after meeting with the governor the work stoppage that had closed public schools in West Virginia provisionally ended and they would return to school on March 1.

Gov. Jim Justice announced a 3 percent pay increase for all state employees this year, with an additional 2 percent hike for those who work in education, including teachers and service personnel. It remained unknown whether leaders of the House and Senate would go along with the deal. (USLH & WV, see Mar 1)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Calvin Graham

February 27, 1943: Graham turned himself in at the Houston recruiting station. (see Graham for expanded story)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism



February 27, 1943: with a cross burning in a field near the homes, 150 angry whites picketed the a Detroit housing project vowing to keep out any Black homeowners. (see Feb 28)

Wharlest Jackson

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

The Armstrong Tire & Rubber plant in Natchez, Tennessee had offered Wharlest Jackson a promotion to its chemical mixing plant. Jackson had worked at the plant for 12 years and was also the treasurer of the local NAACP chapter.

On February 27, 1967, as Jackson was driving home from work, a bomb exploded in his 1958 Chevrolet truck, killing him instantly. The Natchez Police Department arrived on the scene and found Jackson’s truck blown to bits – the blast blew out the top of the truck, the front and rear glass, both doors and the hood.

The Natchez community was shocked and appalled by Jackson’s murder. Charles Evers and the Natchez NAACP organized a protest, leading 2,000 demonstrators to watch the changing of the shift at the Armstrong plant. From the Armstrong plant, the demonstrators marched to the place where Jackson died, and then to Rosehill Baptist Church, where they had an hour-long meeting. Even Governor Paul Johnson, infamously hostile to the NAACP, called Jackson’s murder “an act of savagery which stains the honor of our state.”

After Jackson’s death, the FBI launched an intensive probe that it quickly expanded to include other Klan-related murders and crimes. Investigators speculated that Jackson was a victim of the Silver Dollar Group, a violent, heavily armed cell of the Ku Klux Klan. The Silver Dollar Group had about 20 members, each of whom carried a silver dollar minted in the year he was born as evidence of membership in the cell. Several members had experience with explosives. The FBI identified Raleigh Jackson “Red” Glover, the leader of the Silver Dollar Group, as the primary suspect in both the Jackson and Metcalfe bombings.

No one was ever been convicted for the crime. (see Mar 2)

Colin Kaepernick

February 27, 2019:  WINK TV reported that Charlotte County School District school authorities forced Alissa Perry,  a Port Charlotte High School math teacher, to take down a Black History Month poster because it featured former San Francisco quarterback Colin Kaepernick.

“Thank you all for participating in this,” said Perry.

Perry made the poster to celebrate Kaepernick for Black History Month, but the poster stirred up a different type of emotion in a lot of parents.

The District said the front office was getting too many phone calls asking for the poster to be taken down.  Students said the school district cracked under pressure.  (next BH, see Mar 12; next CK, see Oct 10)

Ahmaud Arbery

February 27, 2020: the Brunswick[GA] District Attorney’s Office and the Glynn County Police Department conducted the initial investigation into the February 23 killing of Ahmaud Arbery.

On this date, the Brunswick district attorney, Jackie L. Johnson, recused herself from the case, pointing out that Gregory McMichael, a former Glynn County police officer, had been a longtime investigator in her office until his retirement in May 2019.  [NYT article] (next B & S and AA, see April 1 or see AA for expanded chronology)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

February 27 Music et al

February 27 – March 19, 1961: “Pony Time” by Chubby Checker #1 Billboard Hot 100.

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism


South Vietnam Leadership

February 27, 1962: South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem survived another coup attempt when Republic of Vietnam Air Force pilots Lieutenants Pham Phu Quoc and Nguyen Van Cu tried to kill him and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu by bombing and strafing the presidential palace. Lieutenant Quoc was arrested after his fighter-bomber crash-landed near Saigon. Lieutenant Cu fled to Cambodia, where he remained until November 1963.  (next V, see July; SVL, see Dec 2)

Walter Cronkite

February 27, 1968: the well-respected CBS TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite, who had just returned from Saigon, told Americans during his CBS Evening News broadcast that he was certain “the bloody experience of Vietnam was to end in a stalemate.” (next Vietnam, see Mar 14; see Cronkite for expanded story)


February 27, 1969: police charged student picket lines, club and arrested two Chicano leaders at U.C. Berkeley; thousands rampage thru nine buildings at U of Wisconsin, Madison over black enrollments. (Vietnam, see March; SA, see April)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Religion and Public Education

February 27 – 28, 1963:  Abington School District v. Schempp argued before the US Supreme Court In her opening statement Madalyn Murray, an atheist, said, in part:

Your petitioners are atheists and they define their beliefs as follows. An atheist loves his fellow man instead of god. An atheist believes that heaven is something for which we should work now – here on earth for all men together to enjoy. An atheist believes that he can get no help through prayer but that he must find in himself the inner conviction and strength to meet life, to grapple with it, to subdue it, and enjoy it. An atheist believes that only in a knowledge of himself and a knowledge of his fellow man can he find the understanding that will help to a life of fulfillment. He seeks to know himself and his fellow man rather than to know a god. An atheist believes that a hospital should be built instead of a church. An atheist believes that a deed must be done instead of a prayer said. An atheist strives for involvement in life and not escape into death. He wants disease conquered, poverty vanquished, war eliminated. He wants man to understand and love man. He wants an ethical way of life. He believes that we cannot rely on a god or channel action into prayer nor hope for an end of troubles in a hereafter. He believes that we are our brother’s keepers and are keepers of our own lives; that we are responsible persons and the job is here and the time is now.” (see June 17, 1963)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Russell C Means

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

February 27, 1973: members of the Lakota Sioux tribe on the Pine Ridge reservation attempted to have Dick Wilson, the Bureau of Indian Affairs-backed head of the tribal administration, impeached, they received resistance from the federal government, which wanted to keep Wilson in power. Led by leader Russell Means, AIM seized control of Wounded Knee (site of the 1890 massacre) and the perimeter is placed under siege for 71 days.  (see Mar 2)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

Rev. Bruce Ritter

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

February 27,1990: the Rev. Bruce Ritter, celebrated leader of Covenant House for teen runaways, stepped down amid a scandal. He denied an accusation of molestation from one youth, but others step forward to accuse him and the Covenant House board reports extensive misconduct. Ritter’s Franciscan superiors in Rome approved a transfer to India, but outrage following a news report about the move forces the plan to be scrapped. 

Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests

In 1991, the first Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests meeting was held at the Holiday Inn,  Chicago.

In 1992, Doubleday Books  published Jason Berry’s Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children. In the forward, Rev. Andrew M. Greeley described the book’s content as revealing “what may be the greatest scandal in the history of religion in America and perhaps the most serious crisis Catholicism has faced since the Reformation” (see In July)

National Review Board

February 27, 2004: the National Review Board, a lay panel formed by Catholic bishops, issued two studies documenting the molestation problem. One was the first church-sanctioned tally of abuse cases, finding 10,667 abuse claims against about 4 percent of all American clerics from 1950 to 2002. The second report puts much of the blame on American bishops for not cracking down on errant priests. (see July 1)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

February 27, 1990: Exxon and its shipping company were indicted on 5 criminal counts for the Exxon Valdez oil spill. (see Mar 22 )

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism


February 27, 1991: President George H. W. Bush announced a ceasefire and that Kuwait had been liberated from Iraqi occupation. (see Mar 17)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH & The Red Scare

February 27, 1997: Frank Wilkinson, once banned from speaking at the University of North Carolina, returned to Chapel Hill to speak at the UNC Law School. (Frank Wilkinson site article) (FS, see December 23, 2003;  RS, see March 21, 1999)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism


February 27, 1998: White House communications aide Sidney Blumenthal refused to answer some of the questions posed before the grand jury, citing the controversy over whether the independent counsel can force aides to testify about conversations they had with the president. (see Clinton for expanded story)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism



February 27, 2014: U.S. District Court Judge John Heyburn ordered Kentucky officials to recognize the marriages of same-sex couples performed out of state.

Heyburn ruled that Kentucky’s Constitution and laws banning recognition of such marriages “violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution, and they are void and unenforceable.” The decision amounted to a final ruling of his Feb. 12 opinion in the case.

Attorney Dan Canon, a lawyer for the four gay and lesbian couples who won the case, said: “We are cautiously optimistic. The order has been granted without qualification and without a stay.”

Walt Disney World

February 27, 2014: Walt Disney World announced that it would no longer subsidize local chapters of the Boy Scouts of America, in response to the national organization’s continued ban on allowing LGBTQ troop leaders. (LGBTQ, see Mar 14; BSA, see May 20)

Catholic grammar school

February 27, 2019: Fr Craig J Maxim, pastor of St Ann Catholic Church and School, sent a letter to the school’s families, faculty, and staff explaining the decision not to permit a same sex couple to enroll their child in the school.

In the letter he stated, “…the Archdiocese states that since same sex unions are not in conformance with the Church’s teaching on sacramental marriage and these unions have no current ability to bring their relationship into conformity, the parents cannot model behaviors and attitudes consistent with the Church’s teachings.” (see Mar 7)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Death Penalty


February 27, 2017: in an attempt to resume the death penalty after a nearly 12-year hiatus Arkansas Gov Asa Hutchinson set execution dates for eight inmates on death row between April 17 and 27. Two men would be put to death on each of the four dates. If Arkansas followed through with that timetable, it would be carrying out the death penalty at a rate unmatched by any state since the United States resumed capital punishment in 1977.

 The hurried schedule appears to be influenced by the expiration of a lethal injection drug in the state’s supply. Arkansas uses three drugs in executions, and its stock of midazolam, a sedative injected to start of the process, would expire in April. Its supply of potassium chloride, the final drug in the series, expired in January, but the state has said it was confident it could acquire more. (Mercury News article) (DP, see Mar 27; Arkansas, see Apr 14)

Madison v Alabama

February 27, 2019: in Madison v Alabama, the US Supreme Court ruled in favor Vernon Madison, a 68-year-old man suffering from severe vascular dementia following multiple life-threatening strokes. The Court held that Mr. Madison, who is legally blind, incontinent, cannot walk without a walker, speaks with slurred speech, and has no memory of the crime or the circumstances that brought him to death row, is entitled to an assessment that recognizes that dementia and other mental conditions are covered by the Eighth Amendment’s ban against cruel and unusual punishment.

In a 5-3 decision written by Justice Elena Kagan, the Court explained that the Eighth Amendment bars executing a person whose mental disorder makes him unable to reach a rational understanding of the reason for his execution.

“The critical question is whether a “prisoner’s mental state is so distorted by a mental illness” that he lacks a “rational understanding” of “the State’s rationale for [his] execution.”  Or similarly put, the issue is whether a “prisoner’s concept of reality” is “so impair[ed]” that he cannot grasp the execution’s “meaning and purpose” or the “link between [his] crime and its punishment.”  [EJI article] (see Mar 13)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Immigrants held without bail hearings

February 27, 2018: the US Supreme Court ruled that people held in immigration detention, sometimes for years, were not entitled to periodic hearings to decide whether they may be released on bail.

The vote was 5 to 3, with the court’s more conservative members in the majority. Justice Stephen G. Breyer summarized his dissent from the bench, a rare move signaling intense disagreement.

The two sides exchanged unusually caustic barbs, mirroring the sharp divisions on immigration policy among lawmakers and members of the public.

Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr., writing for the majority, said the detention of people seeking asylum or fighting deportation was needed to give immigration officials time “to determine an alien’s status without running the risk of the alien’s either absconding or engaging in criminal activity.”

Justice Breyer responded that the decision was most likely “the first time ever” that the Supreme Court had interpreted a federal law to allow the long-term confinement of people held in the United States and accused of misconduct without an opportunity to obtain bail. “An ‘opportunity,’ I might add, does not necessarily mean release, for there may be a risk of flight or harm that would justify denying bail,” he said from the bench. (NYT article

Immigration & Environmental Issue

February 27, 2018: U.S. District Judge Gonzalo Curiel in San Diego once accused by President Donald Trump of being biased against him because he’s “Mexican” and a “hater” paved the way for construction of a section of Trump’s proposed wall along the U.S. southern border.

Curiel sided with the Homeland Security Department, which asserted authority under federal immigration law to waive compliance with environmental protection statutes because 14 miles of existing fencing near San Diego is “no longer optimal for border patrol operations.”

The government had argued in court papers that the law allowing it to sidestep environmental reviews “has been repeatedly upheld in the face of legal challenges.”

California and environmental advocacy groups had claimed in court filings that the 1996 immigration law is unconstitutional. They also alleged the lack of environmental reviews would imperil endangered species including the Quino checkerspot butterfly and the Mexican flannel bush and that federal officials failed to consult, as required, with the state and other affected agencies and parties. [NYT article] (EI, see  Apr 3; IH, see Mar 6)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism


February 27, 2018: the Anti-Defamation League stated that the number of reported anti-Semitic incidents in the United States surged 57 percent in 2017. The organization’s Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents found 1,986 such incidents in 2017, compared with 1,267 in 2016. That increase was the largest in a single year since the A.D.L. began tracking in 1979.

Only once since 1979 has the Anti-Defamation League recorded more incidents: 2,066 in 1994. Since then, the numbers had mostly declined. There were small increases in 2014 and 2015. Then, in 2016, the count began to shoot up. (see Oct 22)

February 27 Peace Love Art Activism

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History/US Labor History

Alien Contract Labor Law

February 26, 1885: Alien Contract Labor Law, also known as the Foran Act, was an act to prohibit the importation and migration of foreigners and aliens under contract or agreement to perform labor in the United States, its Territories, and the District of Columbia. (see Sept 2; Alien Contract Law, see February 7, 1887)


February 26, 2018: the Supreme Court declined to clear the way for the Trump administration to end the Obama-era program that protects about 700,000 young immigrants from deportation, meaning that the so-called “Dreamers” could remain in legal limbo for months unless Congress acted to make their status permanent.

President Trump ended the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, or DACA, program on September 5, 2017, calling it an unconstitutional use of executive power by his predecessor and reviving the threat of deportation for immigrants who had been brought to the United States illegally as young children.

Since then, two federal judges (January 9 & February 13, 2018)  had ordered the administration to maintain major pieces of the program while legal challenges move forward, notably by requiring the administration to allow people enrolled in it to renew their protected status.

The Supreme Court’s decision not to hear the government’s appeal would keep the program alive for months. (IH, see Feb 27; DACA, see Mar 19)

Trump’s Wall

February 26, 2019: the House voted to overturn President Trump’s declaration of a national emergency on the Mexican border, with just 13 Republicans joining Democrats to try to block his effort to divert funding to a border wall without congressional approval.

House Republican leaders kept defections low after feverishly working to assuage concerns among rank-and-file members about protecting congressional powers and about the precedent that Trump could be setting for Democratic presidents to use for their own purposes. (next IH & TW, see In March)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestone

February 26 Peace Love Activism

February 26, 1908: at midnight, service through the Hudson & Manhattan railway tunnels opened to the public, carrying passengers between Manhattan and Hoboken New Jersey. It was the first railroad tunnel under a major river in the U.S. (Hoboken article) (see Sept 26)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism


Mink Slide district

February 26 1946: highway patrolmen entered the Mink Slide district. The officers fired randomly into buildings, stole cash and goods, searched homes without warrants, and took any guns, rifles, and shotguns they could find. When the sweep was over, more than one hundred blacks had been arrested, and about three hundred weapons from the black community had been confiscated. None of the accused were granted bail or allowed legal counsel. (Tennessee article)  (see Feb 28)

Muhammad Ali

February 26, 1964: the day after he defeated Sonny Liston, “Cassius X” announced membership in Nation of Islam. His announcement was a bold step, jeopardizing potential boxing and money-making opportunities. (2017 Time article) (see Mar 6)

Malcolm X

February 26, 1965: police arrested Norman Butler for the murder of Malcolm X.  (MX, see October 15, 1966)

Jimmie Lee Jackson

February 26, 1965:  Jimmie Lee Jackson died at Good Samaritan Hospital in Selma. After his death, Sister Michael Anne, an administrator at Good Samaritan, said there were powder burns on Mr. Jackson’s abdomen, indicating that he was shot at very close range. When civil rights organizer, James Bevel, heard of Jackson’s death he called for a march from Selma to Montgomery to talk to Governor George Wallace about the attack in which Jackson was shot.  (BH, see Mar 1; March to Selma, see Mar 7; Jackson, see September)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical Weapons News

February 26, 1952:  Prime Minister Winston Churchill announced that Britain had developed its own atomic bomb. (see Apr 22)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism


South Korean troops

February 26, 1965: the first contingent of South Korean troops arrived in Saigon. Although assigned to non-combat duties, they came under fire on April 3. The South Korean contingent was part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam. The effort was also known as the “many flags” program. By the close of 1969, there were over 47,800 Korean soldiers actively involved in combat operations in South Vietnam. Seoul began to withdraw its troops in February 1972. (see Mar 1)

My Lai Massacre

February 26, 1971: despite the conclusion that General S W Koster was the motivating force behind the cover-up, charges against Koster were dropped. Koster‘s only reprimand comes in the form of a reduction in rank. (see My Lai for expanded story; Vietnam, see “In March”)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History & Feminism

February 26, 1965: the TWA employees union challenged the forced retirement of stewardesses on this day. These women were also forbidden to marry and were monitored for their weight. This event was one of a number of growing challenges to the discriminatory policies regarding female flight attendants. By the end of the 1970s, the discriminatory practices against them were gone, and the job had the unisex title of Flight Attendant. (Labor, see January 1, 1966; F, see January 20, 1966)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

February 26 Music et al


February 26, 1945: Canned Heat’s Bob Bear Hite born.


February 26 – March 4, 1966: “These Boots Are Made for Walkin’” by Nancy Sinatra #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Cultural Milestone

February 26, 1970: National Public Radio was incorporated. (see February 17, 1972)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues


February 26, 1972: a coal slag heap doubling as a dam in West Virginia’s Buffalo Creek Valley collapsed, flooding the 17-mile long valley. 118 died, 5,000 were left homeless. The Pittston Coal Co. said it was “an act of God” (see June 14)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism


Beirut, Lebanon

February 26, 1984: United States Marines pull out of Beirut, Lebanon. (see Sept 20)

World Trade Center

February 26, 1993: a van packed with a 1,210-pound bomb exploded in the parking garage underneath the World Trade Center. The explosion left a gigantic crater 200 feet wide and caused over 591 million dollars in damage. Six people were killed and more than a thousand injured. (see Mar 4)

Oklahoma City Explosion

February 26, 1998: a federal appeals court affirmed Terry Nichols’ conviction and sentence of life imprisonment without parole.  [USDOS article] (see May 27)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Iran–Contra Affair

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

February 26, 1988: the Tower Commission rebuked U.S. President Ronald Reagan for not controlling his National Security Council staff. (see Mar 4)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism


Ben-Shalom v. Stone

February 26, 1990: refusing to consider the cases of Ben-Shalom v. Stone and Woodward v. U.S., the U.S. Supreme Court effectively upheld the right of the American military to discharge gays and lesbians of the armed forces. (see May 17)

Texas ban on same-sex marriage

February 26, 2014:  in San Antonio, U.S. District Judge Orlando Garcia overturned the Texas ban on same-sex marriage ruling that the prohibition was unconstitutional and stigmatized the relationship of gay couples. The ruling did not allow same-sex couples to immediately marry because the judge stayed the injunction pending any appeal.

Garcia ruled that the state’s ban deprived same sex couples of due process and equal protection, stigmatizing their relationships and treating them differently from opposite-sex couples. “Today’s court decision is not made in defiance of the great people of Texas or the Texas Legislature, but in compliance with the U.S. Constitution and Supreme Court precedent,” Garcia said. (see Feb 27)

Zarda v. Altitude Express

February 26, 2018: the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in Manhattan ruled that federal civil rights law bars employers from discriminating based on sexual orientation.

The case, which stemmed from the 2010 dismissal of Donald Zarda, a Long Island sky-diving instructor, was a setback for the Trump Justice Department, whose lawyers found themselves in the unusual position of arguing against government lawyers from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

The E.E.O.C. had argued that Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which bars workplace discrimination based on “race, color, religion, sex or national origin,” protected gay employees from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.

But the Trump Justice Department took the position that the law did not reach sexual orientation, and said the E.E.O.C. was “not speaking for the United States.”

Chief judge, Robert A. Katzmann wrote (and was joined, in part or whole, by nine other judges ): “We see no principled basis for recognizing a violation of Title VII for associational discrimination based on race but not on sex. Sexual orientation discrimination is a subset of sex discrimination because sexual orientation is defined by one’s sex in relation to the sex of those to whom one is attracted, making it impossible for an employer to discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation without taking sex into account.”

Zarda died in a jumping accident on October 3, 2014 in Switzerland after the suit was filed. (see Mar 6)

United Methodist Church

February 26, 2019:  the United Methodist Church voted to strengthen its ban on gay and lesbian clergy and same-sex marriages, a decision that could split the nation’s second-largest Protestant church.

After three days of intense debate at a conference in St. Louis, the vote by church officials and lay members from around the world doubled down on current church policy, which states that “the practice of homosexuality is incompatible with Christian teaching.” The vote served as a rejection of a push by progressive members and leaders to open the church to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.

Now, a divide of the United Methodist Church, which has 12 million members worldwide, appears imminent. Some pastors and bishops in the United States are already talking about leaving the denomination and possibly creating a new alliance for gay-friendly churches. (see Feb 27)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism


February 26, 1991: Saddam Hussein announced the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they retreated. (see Feb 27)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

February 26, 1992: the Supreme Court of Ireland ruled that a 14-year-old rape victim may travel to England to have an abortion. (see Apr 5)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism


February 26, 1998: White House senior communications aide Sidney Blumenthal testified before the grand jury, answering questions about any role he may have played in spreading negative information about investigators in Independent Counsel Ken Starr’s office. Fourteen Democrats in the House write Attorney General Janet Reno complaining about subpoenas issued by Starr. A non-profit group that studies women in the workplace says it will contribute $10,000 as seed money for a legal defense fund for Lewinsky. (see Clinton for expanded story)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism


Trayvon Martin Shooting

February 26, 2012: George Zimmerman, a neighborhood watch captain, shot and killed Trayvon Martin, 17. Zimmerman told police he fired in self-defense. Zimmerman confronted the teen after calling 911 and reporting Martin as a “suspicious person.” Though a dispatcher told Zimmerman not to follow the teen, Zimmerman confronted him nevertheless, police said. Martin died from a gunshot wound to the chest. (Stand Your Ground, see Mar 14; Trayvon, see Mar 21)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism


Washington, D.C

February 26, 2015: after months of debate, threats and uncertainty, recreational marijuana became legal in Washington, D.C., at least according to the city government. Adults 21 and over could legally use marijuana, possess up to two ounces and grow up to six marijuana plants in their homes for personal use. Marijuana sales remained illegal, but the District Council was considering a bill that would regulate and tax marijuana sales, similar to laws in Colorado and Washington state. Because of the city’s unique oversight by Congress, it was unclear if any measure legalizing marijuana sales and regulation could go into effect before 2016. (next Cannabis, see May 3 or see CCC for expanded chronology)

Washington v Sessions

February 26, 2018:  in Washington v Sessions, Judge Alvin K. Hellerstein of Federal District Court in Manhattan tossed out a lawsuit that sought to make marijuana legal under federal law, ruling that the plaintiffs had failed to take the necessary first step of asking the Drug Enforcement Administration to remove cannabis from its list of dangerous substances.

The ruling was a defeat for the plaintiffs — among them a former professional football player who owns a company that sells pot-based pain relievers, a 12-year-old girl who treats her chronic epilepsy with medical marijuana and a nonprofit group that works on behalf of minorities in the marijuana industry. (next Cannabis, see Mar 27 or see CCC for expanded chronology)

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism
Internment artwork defaced

February 26, 2020: Seattle artist Erin Shigaki had created the art installation “Never Again Is Now,” which included an 11-foot-tall mural of two children photographed at a California incarceration camp.

On this date, the Seattle Times reported that Bellevue College had apologized after Gayle Colston Barge, vice president of institutional advancement altered a mural of two Japanese American children in a World War II incarceration camp by whiting out a reference to anti-Japanese agitation by Eastside businessman Miller Freeman and others in the artist’s accompanying description.

Bellevue President Jerry Weber’s letter of apology read, “It was a mistake to alter the artist’s work. Removing the reference gave the impression that the administrator was attempting to remove or rewrite history, a history that directly impacts many today … Editing artistic works changes the message and meaning of the work.”

February 26 Peace Love Art Activism

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Pavonia Massacre

February 25, 1642: New Netherlands Governor-Director  Willem Kieft led a raiding party against a helpless groups of Lenape Algonquins seeking refuge from rival Iroquois invaders. The mass killing was called the “Pavonia massacre,” and it prompted a full-scale retaliation from surrounding Algonquin tribes that utterly decimated the fledgling new colony. A report read…

“Infants were torn from their mother’s breasts, and hacked to pieces in the presence of their parents, and pieces thrown into the fire and in the water, and other sucklings, being bound to small boards, were cut, stuck, and pierced, and miserably massacred in a manner to move a heart of stone. Some were thrown into the river, and when the fathers and mothers endeavored to save them, the soldiers would not let them come on land but made both parents and children drown…” (Indian Country Today article) (see June 24, 1675)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism


 Hiram R. Revels

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1870: Southern Democrats failed in their attempt to exclude Revels from the Senate and he  became the first black member of the United States Senate as he was sworn in to serve out the unexpired term of Jefferson Davis. [House dot Gov bio] (see Mar 31)

James Stephenson

February 25 1946: James Stephenson, a U.S. Navy veteran from the Pacific theater, accompanied his mother, Gladys Stephenson, to a local department store to pick up a radio that Mrs. Stephenson had left for repairs. She and a young white male clerk began to argue about the repair order; he became verbally aggressive, threatening her. James Stephenson stepped between the two and struggled with the clerk, who ended up crashing through a window in the department store. Local police arrested both Stephensons for disturbing the peace. They pleaded guilty and paid a fifty-dollar fine.

The incident was seemingly over until, on that same day, the police again arrested James Stephenson, this time due to a warrant brought by the white clerk’s father. The new warrant charged Stephenson with assault with the intent to commit murder, a felony. Julius Blair, a local black businessman, posted bond, however, and Stephenson was able to return home that evening.

A white mob gathered around the Maury County Courthouse. A block south, along the segregated black business section known as the Mink Slide, black citizens and military veterans gathered as well. The Columbia police chief sent four patrolmen to the Mink Slide. Someone shouted for the officers to stop; when they failed to do so, shots were fired, leaving all four wounded. Within hours, state highway patrolmen and the state safety commissioner, Lynn Bomar, arrived in town. Together with some of the town’s whites, they surrounded the Mink Slide district. (see Feb 26)

Alabama State College

February 25, 1960: six students at the Alabama State College for Negroes, a state operated institution of higher learning for prospective Negro school teachers. along with 20 other students entered a publicly owned lunch grill in the basement of the courthouse in Montgomery, and asked to be served. Service was refused and the lunchroom was closed. “The Negroes refused to leave,” and police were called. (see Greensboro for expanded story [see Greensboro 4 for expanded story]

Muhammad Ali

February 25, 1964: Clay, with a record of 19-0, fought the hard hitting and much-feared heavyweight champion, Sonny Liston. Clay said, “Sonny Liston is nothing. The man can’t talk. The man can’t fight. The man needs talking lessons. The man needs boxing lessons. And since he’s gonna fight me, he needs falling lessons.” Despite being a 7-1 underdog, Ali upsets Sonny Liston to win the world heavyweight championship at age 22. (NYT article) (see Feb 26)

Judicial Milestone

February 25, 1987: in the United States v Paradise, the US Supreme Court upheld a one-for-one promotion requirement (i.e., for every white candidate promoted, a qualified African American would also be promoted) in the Alabama Department of Public Safety, finding it to be narrowly tailored and necessary to eliminate the effects of Alabama’s long-term discrimination which the lower court had found “blatant and continuous.” (see June 30, 2014)

Rodney King

February 25 Peace Love Activism

February 25, 1993: trial of Sgt. Stacey Koon and officers Laurence Michael Powell, Timothy Wind, and Theodore Briseno began. (King, see Mar 9)

James Byrd murder

February 25, 1999: John William King sentenced to death. [2018 loses appeal] (BH, see June 30; Byrd, see September 21, 2011; King, see April 24, 2019)

Amadou Diallo

February 25, 2000: after two days of deliberations, a jury in Albany acquitted the officers of all charges. [NY Daily News article] (see Apr 18)

Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers

February 25, 2010: Edgar Ray Killen, serving a 60-year sentence after his 2005 manslaughter convictions in the deaths of Michael Schwerner, James Chaney and Andrew Goodman, filed a federal lawsuit seeking millions of dollars in damages and a declaration that the FBI violated his rights were violated when it allegedly used a gangster during its investigation. Killen claimed the FBI conspired to suppress his rights to “defend his society and culture.” (BH, see Sept 6; see Murders expanded story)

Alabama State College sit-in

February 25, 2010:  in a ceremony commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the 1960 sit-in, Alabama State University (formerly Alabama State College) President William Harris reinstated the nine students, criticized former Governor Patterson‘s “arbitrary, illegal and intrusive” role in forcing the expulsions, and praised the student protest as “an important moment in civil rights history.” (BH, see May 11)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Chinese immigrants

February 25, 1886:  during the second half of the nineteenth century, an increase in mining activity and railroad construction led to a massive influx of Chinese immigrants into Washington Territory, which later became the State of Idaho. By 1870, Idaho was home to more than four thousand Chinese residents, and they comprised nearly 30 percent of the population. “Chinatowns” existed in many Idaho cities, and the new immigrants formed thriving communities.

Chinese immigrants in Idaho faced severe hostility, which manifested in discriminatory statutes, disparate treatment in courts, and even violence. In 1866, the Idaho Territorial Legislature levied a tax of five dollars per month on all Chinese residents. Chinese residents were not permitted to testify against whites in court, and acts of violence committed against the Chinese were rarely investigated or punished. Idaho public sentiment against the Chinese culminated in an anti-Chinese convention held in Boise on February 25, 1886. At the convention, white residents of Idaho voted to expel Chinese citizens.

In the decades following, white Idaho residents undertook a campaign of violent removal of Idaho’s Chinese population. Mobs frequently destroyed Chinese homes and businesses, and in 1887, a white mob murdered thirty-one Chinese miners in the Hell’s Canyon Massacre.

During the 1890s and 1900s, a number of towns including Bonners Ferry, Clark Fork, Hoodoo, Moscow, and Twin Falls forcibly expelled their Chinese residents. By 1910, Idaho’s once-thriving Chinese population had nearly disappeared. (see February 7, 1887)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism


Robert Mitchum

February 25, 1949:  actor Robert Mitchum was released from a Los Angeles County prison farm after spending the final week of his two-month sentence for marijuana possession there. In the fall of 1948, Mitchum, the star of classics such as Cape Fear and Night of the Hunter, was smoking a joint at a small party in the Laurel Canyon area of Los Angeles when detectives burst in and arrested him. There is some reason to believe that Mitchum’s arrest was less than fair and designed to bring publicity to the Los Angeles Police Department’s anti-drug efforts. Although high-priced studio lawyers questioned irregularities in the case, it was later agreed that Mitchum would accept 60 days in jail and several years’ probation. (next Cannabis, see November 2, 1951 or see CC for expanded chronology)

Marijuana dispensaries

February 25, 2009:  Attorney General Eric Holder’s issued a statement that the Drug Enforcement Administration would end its raids on state-approved marijuana dispensaries. The new policy represented a significant turnabout for the federal government. During the Bush administration, DEA agents shut down 30 to 40 marijuana dispensaries. (see Oct 19)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism


Hoa Binh

February 25, 1952: after more than three months of the French Union forces attempting to lure the Việt Minh out into the open and to force it to fight on French terms the  French colonial forces evacuated Hoa Binh in Indochina. (see May 20, 1953)

Pete Seeger

February 25, 1968: Pete Seeger re-appeared on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Show and CBS permitted him to sing Waist Deep in the Big Muddy. (Smothers Brothers, see April 4, 1969)

My Lai Massacre

February, 25, 1968: the 1st and 2nd Platoons of Charlie Company stumbled across a minefield, killing three men and wounding a dozen more. The month of February had been devastating for Charlie Company. Frustration and anger from the loss of their companions led to aggression from traumatized soldiers. Lieutenant Calley was a member of Charlie Company. (Vietnam, see Feb 27;  see My Lai for expanded story)

Muhammad Ali

February 25, 1970:  the US Supreme Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (New Orleans) turned down Ali’s request that his appeal from a conviction for refusing to be inducted into the Army be heard by all 15 judges of the court meaning that a regular three judge panel would hear the case. (NYT article) (Ali, see Oct 26; Vietnam, see Mar 6)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

February 25 Music at al

Roots of Rock

February 25, 1957: Buddy Holly and the Crickets recorded “That’ll Be The Day.” The song would be their first hit. A previously recorded version, on July 22, 1956, had poor production and different vocals. (next RoR, see July 6)

Bob Dylan

February 25, 1964: Dylan appeared on the Steve Allen Show. Dylan’s discomfort with interviews was easily seen and when asked about his song, “The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll” Dylan’s response was to sing the song. (see June 9)

Los Angeles Acid Test

February 25, 1966: Acid Test in Los Angeles.Hollywood. Cinema Theatre. (see Los Angeles Acid Test  for more) (next LSD, see March 19)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism


February 25, 1961:  Kuwait independent from United Kingdom. (see Apr 27)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical Weapons News

February 25, 1962: five thousand people stood shivering in Trafalgar Square in London at a rally organized by the British anti-war group Committee of 100. (CW, see April; NN, see Apr 25)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

February 25, 1970: a grand jury indicted Silous Huddleson, president of Local 3228 of the United Mine Workers in the murder of Joseph Yablonski. (Labor, see Mar 18; Yablonski, see April 11, 1972)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

February 25, 1987: the US Supreme Court, in CALIFORNIA ET AL. v. CABAZON BAND OF MISSION INDIANS ET AL, on the development of Native American gaming. The Supreme Court’s decision effectively overturned the existing laws restricting gaming/gambling on U.S. Indian reservations.. (NA, see June 24; Gaming, see October 17, 1988)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Terri Schiavo


February 25, 1990: Terri Schiavo collapsed in her St. Petersburg, Florida home in full cardiac arrest. She suffered massive brain damage due to lack of oxygen and after two and a half months in a coma, her diagnosis was a vegetative state. (see April 21, 2001)


February 25, 2005, a Pinellas County (FL) judge ordered the removal of Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube. Several appeals and federal government intervention followed, which included President Bush signing legislation designed to keep her alive. (CBS News picture essay)  (see Mar 18)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism


February 25, 1991: an Iraqi Scud missile hit a U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 Americans. [NYT article] (see Feb 26)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

February 25, 1993: Michigan Governor John Engler signed  legislation banning assisted suicide. It made aiding in a suicide a four-year felony but allowed the law to expire after a blue-ribbon commission studied permanent legislation. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism


February 25, 1998: White House lawyers prepared legal briefs to defend the administration’s position that executive privilege should shield several of President Bill Clinton’s top aides from certain questions in the Lewinsky investigation. (see Clinton for expanded story)

February 25 Peace Love Art Activism