Tag Archives: February Peace Love Art Activism

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Judicial Milestone

February 24, 1803: Chief Justice John Marshall of the US Supreme Court ruled in Marbury v. Madison that any act of Congress that conflicts with the Constitution is null and void, thereby establishing the doctrine of judicial review. (Oyez article) (see February 20, 1809)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Siwinowe Kesibwi

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1835: “Siwinowe Kesibwi” (The Shawnee Sun) was issued as the first Indian language monthly publication in the U.S.  [Kansaedia article]

American bison

February 24 Peace Love Activism

1850s – 1870s: systematic military campaigns to destroy subsistence base of Plains people. e.g. near extinction of American bison. [Once numbering in the hundreds of millions in North America and basis of life for the Plains Indians, the population of the American Bison decreased to less than 1000 by 1890.] (see July 23, 1851)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Kentucky

February 24, 1865: Kentucky, a border state, remained in the Union but the state’s legislature did not fully support President Abraham Lincoln or his Republican administration because lawmakers worried that Lincoln would abolish slavery. Throughout 1861, Lincoln assured Kentuckians he had no intention of interfering with the state’s “domestic institutions.” In March 1862, Lincoln proposed a plan of gradual emancipation for the border states, offering to compensate slaveholders who released their slaves. When the congressional delegations for the border states turned down that offer, Lincoln issued a draft Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862 and signed the final version on January 1, 1863.

Kentucky legislators opposed all efforts to abolish slavery, and on February 24, 1865, the Kentucky General Assembly rejected the Thirteenth Amendment. Prominent politicians and other public figures harshly criticized President Lincoln and members of Congress, and the Kentucky legislature expressed their disapproval of the amendment’s adoption by politically siding with the former Confederacy throughout the post-Civil War era. Kentucky did not officially adopt the Thirteenth Amendment until 1976. (see July 5)

U.S. Sen. Harry F. Byrd Sr.

February 24, 1956: U.S. Sen. Harry F. Byrd Sr. called for a policy of massive resistance to unite white leaders in Virginia in their campaign to preserve segregation.

Virginia passed laws to deny state funds to any integrated school. After the courts ordered desegregation in a few schools, Gov. James Lindsay Almond Jr. ordered those schools closed. The courts eventually ordered the reopening of those schools. [Civil Rights article] (see Feb 29)

Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1965: Federal Judge William Harold Cox, an ardent segregationist, threw out the indictments against all conspirators other than Lawrence Rainey and Cecil Price on the ground that the other seventeen were not acting “under color of state law.” (see KKK Kills for expanded story)

Oscar voters

February 24, 2012: The Los Angeles Times published a study claiming that more than 90 percent of Oscar voters were white, and more than three-quarters were male. The statistics raised questions about whether minorities and women were getting fair chances of winning awards. [LA Times article] (see Mar 22)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Muller v. Oregon

February 24, 1908: in Muller v. Oregon, the US Supreme Court upheld a law limiting the workday to ten hours for women. Curt Muller, the owner of a laundry business, had been convicted of violating Oregon labor laws by making a female employee work more than ten hours in a single day. Muller was fined $10. Muller appealed to the Oregon Supreme Court and then to the U.S. Supreme Court, both of which upheld the constitutionality of the labor law and affirmed his conviction. (Oyez article)  (next Feminism, see July 21, 1908)

Voting Rights

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1919: National Women’s Party members picketed President Wilson in Boston upon his return from Europe. They carried banners reminding him of his pledge to support suffrage amendment and lobby him to pressure Senate to pass amendment before the March 3 recess. Twenty-one demonstrators arrested and sentenced to eight days in Charles Street jail, last women imprisoned for suffrage. [NWP site] (see Mar 4)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Fourth Amendment

February 24, 1914: Weeks v. United States, the United States Supreme Court unanimously held that the warrantless seizure of items from a private residence constituted a violation of the Fourth Amendment. It also prevented local officers from securing evidence by means prohibited under the federal exclusionary rule and giving it to their federal colleagues. [Oyez article] (see March 2, 1925)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAY

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1918:   Estonia independence from the Russian Empire. (see May 26)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Child Labor Tax Law

February 24, 1919: Congress passed the Child Labor Tax Law which imposed an excise tax of 10 percent on the net profits of a company that employed children. The law defined child labor as “under the age of sixteen in any mine or quarry, and under the age of fourteen in any mill, cannery, workshop, factory, or manufacturing establishment.”

The definition also included the use of children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who worked more than eight hours a day or more than six days a week, or who worked between the hours of 7:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. (LH, see Aug 26; Child Labor, see September 21, 1921)

Hilda Solis

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 2009: The US Senate confirmed Hilda Solis the Secretary of Labor by a vote of 80–17. Solis became the first Hispanic woman to serve as a regular U.S. cabinet secretary and the first cabinet secretary with Central American descent. [Latinaovations article] (see January 22, 2010)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Fear of Rock 

February 24, 1956: the city of Cleveland invoked a 1931 law that barred people under the age of 18 from dancing in public without an adult guardian. (see Apr 3)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

Academy Awards

February 24, 1957: the Academy Awards committee, it was reported on this day, voted to deny eligibility for an Oscar to anyone who either admitted to being a member of the Communist Party or who refused to cooperate with an official legislative investigating committee. The new rule, passed at the last minute, was directed at Michael Wilson, screenwriter for the film, Friendly Persuasion, which was under consideration for several Oscars, including best screenplay. Wilson was named an “unfriendly witness” by HUAC in its investigation of alleged Communist influence in Hollywood.

Wilson had a distinguished career before being blacklisted. He contributed to the famous film, It’s A Wonderful Life, and shared an Oscar for the acclaimed film, A Place in the Sun. After being blacklisted, he anonymously contributed to the scripts for Bridge on the River Kwai and Lawrence of Arabia. He was eventually allowed to work under his own name and wrote the script for the original version of Planet of the Apes (which includes a wicked parody of the House Un-American Activities Committee; see February 8, 1968; next CW, see Mar 27)

Raúl Castro

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 2008: Raúl Castro was unanimously elected President of Cuba by the National Assembly  and replaced his brother Fidel Castro. (see December 17, 2014)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

STUDENT ACTIVISM

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1969: students occupied Administration building at Penn State (see Feb 24)

Tinker v Des Moines

February 24, 1969: Tinker v. Des Moines  Students do not leave their rights at the schoolhouse door. To protest the Vietnam War, Mary Beth Tinker and her brother wore black armbands to school. Fearing a disruption, the administration prohibited wearing such armbands. The Tinkers were removed from school when they failed to comply, but the Supreme Court ruled that their actions were protected by the First Amendment. (see Tinker for expanded story)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 1988: the U.S. Supreme Court voted 8-0 to overturn the $200,000 settlement awarded to the Reverend Jerry Falwell for his emotional distress at being parodied in Hustler, a pornographic magazine. (see June 21, 1989)

In 1983, Hustler had run a piece parodying Falwell’s first sexual experience as a drunken, incestuous, childhood encounter with his mother in an outhouse. Falwell, an important religious conservative and founder of the Moral Majority political advocacy group, sued Hustler and its publisher, Larry Flynt, for libel. Falwell won the case, but Flynt appealed, leading to the Supreme Court’s hearing the case because of its constitutional implications.The Supreme Court unanimously overturned the lower court’s decision, ruling that, although in poor taste, Hustler’s parody fell within the First Amendment’s protection of freedom of speech and the press.

The Court: “We conclude that public figures and public officials may not recover for the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress by reason of publications such as the one here at issue without showing, in addition, that the publication contains a false statement of fact which was made with ‘actual malice,’ i.e., with knowledge that the statement was false or with reckless disregard as to whether or not it was true.” (see Dec 23)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

George W. Bush

February 24, 2004: President George W. Bush announced that he supported a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. He did not specifically endorse the wording proposed by Representative Marilyn Musgrave which had been questioned for the likelihood of also prohibiting states the ability to recognize same-sex civil unions and domestic partnerships. However, he did say that the wording to Musgrave’s amendment “meets his principles” in protecting the “sanctity of marriage” between men and women. (see Mar 7)

Attorney General Eric H. Holder

February 24, 2014:  Attorney General Eric H. Holder said that state attorneys general who believe that laws in their states banning same-sex marriage were discriminatory were not obligated to defend them. Mr. Holder was careful not to encourage his state counterparts to disavow their own laws, but his position, which he described in an interview with The New York Times, injected the Obama administration into the debate over gay marriage playing out in court cases in many states. [NYT article] (see Feb 26)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Hurricane Katrina

February 24, 2010: Katina shootings: Officer Michael Lohman, who had encouraged the officers to provide false stories in the shooting incident entered a plea of guilty to obstruction of justice in federal court. [NOLA article] (see Mar 11)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Marijuana

February 24 Peace Love Activism

February 24, 2015:  Alaska became the third U.S. state to end prohibition of marijuana, officially putting into effect Ballot Measure 2, approved by 53 percent of state voters in November.

Alaskans age 21 and older could legally possess up to one ounce of marijuana, grow as many as six marijuana plants in their homes (with no more than three flowering), and possess any additional marijuana produced by those plants. [Vox dot com article] (see Feb 26)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Trayvon Martin Shooting

February 24, 2015: US Justice Department officials met with Trayvon Martin’s family and told them that it will not be filing charges against George Zimmerman, who shot their son after a confrontation in 2012. Federal prosecutors concluded there was not sufficient evidence to prove Zimmerman, a neighborhood watchman in Sanford, Fla., intentionally violated Martin’s civil rights.  (see December 16, 2017)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

February 24, 2015: President Obama rejected an attempt by lawmakers to force his hand on the Keystone XL oil pipeline, using his veto pen to sweep aside one of the first major challenges to his authority by the new Republican Congress.

With a 104-word letter to the Senate, Mr. Obama vetoed legislation to authorize construction of a 1,179-mile pipeline that would carry 800,000 barrels of heavy petroleum a day from the oil sands of Alberta to ports and refineries on the Gulf Coast.

In exercising the unique power of the Oval Office for only the third time since his election in 2008, Mr. Obama accused lawmakers of seeking to circumvent the administration’s approval process for the pipeline by cutting short “consideration of issues that could bear on our national interest.” [NYT article] (see Mar 4)

February 24 Peace Love Art Activism
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February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

February 23 Peace Love Activism

February 23, 1875:  the National Marine Engineers Association (now the Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association), representing deck and engine officers on U.S. flag vessels, formed at a convention in Cleveland, Ohio. (MEBA site history) (see Nov 24)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

San Francisco Examiner

February 23 Peace Love Activism

February 23, 1904: William Randolph Hearst’s San Francisco Examiner began publishing articles on the menace of Japanese laborers, leading to a resolution in the California legislature that action be taken against their immigration  (see February 20, 1907)

Obama appeal

February 23, 2015: the Department of Justice officially filed an appeal and a request for a stay of a judge’s recent decision to block President Barack Obama’s executive actions on immigration.

The appeal would overturn U.S. District Court Judge Andrew Hanen’s order the previous week to halt Obama’s policies from moving forward. A request for a stay was filed separately and would, if granted, allow Obama’s actions to be implemented even while a case brought by 26 states against the federal government works its way through the courts. (see May 26)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio

February 23, 1915: the state government of Ohio had passed a statute in 1913 forming a board of censors which had the duty of reviewing and approving all films intended to be exhibited in the state. The board charged a fee for the approval service. The board could order the arrest of anyone showing an unapproved film in the state. In Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio, on this date, the Supreme Court ruled 9-0 vote that the free speech protection of the Ohio Constitution — which was substantially similar to the First Amendment of the United States Constitution — did not extend to motion pictures. (FS, see March 3, 1919; motion pictures, see May 26, 1952)

Nationalist Socialist Party

February 23 Peace Love Activism

February 23, 1978: Judge Bernard Decker of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois issued an order ruling that the three ordinances adopted by the Skokie Village Board aimed at preventing Frank Collin and his Nationalist Socialist party sympathizers from marching in Skokie were unconstitutional as violative of the 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (see Mar 17)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

February 23 Music et al

see News Music for more

February 23 Peace Love Activism

February 23, 1940: Woody Guthrie wrote the lyrics to ‘This Land Is Your Land‘ in his room at the Hanover House Hotel in New York City. He would not record the song until 1944. It was a musical response to Irving Berlin’s “God Bless America”: “We can’t just bless America, we’ve got to change it.”

Guthrie stated: “I am out to sing songs that will prove to you that this is your world…that make you take pride in yourself and your work. And the songs that I sing are made up for the most part by all sorts of folks just about like you.”

Almanac Singers

In 1941: the Almanac Singers (Millard Lampell, Lee Hays, Pete Seeger, and Woody Guthrie) released Talking Union, an album containing pro-union songs. One was Florence Reece’s Which Side Are You On? Another was I Don’t Want Your Millions, Mister (written by Jim Garland), a song that is used today by Occupy Wall Street protestors.

During World War II, Guthrie printed the words, “This Machine Kills Fascists” on his guitar as a sign of his support of the war cause. Shortly afterwards, Pete Seeger printed the words, “This Machine Surrounds hate and Forces It to Surrender” on his banjo. Current guitarist, Tom Morello, often uses a guitar with the words, “Arm the Homeless” printed on it.

Abel Meeropol

In 1945: Abel Meeropol, writer of “Strange Fruit,” was an active member of the American Communist Party [he and his wife adopted the two orphaned sons, Michael and Robert, of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg after their execution in 1953]. Meeropol taught at the De Witt Clinton High School in the Bronx for 27 years, but continued to write songs, including Frank Sinatra’s 1945 hit, The House I Live In with Earl Robinson.  (Spartacus article)

The House I Live In” was a 1945 short film written by Albert Maltz and made by producer Frank Ross and actor Frank Sinatra to oppose anti-Semitism and prejudice at the end of World War II.  It received a special Academy Award in 1946.  (archive article) (see December 31, 1945)

Fear of Rock

February 23, 1955:  “A Warning to the Music Business,” Variety magazine: “Music ‘leer-ics’ are touching new lows and . . . policing, if you will, [has] to come from more responsible sources. Meaning the . . . record manufacturers and their network daddies. . . . It won’t wash for them to . . . justify their ‘leer-ic’ garbage by declaring ‘that’s what kids want’ or ‘that’s the only thing that sells today.” (Rock, see Mar 19; FoR, see Aug 21)

Oliver Nelson

February 23, 1961: “Blues and the Abstract Truth” released by Oliver Nelson. Recorded at Van Gelder Studio, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

The Beatles

February 23 Peace Love Activism

February 23, 1964: their 3rd appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show, but not live. The Beatles had taped previously their third show. Songs performed for the show were: Twist and Shout, Please, Please Me, and I Want to Hold Your Hand. (see Feb 28)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

Calvin Graham

February 23, 1943: the USS South Dakota reported that Graham had been absent over leave since February 20, 1943. (see Graham for expanded story)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War/Vietnam

SEATO

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

February 23, 1955:  at the first council meeting of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles declared the United States is committed to defending the region from communist aggression. The meeting, and American participation in SEATO, set the stage for the U.S. to take a more active role in Vietnam. (CW, see May 14; next Vietnam, see Apr 27)

Vietnam

February 23, 1966:  according to the U.S. military headquarters in Saigon, 90,000 South Vietnamese deserted in 1965. This number was almost 14 percent of total South Vietnamese army strength and was twice the number of those that had deserted in 1964. By contrast, the best estimates showed that fewer than 20,000 Viet Cong had defected during the previous year. (see Mar 5)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

February 23, 1961: the National Council of Churches represented the major Protestant religious denominations and, in the 1960s, became increasingly active on social issues, particularly civil rights. The support for birth control announced on this day reflected the strong consensus of opinion among Protestants on this issue. The NCC statement, however, unequivocally condemned abortion as destroying human life. The attitudes of Protestants and the major Protestant denominations on abortion would change dramatically in the next decade. (see August 18, 1962)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

IRAQ War I

February 23, 1991: President George H.W. Bush announced that the allied ground offensive against Iraqi forces had begun. (see Feb 25)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

February 23, 1998: there was more legal wrangling over when Marcia Lewis, Lewinsky’s mother, will resume her grand jury testimony. Her lawyer, Billy Martin, said she was “going through hell.” (see Clinton for expanded story)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

James Byrd

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

February 23, 1999: a jury in Jasper, Texas, convicted white supremacist John William King of murder in the dragging death of James Byrd Jr. (BH & Byrd, see Feb 25)

Emmett Till

February 23, 2007: a grand jury refused to bring any new charges in the 1955 slaying of Emmett Till, District Attorney Joyce Chiles had sought a manslaughter charge against the white woman, Carolyn Bryant Donham, who was suspected of pointing out Till to her husband to punish the him.

The grand jury issued a “no bill,” meaning it had found insufficient evidence.

Federal authorities had decided in 2006 not to prosecute anyone, saying the statute of limitations for federal charges had run out. Mississippi authorities represented the last, best hope of bringing someone to justice. No one had ever been convicted in the slaying. (BH, see Mar 16; see ET for expanded chronology)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

Dissolution of Yugoslavia

February 23, 2001: a U.N. war crimes tribunal convicted three Bosnian Serbs on charges of rape and torture in the first case of wartime sexual enslavement to go before an international court. (see June 28)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

February 23, 2010: the US Navy officially announced that it would end its ban of women in submarines. [ABC News article] (see October 9, 2012)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

February 23, 2011: President Obama stated his administration would no longer defend the Defense of Marriage Act, which banned the recognition of same-sex marriage. [NYT article] (see March 16, 2011)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism

Fair Housing

February 23, 2018:  the National Fair Housing Alliance (NFHA) announced that it had settled a lawsuit with Travelers Indemnity Company.  The settlement guaranteed that Washington, DC landlords would not be denied commercial insurance coverage from Travelers simply because their apartments were rented to people who use Housing Choice Vouchers, also known as Section 8. In Washington, DC, Housing Choice Voucher participants were disproportionately African-American and women-headed households with children.

As part of the agreement, Travelers paid $450,000 to NFHA for damages, costs, and fees, and Travelers agreed that it would not ask about the source of income of residents at DC properties it considers insuring. (see Mar 5)

February 23 Peace Love Art Activism
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February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Act to Regulate…

February 22, 1847: the US Congress enacted an Act to regulate the Carriage of Passengers in Merchant Vessels. Ships brought US products to Europe often used “passengers” as ballast for the return trip. In other words, the ship treated the passengers as cargo, not as people. Thousands became sick and died, particularly of typhus. This act was an attempt to curb such mistreatment.

Because of the Act’s limitations, ship owners increased their trips from Europe to Canada to bypass the law. The increase did not mean better conditions, but rather mean more crowded conditions and more deaths.

On August 15, 1909 the Ancient Order of Hiberians dedicated a Celtic Cross on the Grosse Island the site of a quarantine station and the site of graves for 5,000 Irish immigrants who had died at the station. (next IH, see January 31, 1848)

Nation of immigrants

February 22, 2108: the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services stopped characterizing the United States as “a nation of immigrants.”

Agency director, L. Francis Cissna informed employees that its mission statement had been revised to “guide us in the years ahead.” Gone was the phrase that described the agency as securing “America’s promise as a nation of immigrants.”

The original mission statement, created in 2005, said,: “U.S.C.I.S. secures America’s promise as a nation of immigrants by providing accurate and useful information to our customers, granting immigration and citizenship benefits, promoting an awareness and understanding of citizenship, and ensuring the integrity of our immigration system.”

The new version says: “U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services administers the nation’s lawful immigration system, safeguarding its integrity and promise by efficiently and fairly adjudicating requests for immigration benefits while protecting Americans, securing the homeland and honoring our values.”

Cissna’s mother immigrated to the United States from Peru and his wife’s mother came from the Middle East. He grew up speaking Spanish at home and speaks it exclusively with his children. (see Feb 26)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Frazier Baker lynched

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22, 1898: Frazier Baker, an African American who had recently been appointed postmaster of Lake City, S.C., and his infant daughter, Julia, were killed and his wife and three other daughters were maimed for life when a lynch mob set after them. Citizens of the small town of 500 residents set fire to the post office, where the Bakers lived, and shot them as they ran out.

The accused were indicted on twenty-four counts including “a conspiracy to injure and oppress Frazier B. Baker in the free exercise” of his civil rights.

Twenty-three of the counts charged conspiracy, but the count for the destruction of the mail did not. The trial started on April 10, 1899 in the Federal District Court of Charleston, South Carolina. Three of the men were found not guilty and the all-white jury remained deadlocked on a verdict for the other eight. The judge declared a mistrial and the federal prosecutors did not reopen the case. (Postal Museum article) (see Apr 25)

Frank George Pinkston and Charles Melvin Sherrod

February 22, 1960: about 200 students, led by Frank George Pinkston and Charles Melvin Sherrod, marched from the Virginia Union University campus to downtown Richmond, shutting down the shopping district. Police arrested 34 students taking part in sit-ins and pickets at Thalhimer’s Department Store.

The Greensboro Four

February 22 – 28, 1960: the lunch counters at F.W. Woolworth and Kress stores reopened, but were still segregated. Greensboro Mayor George H. Roach introduced the Greensboro Advisory Committee on Community Relations representing the City Council, the Chamber of Commerce and the Merchants Association. Chairman Ed Zane worked to increase public support for integration of lunch counters, encouraging people to write and express their opinions on the racial situation.

By the end of February, the sit-in movement had spread to more than 30 cities in eight states. ( (see G4 for expanded chronology; next BH, see Mar 1)

Muhammad Ali

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22, 1964: three days before the fight, a New York Times article stated that, “At the moment Cassius Marcellus Clay may very well be — to borrow his own florid description of himself — the “prettiest and greatest” of all heavyweight fighters. Before Tuesday midnight, however, the situation could very well undergo a rather violent metamorphosis.

On that evening the loud mouth from Louisville is likely to have a lot of vainglorious boasts jammed down his throat by a ham-like fist belonging to Sonny Liston, the malefic destroyer who is the champion of the world. The irritatingly confident Cassius enters this bout with one trifling handicap. He can’t fight as well as he can talk. (see Feb 25)

Katherine Johnson

February 22, 2019: NASA officially renamed a facility in West Virginia after Katherine Johnson, an African-American mathematician and centenarian whose barrier-breaking career was depicted in the film “Hidden Figures.”

The 2016 film, based on a book released earlier that year, depicted the struggle of Ms. Johnson and other black women for equality at NASA during the height of the space age and segregation. The mathematician tracked the trajectories of crucial missions in the 1960s.

“I am thrilled we are honoring Katherine Johnson in this way as she is a true American icon who overcame incredible obstacles and inspired so many,” Jim Bridenstine, the administrator of NASA, said in a statement. (see Feb 27)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Crime and Punishment

February 22, 1922: Roger Baldwin, Director of the ACLU, organized the National Bail Fund for Civil Liberties on this day to assist people being prosecuted in civil liberties cases. Baldwin announced a goal of raising $100,000, and said that $60,000 had already been raised. The Fund became one of the principal sources of bail assistance for civil liberties cases in the 1920s. (see March 31, 1958)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22 Music et al

Roots of Rock

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22, 1957: according to a NYT report, “Teenage rock ‘n’ roll enthusiasts stormed into Times Square area before dawn…and all day long they filled sidewalks, tied up traffic, and eventually required the attention of 175 policemen.

“They begin lining up at 4 A.M. to see the show at the Paramount Theatre. It wasn’t until 18 and a half hours later—at 10:30 P.M.—that the last of the line entered the theatre….The show featured Alan Freed.” (see Feb 25)

Billboard #1

February 22 – April 24, 1960: “Theme from a Summer Place” by Percy Faith #1 Billboard Hot 100.

Beatles Please

February 22, 1963: “Please Please Me” reached #1 in the UK. (see Mar 3)

Beatles Return

February 22, 1964: after a hectic but successful tour to the US, the Beatles returned to England. (see Beatles Back in the UK)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

South Vietnam Leadership

February 22, 1965: Gen Nguyen Khanh announced that he had accepted the council’s decision. Although he was hastily given the title of ambassador at large, General Khanh would never again play a significant role in his country’s future.  (Vietnam, see Feb 26; SVL, see June 14)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Alcatraz

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22, 1970: after three months, not more than 100 were still occupying Alcatraz and boredom was the biggest problem. (NYT article) (see May 31)

Environmental Issues

February 22, 2108: federal District Court Judge William Orrick ruled against Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke’s attempt to delay the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Waste Prevention Rule.

The Environmental Defense Fund and a coalition of conservation and tribal citizen groups had asked the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California for a preliminary injunction to prevent Zinke from delaying the rule.

Orrick granted the request.

“The court’s decision to block Secretary Zinke’s unlawful suspension ensures the Waste Prevention Rule remains in place, protecting tribes, ranchers and families across the West,” said EDF Lead Attorney Peter Zalzal. “The protections restored by this decision will help to prevent the waste of natural gas, reduce harmful methane, smog-forming and toxic pollution, and ensure communities and tribes have royalty money that can be used to construct roads and schools.” (EI, see Feb 27; NA, see Apr 13)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Symbionese Liberation Army

February 22, 1974: the first day of food distribution for People in Need ended in riots. Randolph Hearst stated that $6 million was beyond his capabilities. “The matter is now out of my hands,” he said. His representative made an offer to pay $2 million upon the immediate release of Patty Hearst and an additional $2 million in January 1975. (see PH for expanded chronology)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAY

February 22 Peace Love Activism

February 22, 1979: Saint Lucia independent of United Kingdom. [St Lucia site]  (next ID, see Oct 27)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Japanese Internment Camps

February 22 Peace Love Activism

February 22, 1983: The Report of the Commission of Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), entitled Personal Justice Denied, concluded that the exclusion, expulsion, and incarceration of Japanese-Americans were not justified by military necessity, and the decisions to do so were based on race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership. (see Internment for expanded chronology)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Euro arrives

February 22, 2002: the ex-currencies of all euro-using nations cease to be legal tender in the European Union.

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Foxconn

February 22, 2011: when Apple released its annual review of labor conditions at its global suppliers, one startling revelation stood out: 137 workers at a China factory had been seriously injured by a toxic chemical used in making the signature slick glass screens of the iPhone. (see February 13, 2012)

WV Teacher Strike

February 22, 2018: West Virginia teachers’ strike began with a call from the West Virginia branches of the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association for teachers across West Virginia to strike. The strike was called in response to the comparatively low pay of West Virginia teachers, a pay raise passed by the legislature and signed by Governor Jim Justice that provided only a 2% raise for next year, and 1% raise for 2020 and a 1% raise for 2021 and a freeze on premiums for 16 months to benefits. Every public school district in the state closed. (USLH & WV, see Feb 27)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Same-sex rights

February 22, 2012: U.S. District Court Judge Jeffrey White ruled in Golinski v. Office of Personnel Management, declaring that DOMA’s Section 3, which restricts marriage to different-sex couples, was unconstitutional. [Wikipedia article] (see Mar 1)

Transgender protection

February 22, 2017: overruling his own education secretary, President Trump rescinded protections for transgender students that had allowed them to use bathrooms corresponding with their gender identity.

In a joint letter, the top civil rights officials from the Justice Department and the Education Department rejected the Obama administration’s position that nondiscrimination laws required schools to allow transgender students to use the bathrooms of their choice.

That directive, they said, was improperly and arbitrarily devised, “without due regard for the primary role of the states and local school districts in establishing educational policy.” (see Mar 6)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

February 22 Peace Love Activism

February 22, 2013: The House of Representatives introduced its version of the Violence Against Women Act. It came under sharp criticism from Democrats and women’s and human rights groups for failing to include protections in the Senate bill for gay, bisexual or transgender victims of domestic abuse. The House bill eliminated “sexual orientation” and “gender identity” from a list of “populations” that face barriers to receiving victim services — and also stripped certain provisions regarding American Indian women on reservations. (see Feb 28)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

ADA

February 22, 2017: the Supreme Court sided with Ehlena Fry, a 13-year-old Michigan girl with cerebral palsy, who spent years battling school officials for the right to bring her service dog — a goldendoodle named Wonder — to class. The justices ruled unanimously that federal disability laws might allow Ehlena Fry to pursue her case in court without first having to wade through a lengthy administrative process.

Fry’s family had obtained a goldendoodle to help her open doors and retrieve items. Her school district initially refused to allow Wonder at school. Officials relented a bit in 2010, but they placed many restrictions on Wonder. Ehlena and her dog later transferred to another school.

Her family sued the school district for violations of federal disability laws. The case was dismissed after a judge said the Frys first had to seek an administrative hearing. An appeals court last year upheld that decision 2-1. (see Mar 20)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

February 22, 2017: the Supreme Court ruled in favor of a death row inmate Duane Buck in Texas whose own lawyers introduced evidence at trial that he was more likely to be dangerous in the future because he is black. The court ruled that ane Buck, would be able to go back into a lower court and argue that he should have a new sentencing hearing.

In a 6-2 ruling, Chief Justice John Roberts wrote the majority opinion holding that Buck has “demonstrated both ineffective assistance of counsel” and has an “entitlement to relief.” (see Feb 27)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

February 22, 2017: at the Austins Bar and Grill in Olathe, Kan, Adam W. Purinton shot Srinivas Kuchibhotla and Alok Madasani, two immigrants from India, as well as Ian Grillot who had tried to come to their aid.

Purinton had earlier said racial slurs to the two Indians, was escorted out of the bar, but returned with a gun. Kuchibhotla died. Madasani and Grillot  were wounded. [NYT story] (see Mar 3)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism
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