June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism


Cincinnati Prevents Black Residents

June 20, 1829: Cincinnati, Ohio officials issued a notice requiring Black residents to adhere to laws passed in 1804 and 1807 aimed at preventing “fugitive slaves” and freed Black people from settling in Ohio.

The 1804 law had required every Black person in Ohio to obtain proof of freedom and to register with the clerk’s office their county of residence. It also prohibited employers from hiring a Black person without proof of freedom, imposed a fine on those who hid “fugitive slaves,” and provided to any person asserting “a legal claim” to a Black person a procedure for “retaking and possessing his or her Black or mulatto servant.”

The 1807 amendments to the law required Black people seeking residence in Cincinnati to post $500 bond guaranteed by two white men. In addition to increasing fines for employing a Black person without proof of freedom and assisting “fugitive slaves,” the 1807 amendments prohibited Black people from testifying in court against white people. [EJI article] (next BH, see Aug 15)

Dred Scott

June 30, 1847: in a trial before the St. Louis Circuit Court Scott lost because of a technicality—he was suing Irene Emerson for his freedom but he had no witness who could prove she now owned him. (BH, see July 26; see Scott for expanded story)

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

June 30, 1922: the Senate Judiciary Committee, to the surprise of the Senate, voted 8 to 6 to favorably report the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill, which would permit the Federal Government to assume prosecution of lynchings when States fall or neglect to prosecute. It was fully understood that the Senate would allow this bill to die because it stirred up so much feeling during its progress in the House. (see Aug 14)

Jump Jim Crow

June 3, 1933: minstrel show creator Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice introduced the song, “Jump Jim Crow.” Decades later, the term “Jim Crow” came to describe racial discrimination against African Americans. (next BH, July 5)

NAACP v. Alabama

June 30, 1958, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the NAACP was not required to release membership lists to continue operating in the state. For the NAACP, the ruling was a great victory, enabling them to continue operating in Alabama. [Oyez article] (see Jan 6)

George Whitmore, Jr.

June 30, 1966: on DA Aaron Koota’s motion, Kings County Supreme Court Justice Hyman Barshay dismissed the indictment against Whitmore in the Minnie Edmonds murder case. (see Whitmore for expanded story)

Alberta Williams King

June 30, 1974: six years after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., his mother, Alberta Williams King, was shot to death as she played “The Lord’s Prayer” on the organ at Ebenezer Baptist Church. Her killer, a 43-year-old black man named Marcus Wayne Chenault, told a judge he acted out of his hatred for Christians.  [Atlantic article] (see July 25)

Miller v. Johnson

June 30, 1995: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that gerrymandering based on race was unconstitutional. [Oyez article] (BH, see Oct 12; Voting, see July 12, 2012)

Rainey Pool murder

June 30, 1999: a Humphreys County jury found Dennis Newton not guilty of murdering Rainey Pool (April 12, 1970). [Northeastern U article]  (see August 2)


June 30, 2015: Cuyahoga County prosecutor Tim McGinty announced that the misdemeanor trial for five white Cleveland police supervisors accused of failing to control a high-speed car chase that led to two unarmed black people being killed in a 137-shot barrage of police gunfire would be held in a predominantly black suburb, not in county court.

McGinty said officials in East Cleveland, where the November 2012 car chase ended and the shooting occurred, contacted his office about trying the case in that suburban city after a judge acquitted a white Cleveland patrolman last month on felony manslaughter charges for his role in the shooting deaths of driver Timothy Russell and passenger Malissa Williams.

McGinty said the same misdemeanor charges against the supervisors will be filed in East Cleveland and county prosecutors will help try the case, which had been set for trial in county court on July 27. (see July 1)

Church Burning

June 30, 2015: a fire broke out at Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church in Greeleyville, a town located about 65 miles north of Charleston, South Carolina. The church had previously been burned down by arsonists with ties to the KKK 20 years ago.  [follow-up article] (BH, see July 5; CB, see July 15)

Technological Milestone

June 30, 1948: Bell Laboratories demonstrated a prototype transistor radio. (next TM, see March 31, 1949; see Transistor for expanded story)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

June 30 Music et al

Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers

June 30, 1956:  a concert by Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers at the Asbury Park, NJ Convention Hall ended prematurely when a fistfight in the audience erupted into a full scale riot. Three people were stabbed and Mayor Roland J. Hines threatened a city-wide ban on rock and roll performances. The ban never came to pass. (see July 9)

The Beatles

June 30, 1966, The Beatles’ perform at Budokoan, Japan. (see July 9)


  • Rock & Roll Music
  • She’s A Woman
  • If I Needed Someone
  • Day Tripper
  • Baby’s In Black
  • I Feel Fine
  • I Feel Fine
  • Yesterday
  • I Wanna Be Your Man
  • Nowhere Man
  • Paperback Writer
  • I’m Down
June 30 Peace Love Art Activism


June 30, 1960:  Democratic Republic of Congo independent from Belgium. [BBC profile] (see July 1)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Fair Housing

June 30, 1961: Title V of the Housing Act was amended to make nonfarm rural residents eligible for direct housing loans from the Farmers Home Administration. These changes extended the housing program to towns with a population of up to 2,500. [JFK Library article] (see November 20, 1962)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism


July 30, 1966
  • on Route 13, which links Vietnam to the Cambodian border, American forces are brutally assaulted by the Vietcong. Only American air and artillery support prevented a complete disaster.
  • 116 US military aircraft for the first time dropped bombs on the port at Hanoi. Virtually all of North Vietnam’s oil storage facilities were destroyed. (see July 1)
Troop strength

June 30, 1967: 448,400 US troops in Vietnam. (see July 2)

Cambodian Invasion

June 30, 1970: President Nixon announced the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Cambodia but warns that if necessary he will continue to bomb Vietnamese troops and supply lines there. He expresses hope that Hanoi will now agree to serious negotiations. (see Aug 24)

Pentagon Papers

June 30, 1971: in New York Times Co. v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Pentagon Papers may be published, rejecting government injunctions as unconstitutional prior restraint. (see DE/PP for expanded story; next Vietnam, see July 5)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism


National Organization for Women

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

June 30, 1966: Betty Friedan and a small group of her friends attending a women’s conference in Washington, D.C. became so disgusted at the lack of action on women’s rights that they decided to form a national advocacy organization for women. Thus was born NOW, the National Organization for Women. It was formally chartered on October 29. [NOW site]

Equal Rights Amendment

June 30, 1982: the deadline for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment passed with only thirty-five of the needed thirty-eight states approving the amendment. Opposition to the amendment is strongest in the South and Southwest. (see February 7, 1983)


June 30, 1994: the Supreme Court ruled that judges can bar even peaceful demonstrators from getting too close to abortion clinics.  [Oyez article] (see July 29)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians

June 30, 1980: the US Supreme Court upheld an award of $15.5 million for the market value of the land guaranteed to the Sioux by the Treaty of Fort Laramie., along with 103 years worth of interest at 5 percent, for an additional $105 million. The Lakota Sioux, however, refused to accept payment and instead demanded the return of their territory from the United States. [Oyez article]

Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982

In 1982 The Act  provided Indian tribes with flexibility in the development and sale of mineral resources.  Foremost among the beneficial effects of IMDA was the opportunity for Indian tribes to enter into joint venture agreements with mineral developers. The contractual relationships permitted by IMDA were designed to meet two objectives: First, to further the policy of self-determination and second, to maximize the financial return tribes can expect for their valuable mineral resources. [text]

American Indian Movement

In 1985 AIM  established a security camp  on Navajo land near Big Mountain, Arizona, to support the traditional Dine elders in their resistance to forced relocation. (see Dec 14)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism


Ryan White

June 30, 1985:  though Ryan White felt strong enough to return to school, Superintendent James O. Smith denied White admittance for “everyone else’s own protection.” White’s parents challenge decision. see White for expanded story)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism


June 30, 1969: the NY Times reported that “a mob of some 20 local men [had] descended on the southern edge of Flushing Meadows Corona Park. Using power saws and axes, they leveled a grove of trees that was known as a gay cruising spot… 15 dogwood trees, 11 London planes, a number of wild-cherry trees and other greenery” were felled. The parks department estimated the trees would cost $15,000 to replace — more than $100,000 today. All while police officers reportedly stood by. (see Aug 5)

Bowers v. Hardwick

June 30, 1986: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4  that homosexual activity between consenting adults in the privacy of the home was not protected by the Constitution. [Cornell Law article] (LGBTQ, see Oct 1; LGBTQ Supreme Court, see June 26, 2003)

“No Gays Allowed”

June 30, 2015: Jeff Amyx removed the “No Gays allowed” sign (June 29) and replaced it with a sign that says: “We reserve the right to refuse service to anyone who would violate our rights of freedom of speech & freedom of religion.” [ABC article] (see July 1)


June 30, 2016: Defense Secretary Ashton B. Carter removed one of the final barriers to military service by lifting the Pentagon’s ban on transgender people serving openly in the armed forces.

“Effective immediately, transgender Americans may serve openly,” Mr. Carter said. “They can no longer be discharged or otherwise separated from the military just for being transgender.” (see July 21; military, see January 22, 2019)

Texas Supreme Court

June 30, 2017: the Texas Supreme Court ruled that the right to a marriage license did not entitle same-sex couples to spousal benefits under employee insurance plans. [Texas Tribune article] (LGBTQ, see July 21; Texas, see Dec 4)

Freedom of Speech

June 30, 2023: the Supreme Court sided with a web designer in Colorado who said she had a First Amendment right to refuse to design wedding websites for same-sex couples despite a state law that forbids discrimination against gay people.

Justice Neil M. Gorsuch, writing for the majority in a 6-3 vote, said that the First Amendment protected the designer, Lorie Smith, from being compelled to express views she opposed.

“A hundred years ago, Ms. Smith might have furnished her services using pen and paper,” he wrote. “Those services are no less protected speech today because they are conveyed with a ‘voice that resonates farther than it could from any soapbox.’”

The case, though framed as a clash between free speech and gay rights, was the latest in a series of decisions in favor of religious people and groups, notably conservative Christians. (next LGBTQ+, see Sept 25)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism


Linda Tripp

June 30, 1998: Linda Tripp appears before the grand jury for her first day of testimony, accompanied by her children. She says that she did not trick Monica Lewinsky when she taped conversations with her former friend.

Law license

June 30, 2000: an Arkansas Supreme Court panel filed suit to strip Bill Clinton of his license to practice law. The Arkansas State Supreme Court Committee on Professional Conduct recommended in May that Clinton’s Arkansas law license be withdrawn, in the wake of accusations he gave misleading testimony under oath in the Paula Jones case. Clinton has 30 days to respond. (see Clinton for expanded story)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Judicial Milestone

Affordable Care Act


June 30, 2014: The Supreme Court issued its opinion, Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, which declared one section of the Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare”) in violation of the religious liberty of privately held corporations, and created a potentially serious civil liberties problem with respect to the free exercise of religion. The Court ruled that Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., was exempt from the ACA because its owner objected on religious grounds to the law’s requirements regarding some Women’s Health devices.

The decision marked the first time that the Court had ruled that private corporations had religious rights. The ruling was limited to “privately held” corporations, excluding publicly held ones that are owned by stockholders. Hobby Lobby is owned entirely by the founder and his family. The Court did not base its ruling on the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment, but rather on the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA). [Oyez article] (JM, see June 18, 2015; ACA, see March 9, 2015)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism


Ten Commandments monument

June 30, 2015: the Oklahoma Supreme Court ruled that a Ten Commandments monument placed on State Capitol grounds must be removed because the Oklahoma Constitution bans the use of state property for the benefit of a religion.

The 6-foot-tall (1.8-meter) stone monument, paid for with private money and supported by lawmakers in the socially conservative state, was installed in 2012, prompting complaints that it violated the U.S. Constitution’s provisions against government establishment of religion, as well as local laws.

In a 7-2 decision, the court said the placement of the monument violated a section in the state’s constitution, which says no public money or property can be used either directly or indirectly for the “benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, or system of religion.” [Washington Post article] (next Separation, see July 27)


June 30, 2020: the NY Times reported that the Supreme Court ruled  that states must allow religious schools to participate in programs that provide scholarships to students attending private schools.

The decision was the latest in a series of Supreme Court rulings that the free exercise of religion bars the government from treating religious groups differently from secular ones. It opened the door to more public funding of religious education.

Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. wrote the majority opinion in the 5-to-4 ruling. The court’s four more liberal members dissented.

“A state need not subsidize private education,” Chief Justice Roberts wrote. “But once a state decides to do so, it cannot disqualify some private schools solely because they are religious.” (next Separation, see  July 8)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

The Cold War & Nuclear/Chemical News

June 30, 2019:  President Trump became the first sitting American commander in chief to set foot in North Korea as he met Kim Jong-un, the country’s leader, at the heavily fortified Demilitarized Zone, and the two agreed to restart negotiations on a long-elusive nuclear agreement. [NYT article] (next CW, see Aug 2; next N/C, see July 1)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

June 30, 2023:  the Supreme Court rejected a Republican-led challenge to a Biden administration policy that prioritizes the deportation of immigrants who are deemed to pose the greatest risk to public safety or were picked up at the border.

The justices voted 8-1 to allow the long-blocked policy to take effect, recognizing there is not enough money or manpower to deport all 11 million or so people who are in the United States illegally. [AP article] (next IH, see Sept 13)

June 30 Peace Love Art Activism

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

The Red Scare and the Cold War


June 29, 1940: President Roosevelt signed the Alien Registration Act of 1940, usually called the Smith Act, which made it illegal to assist any groups “who teach, advocate, or encourage the overthrow or destruction of the government of the United States by force or violence.” Hundreds of American Communists would later be charged for violations of the Smith Act. (Free Speech, see late November 1941; Red Scare, see February 10, 1944; arrests, see July 20, 1948)

Hollywood Ten

June 29, 1950: the remaining eight men of the Hollywood Ten were convicted of contempt of Congress and six were immediately taken to jail. Maltz, Cole, Lardner, and Bessie were sentenced to serve one year and pay $1,000 fines. Dmytryk and Biberman were sentenced to six-month terms and pay $1.000 fines. Adrian Scott was ill and his sentencing postponed. Samual Ornitz’s term was also postponed for health reasons. (see July 29)

Protected Speech

June 29, 2023: U.S. District Judge Terry Doughty of Louisiana prohibited several federal agencies and officials of the Biden administration from working with social media companies about “protected speech,” a decision called “a blow to censorship” by one of the Republican officials whose lawsuit prompted the ruling.

Doughty granted the injunction in response to a 2022 lawsuit brought by attorneys general in Louisiana and Missouri. Their lawsuit alleged that the federal government overstepped in its efforts to convince social media companies to address postings that could result in vaccine hesitancy during the COVID-19 pandemic or affect elections.

Doughty cited “substantial evidence” of a far-reaching censorship campaign. He wrote that the “evidence produced thus far depicts an almost dystopian scenario. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a period perhaps best characterized by widespread doubt and uncertainty, the United States Government seems to have assumed a role similar to an Orwellian ‘Ministry of Truth.’ ”  [AP article] (next Free Speech, see Aug 11)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism


June 29, 1947: President Harry Truman was the first president to address the NAACP, the nation’s leading civil rights organization. Delivered at the Lincoln Memorial, his speech on this day was broadcast to a national radio audience. Eleanor Roosevelt, Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, and Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson sat with the president on the dais, and their presence undoubtedly added to the political and legal significance of the president’s remarks. [audio link)  (Oct 23)

Autherine Lucy and Pollie Ann Meyers

June 29, 1955: the NAACP secured a court order preventing the University of Alabama from rejecting the admission applications of Autherine Lucy and Pollie Ann Meyers  based upon their race. Days later, the court amended the order to apply to all other African-American students seeking admission. (BH, see July; U of A, see Oct 10)

Bethel Street Baptist Church

Bethel Street Baptist Church

June 29, 1958: early in the morning a bomb exploded outside Bethel Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, located on the north side of town in one of the segregated city’s African American neighborhoods. The church’s pastor, Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth, was a civil rights activist working to eliminate segregation in Birmingham.

The church had been bombed before, on December 25, 1956, and since that date several volunteers had kept watch over the neighborhood every night. Around 1:30 a.m., Will Hall, who was on watch that night, was alerted to smoke coming from the church. He discovered a paint can containing dynamite near the church wall and carried it into the street before taking cover as it exploded.

The can contained between fifteen and twenty sticks of dynamite. The blast blew a two-foot hole in the street and broke the windows of houses in the vicinity as well as the stained glass windows of the church, which were still being repaired from the previous bombing. Police said there were few clues as to the culprit’s identity, but a passerby reported seeing a car full of white men pass by shortly before the bomb was discovered.

Rev. Shuttlesworth praised Mr. Hall for his brave actions, saying that if he had not moved the dynamite, it probably would have destroyed the entire church. “This shows that America has a long way to go before it can try be called democratic,” he said. [article about church]  (BH, see June 30; Bethel, see December 13, 1962; CB, see September 9, 1962)

Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner

June 29, 1964: the FBI issued poster of missing workers. (see Murders for expanded story; BH, see July 9)

University of Texas at Austin

June 29, 2015: the Supreme Court agreed to take a second look at a challenge to the use of race in admissions decisions by the University of Texas at Austin, reviving a potent challenge to affirmative action in higher education. When the court last considered the case in 2013, supporters of affirmative action were nervous. But the court kicked the can down the road in what appeared to be a compromise decision. In returning to the case, the court signaled that it might be prepared to issue a major decision on the role race may play in government decision making.

In 2013, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, writing for the majority, said the appeals court had been insufficiently skeptical of the program, which has unusual features. The appeals court then endorsed the program for a second time.  [NYT article] (BH, see June 30; Affirmative Action, see June 23, 2016)


June 29, 2017: a new report revealed that there was never a reason for officer Roy Oliver to shoot and kill Jordan Edwards . The report revealed that there was never even a reason for authorities to be at the party the teen was attending.

No teens were drinking or doing illicit drugs at a house party in suburban Dallas where Edwards, 15, was killed on April 29, a law enforcement official told the Dallas Morning News this week.

A newly released autopsy report also revealed that Edwards was not under the influence when Oliver shot him. The officer was responding to a reports that teens had been drinking at a party. [CNN article] (see July 18)

Emmett Till

June 29, 2022: an arrest warrant for kidnapping tied to the killing of Emmett Till was discovered.

The warrant was for Carolyn Bryant Donham — listed at the time as “Mrs. Roy Bryant” — was issued on August 29, 1955, but never served. She was the 21-year-old white woman who said Till had harassed her in her country store in Money, Miss.

In addition to the murder charges against Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam, the two men and Carolyn Bryant were investigated for kidnapping. However, cops did not pursue the case. They didn’t want to “bother” Carolyn Bryant because she had two young children to care for. [NY Daily News article] (next BH, see Aug 6; next ET, see Aug 9 or see Emmett Till for full chronology )

SCOTUS/Affirmative Action

June 29, 2023: The Supreme Court rejected affirmative action at colleges and universities around the nation, declaring that the race-conscious admissions programs at Harvard and the University of North Carolina were unlawful and sharply curtailing a policy that had long been a pillar of higher education.

The vote was 6 to 3, with the court’s liberal members in dissent.

“The Harvard and U.N.C. admissions programs cannot be reconciled with the guarantees of the equal protection clause,” Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. wrote for the majority. “Both programs lack sufficiently focused and measurable objectives warranting the use of race, unavoidably employ race in a negative manner, involve racial stereotyping and lack meaningful end points.” [NYT  article] (next BH, see July 25)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

June 29 Music et al

Jimi Hendrix

June 29, 1962: received an honorable discharge on the basis of “unsuitability” (see Hendrix military for expanded chronology)

Bookends  again

June 29 – July 26, 1968: Simon and Garfunkel’s Bookends  again the Billboard #1 album.

The [bumpy] Road to Bethel

June 29, 1969: Wes Pomeroy met with the Tri-County Citizen Band Radio Club and they agreed to assist with the Festival.

Around the same time, John Fabri spoke with NYC Chief Inspector George P McManus and McManus promised cooperation with getting NYC police officers to work at the festival. (see Chronology for expanded story)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism


Bombing Hanoi

June 29, 1966: U.S. planes begin bombing Hanoi and Haiphong.  [video report] (see June 30)

Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers

June 29, 1971: Alaska Senator Mike Gravel convened a hearing of the Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Grounds in the middle of the night (and only he attends). He reads the Pentagon Papers aloud for three hours, officially entering them into the Senate record. (see DE/PP for expanded story)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism


Furman v. Georgia

June 29, 1972: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled by a vote of 5-4 that capital punishment, as it was currently employed on the state and federal level, is unconstitutional. The majority held that, in violation of the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution, the death penalty qualified as “cruel and unusual punishment,” primarily because states employed execution in “arbitrary and capricious ways,” especially in regard to race. It was the first time that the nation’s highest court had ruled against capital punishment. However, because the Supreme Court suggested new legislation that could make death sentences constitutional again, such as the development of standardized guidelines for juries that decide sentences, it was not an outright victory for opponents of the death penalty. [Oyez article] (see November 21, 1974)

Coker v. Georgia

June 29, 1977: shortly after it revived state death penalty schemes in Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the U.S. Supreme Court was asked [in Coker v. Georgia] to determine whether the Eighth Amendment’s ban on cruel and unusual punishments prohibited the death penalty for rape. Justice Bryon White’s plurality opinion for the Supreme Court [in a 7-2 vote] reversed the sentence, finding the death penalty disproportionate to the crime of raping an adult woman.  [Oyez article] (see July 2, 1982)

Thompson v. Oklahoma

June 29, 1988: the main issue the Supreme Court considered in Thompson v. Oklahoma was whether it was constitutional to execute a person who was a ‘child’ at the time they committed the offense. Thompson’s attorneys argued that he should not be executed because this would violate Thompson’s rights, as a ‘child,’ under the Eighth Amendment, which forbids ‘cruel and unusual punishment. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in a 5-3 majority decision, to vacate the order to excute Thompson. The majority opinion by Justice John Paul Stevens noted that “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society’ compelled the conclusion that it would be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution to execute a person for a crime committed as a fifteen-year-old.” [Justia article] (see June 26, 1989)

Glossip v Gross

June 29, 2015: in Glossip v Gross, the US Supreme Court ruled 5 – 4 against three death row inmates who had sought to bar the use of an execution drug they said risked causing excruciating pain. In the process, two dissenting members of the court — Justices Stephen G. Breyer and Ruth Bader Ginsburg — came very close to announcing that they were ready to rule the death penalty unconstitutional. This gave rise to slashing debate with Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas about the reliability and effectiveness of the punishment, a dispute that overshadowed the core issue in the case. [NYT article] (see July 15)

Federal Executions

June 29 2020: the Supreme Court let stand an appeals court ruling allowing the Trump administration to resume executions in federal death penalty cases after a 17-year hiatus. The court’s order cleared the way for the executions of four men in the coming months.

Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Sonia Sotomayor said they would have heard the case. [NYT article] (next DP, see July 14)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism


June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

June 29, 1976: Seychelles independent of United Kingdom. (see June 27, 1977)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Religion and Public Education

June 29, 1983: in Mueller v. Allen, the US Supreme Court decided that a Minnesota tax deduction for school tuition, transportation, books, and supplies is allowable because both public and private school parents can benefit. The Court acknowledged that tuition-paying parents of religious school children reap the largest benefits, but the Court held that “whatever unequal effect may be attributed to the statutory classification can fairly be regarded as a rough return for the benefits . . . provided to the State and all taxpayers by parents sending their children to parochial schools.” [Oyez article] (see August 11, 1984)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

June 29, 1988: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in CWA v. Beck that, in a union security agreement, a union can collect as dues from non-members only that money necessary to perform its duties as a collective bargaining representative. [Justia article] (see March 22, 1990)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Fair Housing & Native Americans

June 29, 1988: Indian Housing Act gave HUD new responsibilities for housing needs of Native Americans and Alaskan Indians. Housing and Community Development Act allowed sale of public housing to resident management corporations. Fair Housing Amendments Act made it easier for victims of discrimination to sue, stiffened penalties for offenders. [Gov Track article] (FH, see November 28, 1990; NA, see Oct 17)

June 29, 2022: on July 9, 2020, Native Americans in Oklahoma rejoiced when the Supreme Court ruled that the eastern half of Oklahoma is on tribal land, and that the state could not bring criminal prosecutions for crimes on Indian land without the consent of the Indian tribes, but on this date, the court narrowed that decision.

In the aftermath of the 2020 decision, the state was no longer empowered to prosecute those accused of committing crimes on Indian territory. Only the tribal courts, or the federal government, could do that, and the tribal courts were generally not authorized to prosecute non-Indians. According to the federal government, effect of that decision was a 400% increase in federal prosecutions from 2020 to 2021, with many people either not held accountable or receiving lighter sentences in plea deals.

In light of that, Oklahoma’s governor and attorney general asked the Supreme Court to reverse its earlier decision. The high court refused, but on this date it issued a more limited decision, declaring that the state may prosecute crimes committed against Native American victims by non-Indians in Indian country. Bottom line: power to prosecute would most likely now shift back to the state, and away from the federal government. [NPR article] (next NA, see July 15)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism


Women’s Health

June 29, 1992: in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Court upheld four restrictions on abortion in a Pennsylvania law, invalidated one, but preserved the basic right to an abortion. The decision surprised many observers, who thought the Court would very likely use the case as an opportunity to overturn Roe v. Wade (January 22, 1973). The coalition of Justices Sandra Day O’Connor, David Souter and Anthony Kennedy established a new standard for evaluating abortion restrictions, holding that they could not place an “undue burden” on access to abortions.  [Oyez article] (F, see Nov 3; BC, see March 10, 1993)

Malala Yousafzai

June 29, 2014: it was announced that Malala Yousufzai, shot and severely wounded  by the Taliban because she advocated education for girls, won the Liberty Medal from the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia. “It’s an honour to be awarded the Liberty Medal,” Yousufzai, 17 said. “I accept this award on behalf of all the children around the world who are struggling to get education.” The medal has been awarded annually since 1989. [article] (see Sept 12)

Women’s Health

June 29, 2015: the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to temporarily block parts of a strict new Texas abortion law. The court granted a request by women’s health providers, which had asked the court to temporarily put on hold a 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruling from June 9. The groups asked the high court to put the provisions on hold until they can file a formal petition asking the justices to take the case. [Reuters article](BC, see July 14; Texas, see June 27, 2016)

Iowa Supreme Court

June 29, 2018: the Iowa Supreme Court blocked a law requiring a 72-hour waiting period before a woman can get an abortion. The court ruled that the law violated the Iowa Constitution, siding with a lawsuit filed by Planned Parenthood of Iowa and the American Civil Liberties Union of Iowa. The organizations sued the state over the law approved by lawmakers last year. (next WH, see Nov 20)

Medical Services v. Russo

June 29, 2020: in Medical Services v. Russo, the Supreme Court struck down a Louisiana law that could have left the state with a single abortion clinic.

The vote was 5 to 4, with Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. voting with the court’s four-member liberal wing but not adopting its reasoning. The chief justice said respect for precedent compelled him to vote with the majority.

The case was the court’s first on abortion since President Trump’s appointments of two justices shifted the court to the right.

The Louisiana law, which was enacted in 2014, required doctors performing abortions to have admitting privileges at nearby hospitals. [NYT article] (next WH, see July 8)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism


June 29, 1998: Attorneys for Dale Young confirm that the Lewinsky family friend testified before the grand jury that Monica Lewinsky spoke to her of an intimate relationship between herself and President Clinton. According to Young’s testimony, Lewinsky confided in her in 1996, detailing the limitations and rules Clinton had placed upon their relationship. (see Clinton for expanded story)

Crime and Punishment

June 29, 2006: the Supreme Court ruled 5-3 that President George W. Bush’s plan to try Guantanamo Bay detainees in military tribunals violated U.S. and international law. [NYT article] (T, see April 11, 2007; C&P, see May 17, 2010)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestone

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

June 29, 2007: the first-generation Apple iPhone went on sale in the US. Masses of consumers lined up in advance of the phone’s release, camping out on city streets outside Apple stores and retailers. Seventy four days after its market release, Apple recorded one million iPhones sold. (see Nov 19)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

June 29, 2015: the US Supreme Court blocked one of the Obama administration’s most ambitious environmental initiatives, an Environmental Protection Agency regulation meant to limit emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from coal-fired power plants.

Industry groups and some 20 states had challenged the E.P.A.’s decision to regulate the emissions, saying the agency had failed to take into account the punishing costs its rule would impose.

The Clean Air Act required the regulation to be “appropriate and necessary.” The challengers said the agency had run afoul of that law by  deciding to regulate the emissions without first undertaking a cost-benefit analysis. Writing for the majority, Justice Antonin Scalia wrote: “It is not rational, never mind ‘appropriate,’ to impose billions of dollars in economic costs in return for a few dollars in health or environmental benefits. Statutory context supports this reading.” [NYT article] (see July 2)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Voting Rights

June 29, 2015: in Arizona State Legislature v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission, the Supreme Court ruled 5-4  that a voter-approved independent redistricting commission in Arizona was constitutional. The conservative wing of the court was in the minority.

In response to complaints that the state legislature was engaging in partisan gerrymandering of congressional districts, Arizona voters approved an independent commission to draw district lines in a 2000 ballot initiative. The commission has two Republicans and two Democrats, who  legislative leaders choose from a list composed by the state’s Commission on Appellate Court Appointments, in addition to a chairman who may not  be a member of either party. Republican legislators sued after the 2012 election, arguing that they shouldn’t be completely cut out of the district-drawing process. The case hinged on one word: “legislature.” It arose out of a debate over the Constitution’s elections clause, which dictates that the  “times, places, and manner” of federal elections “shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof.” (see Aug 5)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activism


June 29, 2015: Jeff Amyx, who owned Amyx Hardware & Roofing Supplies in Grainger County, Tennessee decided to express his beliefs following the Supreme Court’s ruling allowing same-sex marriage by putting up a sign that reads, “No Gays Allowed.” Amyx added the sign because gay and lesbian couples were against his religion.

Amyx, who was also a baptist minister, said he realized that LGBTQ people are not afraid to stand for what they believe in. He said it showed him that Christian people should be brave enough to stand for what they believe in.

“They gladly stand for what they believe in, why can’t I? They believe their way is right, I believe it’s wrong. But yet I’m going to take more persecution than them because I’m standing for what I believe in,” Amyx said. [Advocate article] (see June 30)

June 29 Peace Love Art Activis
June 29 Peace Love Art Activism,  June 29 Peace Love Art Activism,
June 29 Peace Love Art Activism, June 29 Peace Love Art Activism

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Black History

Freedmen’s Savings and Trust Company

June 28, 1874: The Freedmen’s Savings and Trust Company failed, taking with it millions of dollars in Black wealth. The bank was first incorporated on March 3, 1865, the same day the Freedmen’s Bureau was created, and formed to help previously enslaved people economically transition to freedom.

The volatile post-war economy that eventually led to the Panic of 1873 hurt the band and by 1874 fraud and mismanagement by senior leaders and the board of directors had weakened the bank significantly. For example, white businessman and politician Henry D. Cooke approved unsecured loans to his own quarry operation while sitting on the bank’s board; when his company could not repay the loans following a stock market crash in 1873, the quarry went bankrupt and the bank was devastated. [EJI article] (next BH, see Aug 25)

see Scottsboro Nine for more

June 28, 1934: Samuel Leibowitz filed for new trials. Ruling unanimously, the Alabama Supreme Court denied his request.

Malcolm X

June 28, 1964: X founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity. The group lasted until his death. [Black Past article] (next BH, see June 29;  next MX, see February 4, 1965)

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

June 28, 1978: the  US Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional the admission process of the Medical School at the University of California at Davis, which set aside 16 of the 100 seats for African American students. The Court held that while affirmative action systems are constitutional, a quota system based on race is unconstitutional. [Oyez article] (BH, see Sept 15; Affirmative Action, see June 23, 2003)

Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1

June 28, 2007: the US Supreme Court held that the student assignment plan of Seattle Public Schools and Jefferson County Public Schools did not meet the narrowly tailored and compelling interest requirements for a race-based assignment plan because it was used only to achieve “racial balance.” Public schools may not use race as the sole determining factor for assigning students to schools. Race-conscious objectives to achieve diverse school environment may be acceptable. [Oyez article] (BH, see Aug 10; SD, see April 18, 2013)

Mississippi flag

June 28, 2020:  Mississippi lawmakers voted to bring down, once and for all, the state flag dominated by the Confederate battle emblem that had flown for 126 years, adding a punctuation point to years of efforts to take down relics of the Confederacy across the South.

The flag, the only state banner left in the country with the overt Confederate symbol, served for many as an inescapable sign of Mississippi’s racial scars and of the consequences of that history in defining perceptions of the state. [NYT story] (next BH, see July 6)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

June 28, 1894: President Grover Cleveland signed legislation declaring Labor Day an official U.S. holiday for federal employees. (see Sept 1)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

June 28, 1914: Archduke Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne, assassinated by a Bosnian Serb anarchist. [Lib of Cong articles] (see August 4, 1914)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


Voting Rights

June 28, 1920:  Democratic National Convention opened in San Francisco. Abby Scott Baker and other NWP members, notably Betty Gram, Elizabeth Kent, Izetta Jewel Brown, and Sara Bard Field, attend convention and obtain Democratic Party’s support for ratification and suffrage plank on platform. ( see July 28; VR, see Aug 20)

U.S. Air Force

June 28, 1976: the first women entered the U.S. Air Force Academy. [NBC article] (see July 6)

Women’s Health

June 28, 2016: the Supreme Court allowed Washington state to require pharmacies to dispense Plan B or other emergency contraceptives, rejecting an appeal from pharmacists who said they had religious objections to providing the drugs.

The justices’ order left  in place rules first adopted in 2007 following reports that some women had been denied access to emergency contraceptives that are effective when taken within a few days of unprotected sex. Pharmacies must fill lawful prescriptions, but individual pharmacists with moral objections can refer patients to another pharmacist at the same store. [Spokesman-Review article] (see Aug 18)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


June 28, 1940: Congress passed the Smith Act, officially the Alien Registration Act of 1940, making it a crime to advocate the overthrow of the government. The law, significantly, criminalized advocacy and not specific actions related to the violence overthrow of the government. [McKendree article] (FS, see late November 1941; Smith Act, see June 4, 1951)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


June 28, 1957: President Dwight D. Eisenhower spoke at the opening of an Islamic Center in Washington, D.C. He stated: ““…. And I should like to assure you, my Islamic friends, that under the American Constitution, under American tradition, and in American hearts, this Center, this place of worship, is just as welcome as could be a similar edifice of any other religion. Indeed, America would fight with her whole strength for your right to have here your own church and worship according to your own conscience.” [full text] (see December 7, 1960)

Lemon v. Kurtzman

June 28, 1971: the US Supreme Court clarified the standard for determining whether a form of public aid to religious schools violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment. Writing for the majority, Chief Justice Burger articulated a three-part test for laws dealing with religious establishment. To be constitutional, a statute must have “a secular legislative purpose,” it must have principal effects which neither advance nor inhibit religion, and it must not foster “an excessive government entanglement with religion.” The Court found that the subsidization of parochial schools furthered a process of religious inculcation, and that the “continuing state surveillance” necessary to enforce the specific provisions of the laws would inevitably entangle the state in religious affairs. The Court also noted the presence of an unhealthy “divisive political potential” concerning legislation which appropriates support to religious schools. [Justia article] (see May 15, 1972)

Mitchell v. Helms

June 28, 2000: the US Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of a Louisiana state program that provided books, computers, lab equipment, televisions, and video tape recorders to religious schools, thus broadening the range of permissible state assistance to religious schools.

In a 6-3 plurality decision delivered by Justice Clarence Thomas, the Court held that that Chapter 2, as applied in Jefferson Parish, is not a law respecting an establishment of religion simply because many of the private schools receiving Chapter 2 aid in the parish are religiously affiliated. Turning to neutrality to distinguish between indoctrination attributable to the State and that which is not, Justice Thomas wrote for the Court, “[i]f the religious, irreligious, and areligious are all alike eligible for governmental aid, no one would conclude that any indoctrination that any particular recipient conducts has been done at the behest of the government.” [Justia article] (see June 27, 2002)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

John Henry Faulk

June 28, 1962: John Henry Faulk had been a popular CBS radio talk show host for six years in the 1950s. He lost his job in 1957 and was blacklisted after he was accused of being a Communist in the notorious anti-Communist report, Red Channels [see June 22, 1950]. Faulk sued and was awarded $3.5 million in damages. The award was later reduced to $500,000, but the case effectively ended the practice of blacklisting in the radio and television industry.  [NYT obit ] (see Aug 5)

Dissolution of Yugoslavia

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

June 28, 2001: former Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic was handed over by Serbia to the U.N. war crimes tribunal. [NYT article] (see Yugoslavia for expanded chronology)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


June 28, 1965: the first major offensive by U.S. forces under the June 26 directive was launched by 3,000 troops of the 173rd Airborne Brigade, in conjunction with 800 Australian soldiers and a Vietnamese airborne unit. These forces assaulted a jungle area known as Viet Cong (aka, National Liberation Front) Zone D, 20 miles northeast of Saigon. The operation was called off after three days when it failed to make any major contact with the enemy. One American was killed, and nine Americans and four Australians were wounded. (see July 8)

Muhammad Ali decision

June 28, 1971: the Supreme Court reversed Muhammad Ali’s conviction for refusing induction by unanimous decision in Clay v. United States. The decision was not based on, nor did it address, the merits of Clay’s/Ali’s claims per se, rather, the Government prosecution’s procedural failure to specify which claims were rejected and which were sustained, constituted the grounds upon which the Court reversed the conviction. [Oyez article](Ali, see October 30, 1974; Vietnam, see June 30)

see Daniel Ellsberg for more

June 28, 1971: Ellsberg surrendered to face criminal charges under the Espionage Act.


June 28, 1972: Nixon announced that no new draftees would be sent to Vietnam. [Politico article]  (see July 10 > 14)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Space Race

June 28, 1965: the first commercial telephone conversation over a satellite took place over Early Bird I between America and Europe. It had capacity for 240 voice circuits or one black and white TV channel. Positioned to serve the Atlantic Ocean region, Early Bird provided commercial communications service between North America and Western Europe. It exceeded its 18 months designed in-orbit life by 2 additional years. [Researchgate article] (see July 14)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

June 28 Music et al

Big Sur Folk Festival

June 28 – 29, 1967, The Fourth Big Sur Folk Festival. (Big Sur, see Oct 3, 1968; festivals, see October 15)

  • Joan Baez
  • Judy Collins
  • Mark Spoelstra
  • Jade the Mad Muse (?)
  • Chambers Brothers
  • Mimi Fariña
  • Al Kooper
see Bath Festival of Blues for more

June 28, 1969: held at the Bath Pavilion Recreational Ground in Bath, Somerset, England with DJ John Peel. Tickets cost 18/6. The festival proved very popular, selling out all 30,000 tickets in the first week, surprising both the townsfolk and the promoters. The only major problem occurred when the Nice’s use of bagpipers caused the stage to collapse. This is often considered the first modern ‘rock’ festival in Britain

Love Theme from Romeo & Juliet

June 28 – July 11, 1969: “Love Theme from Romeo & Juliet” by Henry Mancini #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


Christopher St. Liberation Day

June 28, 1970: Christopher St. Liberation Day commemorated the one-year anniversary of the Stonewall riots. Following the event, thousands of members of the LGBTQ community march through New York into Central Park. In the coming decades, the annual gay pride parade spread to dozens of countries around the world. [NY Public Library article] (see October 10, 1972)

Gilbert Baker

June 28, 1978: Gilbert Baker, a textile artist who, after having a conversation with Harvey Milk, developed and popularized a new “gay logo” – the rainbow flag. The first two flags were flown on on this date in San Francisco, marking a new era in LGBTQ pride and visibility.

About thirty of Gilbert’s friends helped make the rainbow flags, even though most of them had never used a sewing machine. Cleve Jones, raised funds to pay for the fabric, dye, and thread.

Lynn Segerblom, a costume designer and free-spirited hippie who at the time was known as “Faerie Argyle Rainbow,” was the resident tie-dye expert. She concocted all of the color formulas.  (see Nov 7)

Boy Scouts of America et al. v. Dale

June 28, 2000: the US Supreme Court decided that held that the constitutional right to freedom of association allows a private organization like the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) to exclude a person from membership when “the presence of that person affects in a significant way the group’s ability to advocate public or private viewpoints.” The Supreme Court ruled that opposition to homosexuality is part of BSA’s “expressive message” and that allowing homosexuals as adult leaders would interfere with that message. [Oyez article] (LGBTQ, see Nov 7; BSA, see August 14, 2003)

Texas turns away couples

June 28, 2015: Texas state’s attorney general Ken Paxton (R) announced that county clerks would be able to turn away gay couples seeking marriage licenses based on religious objections. Paxton said that “numerous lawyers stand ready to assist clerks defending their religious beliefs.”

Lawmakers in Louisiana and Mississippi, which also previously had bans on gay marriage, were actively resisting the ruling by delaying its implementation. Louisiana Attorney General Buddy Caldwell (R) claimed that because the Supreme Court’s ruling did not include an official order for states to begin issuing marriage licenses to gay couples, “there is not yet a legal requirement for officials to issue marriage licenses or perform marriages for same-sex couples in Louisiana.” County clerks were instructed to hold off on issuing licenses for 25 days, the amount of time states are allowed to appeal the Court’s ruling.

Mississippi Gov. Phil Bryant (R) said the Supreme Court had “usurped” each state’s “authority to regulate marriage within their borders.” He and other state leaders were considering various legal options, including halting all marriage licenses. [Reuters article](see June 29)

Transgender Student Rights

June 28, 2021: the Supreme Court left in place a decision that allowed a transgender student to use the bathroom that corresponded to his gender identity, a victory for the LGBTQ community that has been fearful the high court would take up the case and reverse a lower court opinion.

The case concerned the scope of Title IX that prohibits schools from discriminating “on the basis of sex.” It began when Gavin Grimm, a transgender male who was then a high-school student, challenged the local school board’s decision to require him to use either a unisex restroom or a restroom that corresponds to the sex, female, he was assigned at birth. [CNN article] (next Grimm, LGBTQ, and SR, see  Aug 31)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


Chemical weapons

June 28, 1987: Iraqi warplanes dropped mustard gas bombs on the Iranian town of Sardasht in two separate bombing rounds, on four residential areas. This was the first time a civilian town was targeted by chemical weapons. (see March 16, 1988)

Iraq War II

June 28, 2004: the U.S.-led coalition transferred sovereignty to the interim Iraqi government two days ahead of schedule. (see Aug 27)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


June 28, 1993: Kirk Bloodsworth was released from prison after a DNA test showed that a semen stain on the underwear of the 9-year-old girl he was twice convicted of raping and killing was not his. Bloodsworth spent one year awaiting trial, two years on death row, and then six years in prison after his death sentence was commuted to a life sentence before being exonerated. Bloodsworth was the first prisoner to have served time on death row to be exonerated with DNA testing. He received $300,000 in compensation for wrongful imprisonment and was granted a full pardon in December 1994 by Maryland Governor William Donald Schaefer. (see January 12, 1996)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Crime and Punishment

Austin v. United States

June 28, 1993: in Austin v. United States the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution applies to civil forfeiture cases.

Richard Lyle Austin was indicted for violating South Dakota’s drug laws. He pleaded guilty to one count of possession cocaine with intent to distribute and was sentenced to seven years in jail. The United States then filed an in rem action, seeking forfeiture of Austin’s mobile home and auto body shop under federal statutes that provide for forfeiture of property that is used or intended for use to facilitate the transportation of controlled substances, or related materials. Austin argued that forfeiture of his property would violate the Eighth Amendment’s Excessive Fines Clause.

In an opinion written by Justice Harry Blackmun, the Court held that civil forfeiture proceedings were “subject to the limitations of the Eight Amendment’s Excessive Fines Clause.” (Civil forfeiture, see February 20, 2019)

Enemy combatants

June 28, 2004: the Supreme Court ruled that enemy combatants can challenge their detention in U.S. courts. [Oyez article] (next C & P, see June 29, 2006)

Gun ownership

June 28, 2010: the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that Americans have the right to own a gun for self-defense anywhere they live. [NYT article] (see June 26, 2015)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Affordable Care Act

June 28, 2012: the Supreme Court ruled that the individual health insurance mandate was constitutional, upholding the central provision of President Obama’s signature Affordable Care Act. [NYT article] (see December 31, 2013)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

June 28, 2019: a Missouri state commission temporarily gave the state’s only abortion clinic more time to resolve its licensing dispute with the state health department.

The conflict had threatened to make Missouri the first state in about 45 years where women would not have access to abortion services

An official in the Administrative Hearing Commission, a body in the executive branch that resolves disputes involving state agencies gave the extension. (see July 3)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism


June 28, 2021: Justice Clarence Thomas denounced the federal government’s inconsistent approach to marijuana policy, suggesting that outright national prohibition may be unconstitutional.

While the court declined to take up a new case related to an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) investigation into tax deductions claimed by a Colorado marijuana dispensary, Thomas issued a statement that more broadly addressed the federal-state marijuana disconnect.

He specifically discussed a 2005 ruling in Gonzales v. Raich, wherein the court narrowly determined that the federal government could enforce prohibition against cannabis cultivation that took place wholly within California based on its authority to regulate interstate commerce.

Whatever the merits of Raich when it was decided, federal policies of the past 16 years have greatly undermined its reasoning,” Thomas wrote. “Once comprehensive, the Federal Government’s current approach is a half-in, half-out regime that simultaneously tolerates and forbids local use of marijuana.” [MM article] (next Cannabis, see July 14 or see CAC for expanded chronology)

June 28 Peace Love Art Activism