April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

Woman Rebel

 April 2 Peace Love Activism,

April 2, 1914: the Post Office declared “unmailable” the first issue of birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger’s new monthly newsletter, Woman Rebel.

In August, she will be indicted on three counts of violating the Comstock Act and one count of inciting “murder and assassination.” Sanger promoted contraception using the slogan, “No Gods, No Masters’”

The Comstock Act (see March 3, 1873, for its passage) defined birth control information as obscene and prohibited from being sent through the mails.

At her trial, Sanger rejected the advice of her attorney to negotiate a plea bargain and instead secretly fled to Canada and then England. Sanger remained in England until October 1915. (see Aug 25)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights

April 2, 1917: Federal woman suffrage amendment reintroduced in House of Representatives. (see June 20)

Adkins v Children’s Hospital

April 2, 1923: in Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, the Supreme Court ruled that a minimum wage law enacting in 1918 in Washington, DC, for women violated the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment because it abridged a citizen’s right to freely contract labor. In 1918, the District of Columbia passed a law setting a minimum wage for women and children laborers.

It set up a board to investigate current wages, solicit input on ideal wage levels, and ultimately set minimum wages. The law was designed to protect women and children “from conditions detrimental to their health and morals, resulting from wages which are inadequate to maintain decent standards of living.” The board eventually set minimum wages for various industries, e.g., a minimum $16.50 per week “in a place where food is served” and $15 per week “in a laundry.” (Oyez article) (Feminism, see Nov 17; US Labor, see March 8, 1924)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

African National Congress Youth League

April 2, 1944: Nelson Mandela and other activists formed the African National Congress Youth League after becoming disenchanted with the cautious approach of the older members of the A.N.C. The league’s formation marked the shift of the congress to a mass movement. But its manifesto, so charged with pan-African nationalism, offended some non-black sympathizers.

National Party

In 1948: the National Party took power in South Africa and set out to construct apartheid, a system of strict racial segregation and white domination.

Mandela/Tambo

In 1952: Mandela and Oliver Tambo opened South Africa’s first black law practice. (see December 5, 1956)

Greensboro Four

April 2, 1960: both the F.W. Woolworth and Kress stores officially closed their lunch counters. (see Greensboro for expanded story)

Virgina NAACP

April 2, 1963: on September 29, 1956, the state of Virginia passed five laws directed at the NAACP and other civil rights laws organizations. The laws regulated the practices of “barratry,” “champerty,” and “maintenance.” Barratry is the term for “stirring up” litigation by inducing individuals or organizations to sue when they otherwise would not have. In NAACP v. Button, decided this day, the Supreme Court declared the barratry law an unconstitutional violation of the First Amendment. (see Apr 3)

George Whitmore, Jr.

April 2, 1965: the N.A.A.C.P. revealed that Detective Edward Bulger, in addition to his involvement in obtaining the dubious David Coleman confession (see Feb 11, 1965), also had been accused in another case of obtaining a confession by fraud from a man named Charles Everett. If Everett would admit the crime, Detective Bulger allegedly promised to intercede with the victim to work out a light sentence. The victim in fact was dead. Everett was convicted of murder, but his conviction was later reversed. (see Whitmore for expanded story; BH, see April 3)

Viola Liuzzo

April 2, 1983: final arguments in the $2 million negligence suit against the FBI were made in Federal court by lawyers for the children of Viola Liuzzo, whose murder by Klansmen 18 years ago they attributed to a paid F.B.I. informer, Gary Rowe. (BH, see Apr 19; see March for expanded story; see Liuzzo for expanded story)

Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act
2004

April 2, 2004: The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act is reintroduced. It failed to advance in committee. (see May 26, 2005)

2009

April 2, 2009:  Rep. John Conyers for a fifth time introduced the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act which has the support of President Obama. (CNN article) (Shepard, see Oct 28, 2009; LGBTQ see Apr 3)

Robert C. Bates

April 2, 2005:  Robert C. Bates, 73, a part-time reserve deputy with the Tulsa County Sheriff’s Department intended to subdue a suspect, Eric C. Harris, 44, with a Taser, which fires electric darts to incapacitate a suspect, but instead shot and killed him with his handgun. Before he was killed, Mr. Harris was fleeing on foot from deputies who had tried to arrest him, as part of an undercover operation buying illegal guns. Mr. Bates was one of several officers who took part in the chase. (B & S, see Apr 4; Harris, see Apr 13)

Church Burning

April 2, 2019: the Greater Union Baptist Church in Opelousas, Louisiana burned. This was the second fire (see March 26, 2019) at a religious building in St. Landry Parish. (CB, see Apr 4)

LGBTQ

April 2, 2019: Chicago became the largest American city ever to elect a black woman as its mayor as voters chose Lori Lightfoot, a former prosecutor, to replace Rahm Emanuel. When she took office in May, Ms. Lightfoot also was the city’s first openly gay mayor.

Lightfoot, who had never held elective office, easily won the race, overwhelming a better-known, longtime politician and turning her outsider status into an asset in a city with a history of corruption and insider dealings. [NYT article] (next BH, see ; next LGBTQ, see Apr 4)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

April 2 Music et al

see Beatnik for much more

April 2, 1958: Herb Caen coined the term “beatnik” in the San Francisco chronicle. It became a term used to refer to people who were far off from mainstream society and therefore possibly pro-Communist. (see February 4, 1968)

Ken Kesey

April 2, 1965: Ken Kesey busted first time for marijuana. (see Apr 21)

2001: A Space Odyssey

April 2, 1968: t “2001: A Space Odyssey” had its world premiere in Washington, D.C. (NYT review) (see Apr 28)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

My Lai Massacre

 April 2 Peace Love Activism

April 2, 1969: a soldier named Ron Ridenhour, who had been gathering information on his own regarding the My Lai incident, wrote a letter presenting the evidence and send his letter to 30 prominent men in Washington, D.C., including President Nixon, antiwar Congressman Mo Udall, Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird, and Senators Edward Kennedy, Barry Goldwater, Eugene McCarthy, and William Fulbright. Mo Udall’s office was the first to respond directly to Ridenhour, calling for an official investigation. A week later, Ridenhour’s letter was forwarded to the Army’s Chief of Staff, General William C. Westmoreland. (Ridenhour site) (see My Lai for expanded story; Vietnam, see April 6)

Anti-Vietnam War bill

April 2, 1970: Massachusetts  Governor Francis W. Sargent signed into law an anti-Vietnam War bill providing that no inhabitant of Massachusetts inducted into or serving in the armed forces “shall be required to serve” abroad in an armed hostility that had not been declared a war by Congress under Article I, Section 8, clause 11 of the United States Constitution.

Supporters of the legislation hoped that the US Supreme Court would seize on the obvious conflict that the bill created between state and federal law and would rule on the constitutionality of the Vietnam War itself, but the Court refused to exercise original jurisdiction, forcing the case into the lower federal courts. (see Apr 15)

North Vietnam advances

April 2, 1975: as North Vietnamese tanks and infantry continue to push the remnants of South Vietnam’s 22nd Division and waves of civilian refugees from the Quang Ngai Province, the South Vietnamese Navy began to evacuate soldiers and civilians by sea from Qui Nhon. Shortly thereafter, the South Vietnamese abandoned Tuy Hoa and Nha Trang, leaving the North Vietnamese in control of more than half of South Vietnam’s territory. (see Apr 4)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Falklands War

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

April 2, 1982, Argentine forces invaded Falkland Islands, entered the capital Port Stanley, and forced Governor Rex Hunt to surrender. (see April 2)

Teacher strikes

April 2, 2018: thousands of teachers in Oklahoma and Kentucky walked off the job, shutting down school districts as they protested cuts in pay, benefits and school funding in a movement that has grown in force since igniting in West Virginia earlier in 2018 year (see Feb 22).

The wave of strikes in red states, mainly organized by ordinary teachers on Facebook, caught lawmakers and sometimes the teachers’ own labor unions flat-footed. The protesters said they were fed up with years of education funding cuts and stagnant pay in Republican-dominated states. (see Apr 12)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

 April 2 Peace Love Activism,

April 2, 1995: major league baseball players ended a 232-day strike.  (USA Today article) (see May 29, 1996)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

Carbon dioxide

April 2, 2007: in Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agencythe US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are air pollutants under the Clean Air Act. (see March 29, 2013)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

Iran

April 2, 2015: officials announced that Iran and six world powers had agreed to a framework for a final deal on Iran’s controversial nuclear program. The understanding paved the way for the start of a final phase of talks that aimed to reach a comprehensive agreement by the end of June. The agreement concludeds weeks of intense negotiations and cane two days beyond the initial March 31 deadline for an outline deal.

We have reached solutions on key parameters on a joint comprehensive plan of action,” EU foreign affairs chief Federica Mogherini said at a joint press conference with Iran’s Foreign Minister Javad Zarif in Lausanne, Switzerland. Reading a statement on behalf of negotiators, Mogherini specified that Europe would end all nuclear-related economic and financial sanctions on Iran under the future deal. The United States would end similar sanctions upon verification of the agreement by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Iran would retain only one enrichment facility, Natanz, while the Fordo fortified site will be converted into a scientific center, according to the statement. (Nuclear, see May 8; Iran, see July 14)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

April 2, 2019: New Mexico Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham signed a bill to replace the holiday honoring the Italian explorer with a day celebrating members of the indigenous community, her office confirmed. The holiday would still be a legal public holiday and fall on the second Monday of October.

Lujan Grisham, a Democrat, said in a statement that she was “proud” to legalize the new holiday.

“This new holiday will mark a celebration of New Mexico’s 23 sovereign indigenous nations and the essential place of honor native citizens hold in the fabric of our great state,” she said. “Enacting Indigenous People’s Day sends an important message of reconciliation and will serve as a reminder of our state’s proud native history.”

Navajo Nation President Jonathan Nez praised the bill’s passage and thanked Lujan Grisham for her support. (see Apr 26)

April 2 Peace Love Art Activism
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April Peace Love Art Activism

April Peace Love Art Activism

I try to be precise and factual with my the many events I attach to a date, but sometimes the best I can find is that something occurred in a month. Such are today’s entries. All the following happened in some past April. If you have the actual date, please let me know.

April Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Dred Scott

In April 1838: the Scotts joined Dr & Mrs Emerson in Louisiana. When the Scotts arrived in Louisiana they might have sued for their freedom in that state. For more than twenty years Louisiana courts had upheld the freedom claims of slaves who had lived in free jurisdictions. Had the Scotts claimed their freedom in Louisiana in 1838, theirs would have been an open-and-shut case. But, once again, they did not seek their freedom. It is likely that they simply had no knowledge that the Louisiana courts routinely freed slaves who had lived in free jurisdictions. (BH, see September 3, 1838; see Scotts for expanded story) 

School Desegregation

In April 1850: the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court issued its ruling in Roberts v. Boston regarding Sarah Roberts, a black child. Chief Justice Shaw decided the case on narrow legal groups, ruling in favor of the right of the school committee to set education policy as it saw fit. Shaw could find no constitutional reason for abolishing Black schools. Boston’s schools would remain segregated.  (see Sarah for expanded story)(BH, see Sept 18; SD, see April 28, 1855)

Leonidas C Dyer

April Peace Love Activism

In April 1918: Congressman Leonidas C. Dyer (R-Missouri) introduced an anti-lynching bill in the House of Representatives, based on a bill drafted by NAACP founder Albert E. Pillsbury in 1901. The bill called for the prosecution of lynchers in federal court. State officials who failed to protect lynching victims or prosecute lynchers could face five years in prison and a $5,000 fine. The victim’s heirs could recover up to $10,000 from the county where the crime occurred. (Bio Guide dot Congress bio) (BH, see June 3; Dyer bill, see October 20, 1921)

Aurelia Browder

April Peace Love Art Activism

In April 1955:  police arrested Aurelia Browder (36 years old) for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white rider in Montgomery, AL. She will be the lead plaintiff in the Browder v. Gayle action lawsuit.  (1998 Washington Post article) (BH, see May 7; Feminism, see Oct 21; B v G, see February 1, 1956; see Boycott for expanded )

Muhammad Ali
April Peace Love Art Activism
Passion of Muhammad Ali cover by George Lois

In April 1968: Esquire magazine’s cover portrayed Muhammad Ali as a martyr akin to St Sebastian. Kurt Andersen, host of NPR’s Studio 360, stated that “George Lois’s covers for Esquire in the 60s are classic. His April 1968 image of Muhammad Ali to dramatize the boxer’s persecution for his personal beliefs, is the greatest magazine cover ever created, making a political statement without being grim or stupid or predicable.” (BH, see Apr 3; Ali, see, April 6, 1969) (see Passion of Muhammad Ali for expanded story)

Nathan Bedford Forrest Rangers

In April 1973: the Pontiac, Michigan school bus bomb case came to trial with Robert Miles, Wallace Fruit, Alex Distel, Dennis Ramsey, and Raymond Quirk as defendants. The government’s star witness, Jerome Lauinger, a Pontiac fireman and licensed gun dealer, told the court that he had infiltrated “Unit 5” of the KKK on behalf of the FBI some three-and-a-half years earlier. He reported that the KKK had a military arm called the “Nathan Bedford Forrest Rangers” and that he was a member of it as well. (BH, see Apr 10; SD, see “In May”)

Rodney King

April Peace Love Art Activism

In April 2012: King’s autobiography, “The Riot Within: My Journey from Rebellion to Redemption. Learning How We Can All Get Along” published. (see June 17, 2012)

April Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism & Voting Rights

National Woman Suffrage Association

In April 1869, : Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony found the National Woman Suffrage Association to campaign for women’s right to vote. (see Dec 10)

Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage

In April 1913:  Alice Paul and Lucy Burns founded the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CU), which later became the National Woman’s Party. The NWP put its priority on the passage of a constitutional amendment ensuring women’s suffrage. (Crusade for the Vote dot org article) (see July 31)

Woman’s Peace Party

In April 1915: opposed to the War, Woman’s Peace Party representatives Jane Addams and Emily G Balch attended the International Congress of Women at The Hague in the Netherlands. The meeting was significant for its founding of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. (see Oct 23)

April Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

In April 1943: U.S. Navy Commodore Milton E. Miles, stationed in Chungking, China proposed that the US parachute twenty Office of Strategic Services (OSS) into the Central Highlands of Vietnam to organize guerrilla bands among the highland peoples to oppose the Japanese forces. The plan was approved, but never implemented. The United States, however, established a network of Vietnamese and French colonials for intelligence and espionage. (valor dot military times article) (see January 24, 1944)

Increased Air Power

April – June, 1964: the US massively reinforced its air power in Southeast Asia. Two aircraft carriers arrived off the Vietnamese coast prompted by a North Vietnamese offensive in Laos. (see Apr 25)

Increased troop strength

In April, 1965: 25,000 U.S. troops stationed in Vietnam (see Apr 3)

543,000 US troops

In April 1969: 543,000 US troops in Vietnam. 33,641 Americans have been killed, a greater total than the Korean War. (see Apr 2)

Sons and Daughters In Touch

Spring 2003: Sons and Daughters In Touch led an historic two week journey to Vietnam. Guided by Vietnam combat veterans and nurses who served in the war, more than 50 Gold Star ‘sons and daughters’ were able to stand in the precise location where their fathers were lost. While in Vietnam, the SDIT delegation also visited Ho Chi Minh City, the Mekong Delta, Cu Chi, Da Nang, Quang Tri, Khe San, China Beach, Hue City and Hanoi. (see August 20, 2009)

April Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Dale Jennings

In spring 1952: Dale Jennings, a member of the Mattachine Society, arrested for allegedly soliciting a police officer.

American Psychiatric Association

April Peace Love Art Activism

In April 1952: the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality as a sociopathic personality disturbance in its first publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Immediately following the manual’s release, many professionals in medicine, mental health and social sciences criticized the categorization due to lack of empirical and scientific data. (see June 23, 1952)

April Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy

In April 1957: the escalating nuclear arms race of the late 1950s led Norman Cousins, editor of the Saturday Review, along with Clarence Pickett of the American Society of Friends (Quakers), to found the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE). (Red, see May 2; Nuclear, see Apr 29)

Cuban Missile Crisis

April Peace Love Art Activism

In April 1962: U.S. Jupiter missiles in Turkey became operational. All positions were reported “ready and manned” by U.S. personnel. (next Cold War, see Apr 14; see Cuban Missile Crisis for expanded story)

April Peace Love Art Activism

see In April Music et al for more

Ray Charles

In April 1962: Ray Charles successfully combined country music with soul and crosses into the pop realm with the album “Modern Sounds In Country & Western Music” – the #1 album of 1962.

LSD

In April, 1966: Sandoz Pharmaceutical recalled the LSD it had previously distributed and withdrew its sponsorship for work with LSD. (see September 1966)

Future Woodstock Performers

In April 1967: Country Joe (age 25 ) and the Fish released first album, Electric Music for the Mind and Body.

Ken Kesey

In April 1967: Ken Kesey re-tried. Hung jury. Pled guilty to a lesser charge. Given 6 months on work farm. (see June 1967)

The Road to Bethel

In April 1969: Allan Mann met with Elliiot Tibor who offered a barn for a theater from free if Mann would rent a nearby 6-room Victorian for the summer for $800. Paul Johnson, a friend of Mann, agreed to put the down payment of $200 for the house in exchange for a room there for the summer. [keep in mind, this agreement was made before Wallkill evicted the festival. (see Chronology for full list of dates)

April Peace Love Art Activism

STUDENT ACTIVISM

“People’s Park”

April Peace Love Activism

In April, 1969: UC Berkeley students with local residents began to build a “People’s Park” on college-owned land that had remained unused despite plans to build a park and sports field. (2017 Rolling Stone magazine article)  (see Apr 9)

April Peace Love Art Activism

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

In April 1995: the “Does” filed suit against Santa Fe Independent School District (TX) in the Federal District Court for the Southern District of Texas. For some time prior to the onset of this litigation, the “Does’ believed that SFISD was pursuing policies that were in contravention of the Establishment Clause, mainly because for an undisclosed period of time leading up to and including the 1992-93 and 1993-94 school years, SFISD allowed students to read overtly Christian prayers from the stage at graduation ceremonies, and over the public address system at home football games. The “Does” demanded prospective injunctive and declaratory relief in addition to money damages. (see June 25, 1997)

April Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

In April 1996: then-Deputy White House Chief of Staff Evelyn Lieberman transfered Lewinsky to a job as an assistant to Pentagon spokesman Ken Bacon. Lieberman told The New York Times the move was due to “inappropriate and immature behavior” and inattention to work. At the Pentagon, Lewinsky met Linda Tripp, a career government worker. (see Clinton for expanded story)

April Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

Boston Archdiocese

In April 2003:  the Boston Archdiocese avoided bankruptcy by agreeing to sell land and buildings for over $100m to fund legal settlements to more than 500 abuse victims. (see May 3)

April Peace Love Art Activism
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April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

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Native Americans

Wampanoags treaty

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

April 1, 1621: at the Plymouth settlement (present-day Massachusetts), the leaders of the Plymouth colonists, acting on behalf of King James I, make a defensive alliance with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoags. The agreement, in which both parties promised to not “doe hurt” to one another, was the first treaty between a Native American tribe and a group of American colonists. According to the treaty, if a Wampanoag broke the peace, he would be sent to Plymouth for punishment; if a colonist broke the law, he would likewise be sent to the Wampanoags. (Indian Country article) (Native Americans, see February 25, 1642; Wampanoags, see June 24, 1675)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Deborah Samson

April 1, 1783: Deborah Samson was promoted and spent seven months serving as a waiter to General John Paterson. This job entitled her to a better quality of life, better food, less danger, and shelter. 

That summer, while stationed in Philadelphia she came down with fever and was cared for by a Dr Barnabas Binney. In treating her he discovered the cloth she used to bind her breasts and, thus, discovered her secret. He did not betray her; he took her to his house, where his wife and daughters housed and took care of her. (see Sampson for expanded story)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Cultural Milestones

William Wrigley, Jr

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

April 1, 1891: William Wrigley, Jr  founded the Wrigley Co. in Chicago. He sold soap and gave away baking powder as a premium. The baking powder was more popular, so he switched to selling baking powder, giving chewing gum as a premium with each can. The gum became more popular than the baking powder so he went into the chewing gum business. (see May 5)

Baseball Hall of Fame

April 1, 1938: the Baseball Hall of Fame opened in Cooperstown, NY. (HoF site) (Apr 18)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Black History

Scottsboro Boys

April 1, 1935: the US Supreme Court ruled that the exclusion of black citizens on jury rolls deprives black defendants of their rights to equal protection under the law as guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court overturned the convictions of Haywood Patterson and Clarence Norris and the case is remanded to a lower court. (SB, see Nov 13) (see Scottsboro Boys Travesty)

Greensboro Four

April 1, 1960: students resumed sit-in activities at the Kress and F.W. Woolworth stores and began picketing on Elm and Sycamore streets. That evening at a mass meeting, more than 1,200 students pledged to continue the protests. (see G4 for expanded chronology)

St Augustine Sit-ins

April 1, 1964: sit-ins at restaurants and hotels in St. Augustine, Fla., ended in the arrests of more than 280 people. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his support to the protests and was arrested on June 11 when he tried to eat the Monson Motel Restaurant in town. On June 5, the beach cottage where he was supposed to stay was riddled with bullets. (King Encyclopedia article) (see Apr 6)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

International Typographical Union

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

April 1, 1963: workers of the International Typographical Union ended their strike that had closed nine New York City newspapers. The strike ended 114 days after it began on December 8, 1962. (see June 10)

Baseball strike

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

April 1, 1972: major league baseball strike began. It was the first players’ strike in baseball history. (Labor, see Apr 11; baseball, see Apr 13)

McDonald’s

April 1, 2015: McDonald’s announced that it would raise wages and offer new benefits to 90,000 employees in the 1,500 outlets in the United States that it owned and operates, responding to competitive pressure from a tighter job market and to labor campaigns drawing public attention to its pay policies.

The decision, however, did not affect the 750,000 employees who work for the more than 3,100 franchisees that operate roughly 12,500 McDonald’s restaurants around the country. The company will increase wages to at least $1 over the local legal minimum wage for workers in restaurants under corporate control to an average of $9.90 an hour by July 1. That average will increase to more than $10 in 2016.

Employees who have worked in company restaurants more than a year will also be eligible for paid time off, whether they work full or part time. An employee who works an average of 20 hours a week might accrue as much as 20 hours of paid time off a year, the company said. McDonald’s will also expand a program intended to help employees of both its own restaurants and those operated by franchisees to take classes online toward earning high school diplomas. The company will cover those costs, as well as assist employees with college tuition. (see June 1)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

April 1 Music et al

John Lennon

April 1, 1966: John Lennon bought a copy of Timothy Leary’s The Psychedelic Experience and The Tibetan Book Of The Dead, where he read near the beginning of the book’s introduction; “When in doubt, relax, turn off your mind, float downstream,” which captured Lennon’s imagination and became the first line of ‘Tomorrow Never Knows’, (which he recorded 5 days later). (see May 1)

The Road to Bethel and the Woodstock Festival

April 1, 1969: Michael Lang was disappointed anyway with the Saugerties site. It didn’t have the rustic feel he hoped to have. (see Chronology for expanded story)

#1: Palm Springs Pop Festival

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism


The first festival of 1969 was in the Palm Spring, CA area and was over two days (see festivals for expanded story):

April 1: Palm Springs Drive-In Theatre

  • MC: KMET’s B Mitchell Reed
  • Jeff Beck (billed but didn’t appear)
  • Moby Grape (billed but didn’t appear)
  • Procol Harum (replacement)
  • Flying Burrito Brothers (replacement)
  • Gram Pasons
  • Timothy Leary
  • John Mayall
  • Paul Butterfield Blues Band
  • Lee Michaels
  • Hard Luck Boy
April 2: Palm Springs Angel Baseball Stadium
  • Ike & Tina Turner Revies
  • Buddy Miles Express
  • Canned Heat
  • Savoy Brown
Trans John & Yoko

April 1, 1970: as an April Fool’s joke, John Lennon and Yoko Ono issued a statement to the press that they were having dual sex change operations. (see Apr 10)

Grateful Dead & FREE SPEECH

April 1, 1970:   radio station WUHY in Philadelphia was fined for a “string of vulgarities,” expressed by Jerry Garcia. The case led to the first fine ever imposed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for broadcast indecency. Dean Burch, Chair of the FCC, was searching for a test case in which the FCC could assert standards of decency in radio broadcasting. The executives of WUHY, however, chose to pay the $100 fine rather than contest the decision, and so there was no court case involving a test of the FCC’s standards and the First Amendment. (FS, see May 6; Dead, see March 27, 1973)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Gay entrapment 

April 1, 1966: NYC Chief Inspector Sanford D. Garelik said that he hoped the public would report cases in which policemen lured homosexuals into breaking the law and then arrest them. (see Apr 17)

Coretta Scott King

April 1, 1998: Coretta Scott King called on the civil rights community to join the struggle against homophobia. She received criticism from members of the black civil rights movement for comparing civil rights to gay rights. (see November 3, 1998)

Act on the Opening up of Marriage

April 1, 2001: In the Netherlands, the Act on the Opening up of Marriage goes into effect. The Act allows same-sex couples to marry legally for the first time in the world. (see March 28, 2002)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam & My Lai Massacre

April 1, 1971: President Nixon ordered William Calley transferred from Leavenworth prison to house arrest at Fort Benning, pending appeal. (see My Lai for expanded story; Vietnam, see Apr 19)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

April 1, 1996,  trial began in Jack Kevorkian‘s home town of Pontiac in the deaths of Miller and Wantz. For the start of his third criminal trial, he wears colonial costume–tights, a white powdered wig, and big buckle shoes–a protest against the fact that he is being tried under centuries-old common law. He would face a maximum of five years in prison and a $10,000 fine if convicted in the Wantz/Miller deaths. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

April 1, 1998, : Judge Susan Webber Wright dismissed the Paula Jones case. (see Clinton for expanded story)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

April 1, 2007:  John McCain strolled through the Shorja market in Baghdad accompanied by 100 soldiers, 3 blackhawks, 2 Apache gunships. [NBC News, 4/1/07] (see Apr 16)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health & TERRORISM

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

April 1, 2010: in Wichita, Kansas, Sedgwick County District Judge Warren Wilbert sentenced Scott Roeder to a “Hard 50”, meaning no possibility of parole for 50 years, for the murder of Dr George Tiller, the maximum sentence available in Kansas. (2016 CBS News article) (Terrorism, see Nov 17; BC see March 16, 2012)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

April 1, 2010:  Halliburton employee Marvin Volek warned that BP’s use of cement “was against our best practices.” (see Apr 14)

April 1, 2015
  • California Gov. Jerry Brown ordered mandatory water use reductions for the first time in California’s history, saying the state’s four-year drought had reached near-crisis proportions after a winter of record-low snowfalls. Brown, in an executive order, directed the State Water Resources Control Board to impose a 25 percent reduction on the state’s 400 local water supply agencies, which serve 90 percent of California residents, over the coming year. The agencies will be responsible for coming up with restrictions to cut back on water use and for monitoring compliance. State officials said the order would impose varying degrees of cutbacks on water use across the board — affecting homeowners, farms and other businesses, as well as the maintenance of cemeteries and golf courses.

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

  • A report from the environmental group Natural Resources Defense Council analyzed the data on spills and other violations at oil and gas wells across the country, but an interesting aspect of the report was how little data the group was able to turn up. Based on NRDC’s evaluation of dozens of state databases, only three states — West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Colorado — have easily accessible, publicly available data on spills and other violations. That’s three states out of 36 that have active oil and gas development.

 “We looked at 36 states, and there are only three states where it would be easy for a member of the public to sit down at their computer and get some information about a company’s compliance record,” said report co-author Amy Mall, a senior policy analyst at NRDC. The group said that  there are other states where citizens can file requests for data, but these three are the only ones where the information proved relatively easy to access. (NRDC site) (see Apr 21)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Affordable Care Act

April 1, 2019:   even as he asked a court to cancel President Obama’s Affordable Care Act, on March 25, President Trump reassured Americans that they did not need to worry about the Affordable Care Act’s demise because Republicans would replace it with something better.

On this date, in the President tweeted that Republicans would not have a replacement plan for at least 19 more months — and then only if Republicans win the 2020 election. (see Oct 22)

April 1 Peace Love Art Activism
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