Tag Archives: May Peace Love Art Activism

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

 Anarchism in the US

US Labor History

May 3, 1886: Chicago, striking workers from Cyrus McCormick’s Harvester plant clash with police. Four workers were killed, and several were wounded. (2011 Taylor & Francis article) (see May 4, 1886)

National Farmers’ Holiday Association

May 3, 1932: Milo Reno, former president of the Iowa Farmers’ Union, founded the National Farmers’ Holiday Association (FHA). The FHA fought foreclosures, sometimes by blocking the roads and physically preventing a sheriff from selling a farmer’s home and land. Other times, they held penny auctions, where everyone refused to bid more than a few pennies for the farm. The farm would then be given back to its original owner with no debt and the bank would only be a few cents richer. (Encyclopedia of the Great Plains article) (see January 4, 1933)

Emma Goldman

May 3, 1935: from the New York Times: [Montreal] Emma Goldman was hailed as “one of the great women of the age,” whose qualities of mind and should would be remembered long after she had gone by Rabbi Stern of Montreal last night when friends and admirers of Miss Goldman gave a farewell dinner before she leaves for Europe.” (see Goldman for expanded story)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

NAACP

May 3, 1910: the National Negro Committee first met in 1919. On this date it chose “National Association for the Advancement of Colored People” as its organization name. (see June 25)

Scottsboro Boys/Sheriff Matt Wann

May 3, 1932: Sheriff Matt Wann murdered while serving a warrant for the arrest of a Harry Hambrick for the failure to support his wife. Wann had mistakenly arrested Hambrick’s brother and Hambrick shot and killed Wann. Hambrick was never caught nor tried in abstencia. Several deputies were with Wann assisting with the arrest.

Scottsboro Boys/Olen Montgomery

May 3, 1934: after a May Day rally to support them, Olen Montgomery wrote to his mother:  “That thing they had here on May Day what good did it do. Not any at all. I’m still locked up in the cell. Instead of the I.L.D. trying to make it better for me here in jail they are making it harder for me by trying to demand the people to do things. Listen, send me some money. Send me three dollars like I told you in my first letter.” (see Scottsboro for expanded story)

Continued student protest

May 3, 1963: despite the brutal treatment by police the day before, hundreds more school children marched in Birmingham.  Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene “Bull” Connor directed local police and firemen to attack the children with high-pressure fire hoses, batons, and police dogs. Images of children being brutally assaulted by officers and dogs appeared on television and in newspapers throughout the nation and world, provoking global outrage. The United States Department of Justice soon intervened. (see May 7)

Viola Liuzzo

May 3, 1965: the trial of Collie Wilkins, one of Viola Liuzzo’s killers began. (BH, see May 4; see Liuzzo for expanded story)

Northwestern University

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 1968: more than 100 African-American students took over a building at Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. They wanted African-American history, literature and art included in the curriculum. Their efforts led to the establishment of an African-American studies department, which now offers a doctoral program.  (NU article) (see May 11)

Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act

May 3, 2007: The House of Representatives passed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, but the bill gets stuck in Senate committee. (BH, see May 10; see Shepard for expanded chronology; LGBTQ, see June 14)

Autherine Lucy Foster

May 3, 2019: the University of Alabama awarded Autherine Lucy Foster, the first black student to enroll at the University of Alabama, a Doctor of Humane Letters degree

Foster, 89, said in a statement: “I love the University of Alabama, and it is an honor to be recognized in this way I am thankful for opportunities such as this, which allow us to talk about the past while looking to the future.” (next BH, see May 22; next Lucy, see August 19, 2020)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Alien Land Law

May 3, 1913: California enacted the Alien Land Law, barring Asian immigrants from owning land. California tightened the law further in 1920 and 1923, barring the leasing of land and land ownership by American-born children of Asian immigrant parents or by corporations controlled by Asian immigrants. These laws were supported by the California press, as well as the Japanese and Korean (later Asiatic) Exclusion League and the Anti-Jap Laundry League (both founded by labor unions) – groups claiming tens of thousands of members.

However, animosity for Asian immigrants was not solely local. In May 1912, President Woodrow Wilson wrote to a California backer: “In the matter of Chinese and Japanese coolie immigration I stand for the national policy of exclusion (or restricted immigration). … We cannot make a homogeneous population out of people who do not blend with the Caucasian race. … Oriental coolieism will give us another race problem to solve, and surely we have had our lesson.”

California did not stand alone. Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming all enacted discriminatory laws restricting Asians’ rights to hold land in America. In 1923, the United States Supreme Court reviewed various versions of the discriminatory land laws – and upheld every single one. Most of these discriminatory state laws remained in place until the 1950s, though Kansas and New Mexico did not repeal their provisions until 2002 and 2006, respectively. Florida has to date refused to repeal a constitutional provision authorizing its government to enact such discriminatory legislation. (California online archives) (see  December 6, 1915)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Pledge of Allegiance

Walter Gobitas

May 3, 1937: as the rest of the world headed toward World War II, patriot fervor swept the U.S., as it had before, during and after World War I. One expression of that movement involved state laws requiring public school students to salute the flag each morning. The Jehovah’s Witnesses, however, regarded saluting the flag as an expression of a commitment to a secular authority and unfaithfulness to God. As a result, some families had their children refuse to participate in the compulsory salute. On this day, Walter Gobitas (the family name was misspelled in the court case) sued the Minersville, Pennsylvania, School Board, in a case that ended up in the Supreme Court (Minersville School District v. Gobitis; June 3, 1940). The Court upheld the compulsory salute, but, in a dramatic reversal three years later, ruled the compulsory flag salute unconstitutional in West Virginia v. Barnette on June 14, 1943). (see Pledge for expanded story)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Fair Housing

Shelley v. Kraemer

May 3, 1948: the Supreme Court ruled that racially-restrictive covenants violate the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, even covenants between private individuals. In Shelley v. Kraemer, the Court overturned a covenant among members of a neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri that restricted home sales to only white families. (Oyez article) (see July 15, 1949)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Judicial Milestone

Hernandez v Texas

May 3, 1954:  unanimous Supreme Court decision re the question: Is it a denial of the Fourteenth Amendment equal protection clause to try a defendant of a particular race or ethnicity before a jury where all persons of his race or ancestry have, because of that race or ethnicity, been excluded by the state?

The Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment protected those beyond the two classes of white or Negro, and extends to other racial groups in communities depending upon whether it can be factually established that such a group exists within a community. The Court concluded that the Fourteenth Amendment “is not directed solely against discrimination due to a ‘two-class theory’” but in this case covers those of Mexican ancestry. (Oyez article)(see June 16, 1958)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

173rd Airborne

May 3, 1965: the lead element of the 173rd Airborne Brigade (“Sky Soldiers”), stationed in Okinawa, departed for South Vietnam. It was the first U.S. Army ground combat unit committed to the war. Combat elements of the 173rd Airborne Brigade included the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Battalions, 503rd Infantry; the 3rd Battalion, 319th Airborne Artillery; Company D, 16th Armor; Troop E, 17th Cavalry; and the 335th Aviation company. (see May 8)

James A. Rhodes

May 3, 1970: during a press conference, the Republican governor of Ohio, James A. Rhodes, called anti-war protesters “the worst type of people we harbor in America, worse than the brown shirts and the communist element.” Governor Rhodes ordered the National Guard to quell the demonstration at Kent State University. (see Rhodes for expanded story)

Mayday Tribe

May 3, 1971: the Harris Poll claimed that 60 percent of Americans opposed the Vietnam War. Police arrested about 7,000 antiwar protesters after skirmishes with metropolitan police and Federal troops throughout large areas of the Washington, DC. About 150 were also injured in the six hours of disturbances as the protesters, demanding an immediate halt to the war in Vietnam, were thwarted in their plan to stop government operations. Shortly before 11 P.M., more than 12 hours after most of the arrests were made, Will Wilson, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division, set up procedures for them to be released. The protesters called themselves the Mayday Tribe.

Rennie Davis, a leader of the Mayday Tribe, a militant activist and one of the Chicago Seven convicted under the Federal anti-riot law, was taken into custody by the Federal Bureau of Investigation about 4 P.M. as he emerged from a news conference in midtown Washington. He was held on $25,000 bond on a charge of conspiring to violate citizens’ rights to travel in interstate commerce and to work for agencies of the United States Government. A warrant was issued for the arrest of John Froines, another member of the Chicago Seven, on the same charge. (Vietnam, see May 27; Chi8, see November 2, 1972)

WAR POWERS ACT

May 3, 1973: Clement J. Zablocki (D-WI) introduced the War Powers Act. It intended to check the president’s power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress. (see July 18)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Japanese Internment Camps

 Michi Weglyn

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 1976: Weglyn’s Years of Infamy published. It became one of the most widely read and cited books on the internment. (see Internment for expanded story)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

Walter LaGrand

May 3, 1999: Arizona executed German national Walter LaGrand. In addition to US courts, the International Court of Justice in the Hague heard the case where Judge Christopher Weeramantry of Sri Lanka urged the US Government to use “all the measures at its disposal’ to prevent the execution. Germany asked the world court to intervene after Arizona Governor Jane Hull rejected appeals from German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder and Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer to stop the execution. Germany did not have the death penalty and contended Arizona failed to advise the LaGrand brothers of their right to consular assistance at their trials. The LaGrands were born in Germany but came to the United States when they were children.

LaGrand twice refused offers of lethal injeciton and reportedly chose the gas chamber to protest the death penalty. As of Apr. 21, 2010, LaGrand is the last prisoner to be executed by the gas chamber. (see January 31, 2000)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

U.N. Human Rights Commission

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 2001, the United States was voted off the U.N. Human Rights Commission in Geneva for the first time since its inception in 1947. The commission investigates human-rights abuses around the world. France, Austria and Sweden were chosen for the three seats allocated to Western countries that were up for election. One diplomat speculated that U.S. policies on the Middle East might have swung some countries to reject its candidacy, but according to Reuters, some diplomats said they believed the Bush administration’s opposition to the Kyoto climate change treaty as well as its insistence on a missile defense contributed to the loss. (UN Human Rights Council site)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

Phoenix Bishop Thomas J. O’Brien

May 3, 2003:  in a five-page agreement with a county prosecutor, Phoenix Bishop Thomas J. O’Brien acknowledged he hid allegations of sex abuse by priests and surrenders some of his authority. The deal is extraordinary, both as a personal statement of wrongdoing and as an agreement between a church leader and civil authority that changes how a diocese does business. (see June 18)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Medical Marijuana

Puerto Rico

May 3, 2015: Gov. Alejandro Garcia Padilla, the governor of Puerto Rico, signed an executive order to permit the use of medical marijuana. (see June 1 or see CCC for expanded chronology)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

May 3, 2018: House Speaker Paul D. Ryan (R-Wis.) reversed course and agreed to keep the Rev. Patrick J. Conroy on as House chaplain after an extraordinary showdown that included the priest alleging anti-Catholic bias by Jonathan Burks,Ryan’s chief of staff.

Conroy, who was forced to step down by Ryan on April 15, sent the speaker a letter rescinding his resignation and vowed to remain until the end of the year. Within hours Ryan backed down, ending the possibility of what the speaker feared would be a “protracted fight” over what is supposed to be a unifying and spiritual position in the partisan chamber.

During the tax-cut debate, Conroy delivered a prayer that some took as siding with Democrats. “May their efforts these days guarantee that there are not winners and losers under new tax laws, but benefits balanced and shared by all,” Conroy said. (see June 20, 2019)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Voting Rights

May 3, 2019: a three-judge panel from the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Ohio ruled that Ohio’s congressional map was an “unconstitutional partisan gerrymander” and must be redrawn by the 2020 election.

In the ruling the panel argued that the map was intentionally drawn “to disadvantage Democratic voters and entrench Republican representatives in power.”

The court argued the map violates voters’ constitutional right to choose their representatives and exceeded the state’s powers under Article I of the Constitution.

“Accordingly, we declare Ohio’s 2012 map an unconstitutional partisan gerrymander, enjoin its use in the 2020 election, and order the enactment of a constitutionally viable replacement,” the judges wrote in their decision. (see June 17)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

Weems v United States

May 2, 1910: in Weems v. United States, the Supreme Court made a ruling that would significantly affect the debate on the death penalty. The case concerned a defendant who had been sentenced to fifteen years of hard labor, a heavy fine, and a number of other penalties for the relatively minor crime of falsifying official records. The Court overturned the sentence, ruling that the penalty was too harsh considering the nature of the offense. Ultimately, in the Weems decision, the Court set three important precedents concerning any sentencing:

  1. Cruel and unusual punishment is defined by the changing norms and standards of society and therefore is not based on historical interpretations.
  2. Courts may decide whether a punishment is unnecessarily cruel with regard to physical pain.
  3. Courts may decide whether a punishment is unnecessarily cruel with regard to psychological pain. (Justia article) (see February 8, 1924)
Maryland

May 2, 2013: Maryland’s Governor Governor Martin O’Malley signed a bill repealing the death penalty. The legislation went into effect October 1, 2013. In those cases in which the state had filed a notice to seek a death sentence, ‘the notice shall be considered withdrawn and it shall be considered a notice to seek a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole under specified circumstances,’ according to a press release from the Governor’s office. (see Oct 30)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights

May 2, 1914: suffrage parades and meetings held in nearly every state and Washington, D.C. (F, see May 9; VR, see January 12, 1915)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

ADA

Buck v Bell

May 2 Peace Love Activism

May 2, 1927: with one dissenting vote, the US Supreme Court ruled in Buck v. Bell that the compulsory sterilization of mental defectives such as Carrie S. Buck, a young Virginia woman, was constitutional under “careful” state safeguards. In his majority opinion, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote:  “(It) is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind…Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

This ruling has never been overturned.

Carrie had became pregnant when she was seventeen as a result of being raped by her foster parent’s nephew. Reporters and researchers that visited Buck later in life claimed she was a woman of normal intelligence. Later in life, she expressed regret that she had been unable to have additional children. Carrie Buck died alone in a nursing home in 1983; she was buried in Charlottesville near her only child, Vivian, who had died at age eight. (see May 2, 2002)

At the Nuremberg trials after World War II, Nazi doctors explicitly cited Holmes’s opinion in Buck v. Bell as part of their defense. (2016 NPR story) (see January 29, 1929)

Carrie Buck

May 2 Peace Love Activism

May 2, 2002: Virginia Governor Mark R. Warner offered the “Commonwealth’s sincere apology for Virginia’s participation in eugenics.” at the erection of an historical marker for Carrie Buck in Charlottesville, Virginia where she was born. (see June 20)

Boy Scouts

May 2, 2018: the 108 year old Boy Scouts of America announced that its new name will simply be Scouts BSA. The change would take effect in February 2019. (F, see May 22)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

McCarthyism

Joe McCarthy

May 2, 1957: Joe McCarthy died at the Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland from a condition related to his cirrhotic liver.  He was forty-eight. (NY Daily News Flashback article) (see May 18, 1957)

Dalton Trumbo

May 2, 1975: Hollywood screenwriter Dalton Trumbo finally received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the 1956 film, The Brave One. The announced winner of the award at the Oscars ceremony on March 27, 1957 was “Robert Rich,” Trumbo’s pseudonym while he was blacklisted for his political views. (see May 17, 1995)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Birmingham students fire-hosed

May 2, 1963: more than 700 black children protesting racial segregation in Birmingham, Alabama, were arrested, blasted with fire hoses, clubbed by police, and attacked by police dogs. As part of the Children’s Crusade launched by Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to revive the Birmingham anti-segregation campaign, more than 1000 African American children trained in nonviolent tactics walked out of their classes and assembled at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church to march to downtown Birmingham. Hundreds were arrested and transported to jail in school buses and paddy wagons but the children refused to relent. (see May 4)

Dee/Moore Murders

May 2, 1964: members of the Ku Klux KIan kidnapped Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore from the main street in Meadville, Mississippi and took them to the Homochitto National Forest where they were tied to a tree and beaten. The Klansmen placed Dee and Moore in a trunk of a car and transported them to Tallulah, LA, where they dumped them, while they were still alive, into the Old Mississippi River. (Cold Cases Project article) (BH, see, May 5; see Dee & Moore for expanded story)

Black Panthers

 

May 2, 1967: armed members of the Black Panther Party entered the California state capital to protest a bill that restricted the carrying of arms in public. Outrage at the incident will lead to the beginning of restrictive gun laws and a backlash of the re-interpretation of the 2nd amendment as the right of individuals (not simply the militia) to bear arms. (BH, see May 6; BP, see Oct 28)

BLACK & SHOT/Walter Scott

May 2, 2017: Michael T. Slager, the former South Carolina police officer who spent years fighting charges of shooting and killing Walter Scott, an unarmed black man, pleaded guilty in his federal case. “We hope that Michael’s acceptance of responsibility will help the Scott family as they continue to grieve their loss,” Slager’s lawyer, Andrew J. Savage III said in a statement. (Scott, see Dec 7)

BLACK & SHOT/Jordan Edwards

May 2, 2017:  police chief Jonathan Haber of the Balch Springs Police Department announced that he had fired officer, Roy Oliver who used a rifle to shoot into a moving vehicle full of teenagers and killed Jordan Edwards, 15, as he was seated in the front passenger seat.

Haber said his decision was based in part on the department’s internal affairs investigation, which had been completed, and the body-camera footage from the two officers at the scene, (JE, see May 5)

BLACK & SHOT/Alton B Sterling

May 2, 2017: (see July 5, 2016) the federal government announced that, officers, Blane Salamoni and Howie Lake II, the two white police officers in the fatal shooting on the July 5, 2016 of Alton B. Sterling, a black man in Baton Rouge, La would not be charged. The incident caused widespread unrest. State charges were still pending. (B & S, see May 5; see Sterling, see March 27, 2018)

Rashon Nelson/Donte Robinson

May 2, 2018:  Rashon Nelson and Donte Robinson, the two black men arrested at a Philadelphia Starbucks because they were waiting for a third person and hadn’t ordered anything to that point, settled with Philadelphia for $1 each. After the arrests they were released and no charges were filed. City officials also promised to set up a $200,000 program for young entrepreneurs.

Starbucks itself settled wtih Robinson and Nelson for an undisclosed sum and an offer of free college tuition to complete bachelor’s degrees through an online program with Arizona State University that Starbucks created four years ago for its employees. (BH, see May 22; Starbucks, see May 29)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 Music et al

Enoch Light

May 2 – 8, 1960: Enoch Light/Terry Snyder and the All Stars’ was Billboard’s #1 stereo album.  Enoch Henry Light was a classical violinist, bandleader, and recording engineer. As A & R chief and vice-president of Grand Award Records, he founded Command Records in 1959. Light’s name was prominent on many albums both as musician and producer. He is credited with being one of the first musicians to go to extreme lengths to create high-quality recordings that took full advantage of the technical capabilities of home audio equipment of the late 1950s and early 1960s, particularly stereo effects that bounced the sounds between the right and left channels (often described as “ping-pong”). He also was the first to use the “gate fold” style album cover that became well-known with the Beatles Sgt. Pepper’s album in 1967. (see August 30 – September 3, 1963)

The Beatles

May 2 – June 5, 1964: The Beatles’ Second Album (released April 10) became the Billboard #1 album (only four of the twelve songs were written by the Beatles). (see May 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

Student protests

May 2, 1964: Some 400–1,000 students march through Times Square, New York and another 700 in San Francisco, in the first major student demonstration against the Vietnam War. Smaller marches also occur in Boston, Seattle, and Madison, Wisconsin. (see May 24)

Nixon orders protest ended

May 2, 1971: the Nixon administration canceled the protester’s permit. U.S. Park Police and Washington Metropolitan Police, dressed in riot gear, raided the encampment. The police formed up in phalanxes and slowly moved through the park firing tear gas and knocking down tents, forcing out the campers. The campers scattered towards the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial. (see May 3)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Sunshine silver mine

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2, 1972: a fire at the Sunshine silver mine in Kellogg, Idaho, caused the death of 91 workers who died from carbon monoxide poisoning, likely caused by toxic fumes emitted by burning polyurethane foam, used as a fire retardant. (see June 19)

Writers Guild

May 2, 2017: the Writers Guild of America reached a tentative deal with the major studios and networks for a new film and TV contract for the union’s nearly 13,000 members. (Variety article) (see May 9)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

Nationalist Socialist party

May 2, 1977: The Skokie Village Board, in response to a request from Nationalist Socialist party for a permit to march in front of Skokie Village Hall, passes three ordinances which 1) require a $350,000.00 indemnity bond to be posted in advance of any march 2) prohibits the distribution of printed material which promotes hatred of groups of people and 3) prohibits demonstrations by individuals wearing military style uniforms (see June 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Calvin Graham

May 2, 1978: the Secretary of the Navy authorized the issuance of an honorable discharge to Graham, effective April 5, 1943. (see Graham for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Falklands War

May 2, 1982: the British submarine HMS Conqueror torpedoed and sank Argentine cruiser General Belgrano. More than 320 Argentine sailors died – the single biggest loss of life in the war. Margaret Thatcher faced criticism over the sinking because the vessel was outside the 200-mile exclusion zone around the Falklands. (Falklands, see May 4)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

May 2, 1994:  a Detroit jury acquitted Kevorkian of charges he violated the state’s assisted suicide ban in the death of Thomas Hyde. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

May 2, 2002:  California police arrested Rev Paul Shanley and later charged on three counts of child rape. He denied the charges. (see June 14)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Luis Ramirez

May 2, 2009: Brandon Piekarsky and Derrick Donchak were acquitted of all serious charges against them stemming from the fatal beating of Luis Ramirez, a Mexican immigrant, on July 12, 2008 in Shenandoah, PA. (Immigration, see Oct 30; see Ramirez for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

Osama bin Laden

May 2, 2011: a day after his death, U.S. forces buried Osama bin Laden’s body at sea, The forces handled the body in accordance with Islamic practice and tradition. The sea buriel prevented a burial site from becoming a “terrorist shrine.” (aljazeera dot com article) (see Oct 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

May 2, 2019:the Trump administration released a final rule that would allow health workers to refuse to perform or assist medical procedures — like abortion, assisted suicide, or sex reassignment surgery — if it violated their “conscience” or religion.

The rule, set to take effect in 60 days, applies to health care institutions receiving federal funding. It repeals an Obama-era discrimination protection rule that President Donald Trump’s Department of Health and Human Services said “proved inadequate.” The new rule specifically protects “providers, individuals, and other health care entities from having to provide, participate in, pay for, provide coverage of, or refer for, services such as abortion, sterilization, or assisted suicide.”

The rule was first proposed in January 2018, along with the launch of HHS’s new Conscience and Religious Freedom Division. (see May 15)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers

May 1, 1794:  the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers (shoemakers) was organized in Philadelphia to negotiate wages for its members, becoming the first trade union in the United States. (1806 trial)

First cigar factory 

In 1810: first American cigar factory opens in Suffield, Connecticut. All the workers are women. (Suffield Historical Society article)

United Tailoresses of New York

In 1825: the United Tailoresses of New York founded. This was the first union strictly for women. (Womens Studies article) (Labor, see October 31, 1829; Feminism, see April 29,1827)

Five-day, 40-hour week

May 1, 1926: Ford Motor Company became one of the first companies in America to adopt a five-day, 40-hour week for workers in its automotive factories. (see May 20)

Federal minimum wage

May 1, 1974: the federal minimum wage rose to $2 per hour. (history of the minimum wage) (see June 3)

“A Day Without Immigrants”

 

May 1, 2006: rallies in cities across the U.S. for what organizers call “A Day Without Immigrants.” An estimated 100,000 immigrants and sympathizers gathered in San Jose, Calif., 200,000 in New York, 400,000 each in Chicago and Los Angeles. In all, there were demonstrations in at least 50 cities. (Guardian article) (see May 29, 2007)

Feminism

Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell

May 1, 1855: Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell were married by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, and issued a statement denouncing the loss of a woman’s rights upon marriage. (text via alexpeak dot com)

Matilda Josyln Gage

In 1862: Matilda Josyln Gage gave Flag Presentation Speech to 122nd regiment as they go off to the Civil War. Opposing President Lincoln, who says the war is being fought to preserve the union, Gage tells soldiers they are fighting for an end to slavery and freedom for all citizens. (Feminism, see June 25, 1863; see Gage for expanded story)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Charleston City Railway Company

May 1, 1861: the Charleston City Railway Company adopted a resolution allowing all persons equal access to streetcars. (see Sept 22)

Confederate slave treatment

May 1, 1863:  On December 24, 1862, Confederate President Jefferson Davis had issued orders to the Confederate Army “that all negro slaves captured in arms be at once delivered over to the executive authorities of the respective States to which they belong, to be dealt with according to the law of said States.” A joint resolution adopted by the Confederate Congress and signed by Mr. Davis on May 1, 1863, adjusted this policy to provide that all “negroes or mulattoes, slave or free, taken in arms should be turned over to the authorities in the state in which they were captured and that their officers would be tried by Confederate military tribunals for inciting insurrection and be subject, at the discretion of the court and the president, to the death penalty.”

The treatment of African Americans in Confederate custody varied, depending on location and the capturing commander but atrocities committed against black troops during the Civil War, such as the massacre of surrendering black troops at Fort Pillow, Tennessee, have been well documented. (see July 13 to July 16)

Memphis revolt

May 1, 1866: three days of race riots in Memphis, one of the bloodiest outbreaks of Reconstruction, left 46 black residents and two white residents dead, five black women raped and 91 homes, four churches and eight schools destroyed by fires. Fighting had already taken place between black soldiers and white Memphis policemen. The Freedman’s Bureau reported the police had been treating the African-American soldiers with brutality. False rumors spread among the white community that black citizens were planning an armed rebellion. No one was ever arrested or prosecuted for the killings. (Black Past article) (BH, see May 10; RR, see September 4, 1875)

Voting Rights

May 1, 1867: registration of black and white voters began on this day in the South. By the end of October, 1.3 million citizens had registered, including 700,000 African Americans. These black voters constituted a majority in five states: Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina. (BH, see May 9; VR, June 9, 1868)

Dr. John Slawson

May 1, 1947: Dr. John Slawson, executive vice president of the American Jewish Committee presented a national program to protect civil rights to the President’s Committee on Civil Rights. The program included plans to deal with violations of the basic privileges, and also to resist group dissension, race and religious discrimination, and bigotry of all kinds. (1989 NY Times obit) (see June 29)

Integrated political rally

May 1, 1948:  police arrested Glen Taylor, Progressive Party candidate for Vice President on Henry Wallace’s ticket,  in Alabama for violating segregation laws by attempting to hold an integrated political rally. Taylor’s jailer is Birmingham police commissioner Bull Connor. (Today in Civil Rights History article) (see June 24, 1948)

School Desegregation denied

May 1, 1959: ordered to integrate its schools under Brown v. Board of Education, Prince Edward County, Virginia, chose instead to close all public schools on this day. They remained closed until 1964, when the Supreme Court ordered the county to open them, in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, on May 25, 1964. While the schools were closed, the Prince Edward Foundation supported private academies to educate white students. There were no formal arrangements for African-American students; some were supported by private groups and others went to out-of-state schools. The “Lost Class of ’59” was one of the great tragedies of the struggle over school desegregation following Brown v. Board of Education. The Little Rock, Arkansas, schools were also closed for the academic year 1958–1959 because of resistance to racial integration.

The closing of the Prince Edward County schools was just one part of the program of “massive resistance” to school integration after the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Brown v. Board of Education, on May 17, 1954. Other actions included the Southern Manifesto, signed by 100 members of Congress on March 12, 1956; an Alabama law that would have required the disclosure of the names of NAACP members, but which the Supreme Court in NAACP v. Alabama declared unconstitutional on June 30, 1958; and a set of Virginia laws designed to restrict the activities of the NAACP (September 29, 1956; April 2, 1963).

The school closing episode left a lasting legacy for education and race in the county. The 2010 Census reported that the county population was 36 percent African-American. The public school population, however, was a majority African-American, while only 5 percent of the private schools, the legacy of the closing crisis, were African-American. (BH & SD, see June 26)

To Kill a Mockingbird

May 1, 1961: Harper Lee received Pulitzer Prize in fiction for To Kill a Mockingbird. (Black History, see May 4; Harper Lee, see May 21, 2006)

Rodney King

May 1, 1992: Rodney King made an emotional plea for calm, stating, “People, I just want to say, can we all get along? Can we get along? Can we stop making it horrible for the older people and the kids?” (BH, & RR, see May 4; King, see Aug 4)

Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing

May 1, 2001: a jury convicted Thomas Blanton of taking part in the Ku Klux Klan’s 1963 bombing of a Birmingham, Ala., church that killed four girls, and he was given four life sentences — one for the murder of each girl. After the verdict was announced, U.S. Attorney Doug Jones announced, “Justice delayed is still justice, and we have it in Birmingham, Ala.” (BH, see June 16 see May 22, 2002)

Baltimore Police investigation

May 1, 2015: The state’s attorney of Baltimore, in an unexpected announcement, said that she had probable cause to file homicide, manslaughter and misconduct charges against the police officers in the death of Freddie Gray, who died after sustaining a spinal cord injury while in police custody.

In a news conference…the state’s attorney, Marilyn J. Mosby, said that the death of Mr. Gray had been ruled a homicide and that the police had been negligent in his death. (see June 9)

“We have probable cause to file criminal charges,” Ms. Mosby said. As she spoke outside the War Memorial here, dozens of police officers dressed in riot gear stood nearby.

Ms. Mosby described repeated mistreatment of Mr. Gray. She said that time and again police officers had mistreated him . She said they had arrested him with no grounds, violating police procedure by putting him in cuffs and leg cuffs in the van without seat belting him and then repeatedly failing to get him medical attention.

She said that when he was removed from the wagon, “Mr. Gray was no longer breathing at all.”

The death, Ms. Mosby said, is believed to be the result of a fatal injury to Mr. Gray while he was riding in the van without a seatbelt. (see June 9)

Jordan Edwards

May 1, 2017: Balch Springs Police Department (Texas) officer, Roy Oliver shot and killed 15-year-old Jordan Edwards. Edwards was a freshman at Mesquite High School and died as the result of a single rifleshot wound to the head. The teen was the youngest person to have been killed by police in the U.S. in 2017. (see May 2)

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DEATH PENALTY

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1, 1932: the baby son of Charles A. Lindbergh was kidnapped from his home in Hopewell, New Jersey. The body of the infant is found in the nearby woods two months later. The incident leads Congress to pass a federal kidnapping statute, popularly known as the Lindbergh Act, that makes the crime a capital offense. Similar ‘Lindbergh laws’ are enacted in more than 20 states by the end of the decade. (see August 14, 1936)

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The Cold War

see Francis Gary Powers for more

May 1, 1960: the Soviets shot down a U-2 spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers. The 31-year-old Powers was already a veteran of several covert aerial reconnaissance missions. The CIA recruited him in 1956 to fly the Lockheed U-2, a spy plane that could reach altitudes of 80,000 feet, essentially making it invulnerable to Soviet anti-aircraft weapons. The U-2 was equipped with a state-of-the-art camera designed to snap high-resolution photos from the edge of the atmosphere.(CW, see May 12; Powers, see May 16)

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see May 1 Music et al for more

Teenage Culture

May 1, 1957: the first issue of 16 Magazine came out, with Elvis on the cover. (see Aug 5)

Herman’s Hermits

May 1 – 21, 1965: “Mrs Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” by Herman’s Hermits #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Beatles’ final scheduled live appearance in Britain

May 1, 1966: The Beatles’ final scheduled live appearance in Britain. It was their fourth appearance at the New Musical Express Annual Poll-Winners’ All-Star Concert, which took place at the Empire Pool in Wembley, London. The Beatles performed before an audience of 10,000.

The group were on a bill which also included The Spencer Davis Group, The Fortunes, Herman’s Hermits, Roy Orbison, The Overlanders, The Alan Price Set, Cliff Richard and The Shadows, The Rolling Stones, The Seekers, The Small Faces, Sounds Incorporated, Dusty Springfield, Crispian St Peters, The Walker Brothers, The Who, The Yardbirds and Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich. The comperes were Peter Murray and Jimmy Savile.

The Beatles played a 15-minute set which included five songs: I Feel Fine, Nowhere Man, Day Tripper, If I Needed Someone and I’m Down.

Although ABC TV was filming the concert, Brian Epstein failed to reach an agreement over terms, so the cameras were turned off while The Beatles performed. The group was, however, filmed receiving their poll awards. (see May 16)

Bob Dylan

May 1, 1969: a nervous Dylan appeared on the premiere of Johnny Cash’s show recorded live in Nashville at the Ryman Auditorium. It was his first live performance since the Woody Guthrie tribute show on January 20, 1968.

That same month, Dylan and family moved to a 12-room Arts and Crafts mansion on the other side of Woodstock. It was on 39 acres. Dylan would later purchase an additional contiguous 83 acres in an attempt to insure privacy. (see July 14)

Lennon deportation

May 1, 1972: Judge Bernard J. Lasker signed a temporary order in Federal Court restraining the Immigration and Naturalization Service from holding a deportation hearing for John Lennon and Yoko Ono. Judge Lasker ruled that the Government must first hold a hearing on a motion made by the Lennons before it takes up the matter of deportation. Lennon’s motion asks that they be classified as “aliens of distinguished merit and ability.” (see Lennon for expanded chronology)

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Technological & Cultural Milestone

Super 8 film

May 1, 1965:   after press releases in April, Eastman Kodak Co. introduced its Super 8 film format at the International Photography Exposition in New York. One of the main selling points: the plastic cartridge that made loading the film much easier. (TM, see August 20, 1967; CM, see September 8, 1966)

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Vietnam

George Aiken

May 1, 1969: in a speech on the floor of the Senate, George Aiken (R-Vermont), senior member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, urged the Nixon administration to begin an immediate “orderly withdrawal” of U.S. forces from South Vietnam. Aiken said, “It should be started without delay.” The speech was widely regarded as the end of the self-imposed moratorium on criticism that senators had been following since the Nixon administration took office. (see May 9)

College campus protests

May 1, 1970: protests erupted on campuses across the US over the Cambodian invasion including Kent State University (Ohio). (see May 3)

Helium balloons stymie helicopters 

May 1, 1971: 35,000 war protesters camped out in West Potomac Park near the Washington Monument park to listen to rock music and plan for the coming action. The government planned to use low flying helicopters to disrupt the protest. This tactic was stymied by the launching of large numbers of helium filled balloons. (see May 2)

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Cannabis

May 1, 1971:  in a televised news conference responding to question about the White House Conference on Youth, which had voted to legalize marijuana, President Nixon said:   “As you know, there is a Commission that is supposed to make recommendations to me about this subject; in this instance, however, I have such strong views that I will express them. I am against legalizing marijuana. Even if the Commission does recommend that it be legalized, I will not follow that recommendation… I can see no social or moral justification whatever for legalizing marijuana. I think it would be exactly the wrong step. It would simply encourage more and more of our young people to start down the long, dismal road that leads to hard drugs and eventually self-destruction.” (next Cannabis, see June 17 or see CC for expanded chronology)

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Calvin Graham

May 1, 1978: the General Counsel of the Navy informed the Secretary of the Navy that authority existed on April 5, 1943 (date of Graham’s enlistment cancellation) for the issuance of an honorable discharge. (see Graham for expanded story)

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Iraq War II

May 1, 2003:  President George W. Bush landed in a jet on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast and, in a speech to the nation, declared: [M]y fellow Americans: Major combat operations in Iraq have ended. (next IWII, see May 29; last troops leave Iraq, see August 18, 2010)

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Stop and Frisk Policy

May 1, 2009: a new analysis of NYPD stop-and-frisk data prompted critics to raise new questions about the tactic’s effectiveness. (see May 12)

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TERRORISM

May 1, 2011: U.S. officials announced that al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was killed in a Special Operation conducted by the CIA and United States Navy SEALs (under the direction of President Obama), in Pakistan. (see May 2)

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Environmental Issues

Crude oil derailment

May 1, 2014: several CSX tanker cars carrying crude oil derailed and caught fire along the James River near downtown Lynchburg, Va. (see June 23)

Trump sued

May 1, 2018: California Gov. Jerry Brown announced a lawsuit by California and 16 other states against the Trump administration to stop it from rolling back aggressive national fuel economy standards championed by the state.

Brown said actions of the Trump administration were “so outrageous,” adding “Trump is definitely running a one-man demolition derby on science, the Clean Air Act and a lot of things we are trying to do.”

Brown called Environmental Protection Agency chief Scott Pruitt “Outlaw Pruitt,” and accused him of “breaking the law.” (see July 9)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

May 1, 2017: the Supreme Court left intact California’s ban on “gay conversion” therapy aimed at turning youths under age 18 away from homosexuality, rejecting a Christian minister’s challenge to the law asserting it violates religious rights.

The justices, turning away a challenge to the 2012 law for the second time in three years, let stand a lower court’s ruling that it was constitutional and neither impinged upon free exercise of religion nor impacted the activities of clergy members.

The law prohibited state-licensed mental health counselors, including psychologists and social workers, from offering therapy to change sexual orientation in minors. The Supreme Court in 2014 refused to review the law after an appeals court rejected claims that the ban infringed on free speech rights under U.S. Constitution’s the First Amendment. (LGBTQ, see May 11; Separation, see June 26)

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Fair Housing

May 1, 2017: in the Bank of America Corp. v. City of Miami, the Supreme Court held 5 – 3 that the Fair Housing Act allowed the city of Miami to bring a lawsuit alleging that two banks, Bank of America and Wells Fargo. Miami, violated the law when they issued riskier but more costly mortgages to minority customers than they had offered to white borrowers.

It was not complete win for the city, as the court also ruled that the lower court should have applied a tougher test to determine whether the city can recover compensation for its losses. This meant that the case would return to the lower court for it to decide whether there was enough of a connection between the banks’ lending practices and the city’s economic injuries to hold the banks liable. (see February 23, 2018)

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Immigration History

May 1, 2018: Texas and six other states sued the federal government in an attempt to end the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program.

The lawsuit — joined by Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, South Carolina and West Virginia — asserted that the Obama administration had overstepped its authority when it created the DACA program, which allowed individuals who were brought to the United States illegally as children to remain in the country, without congressional approval.

“The executive unilaterally conferred lawful presence and work authorization on otherwise unlawfully present aliens, and then the executive used that lawful-presence ‘dispensation’ to unilaterally confer United States citizenship,” the lawsuit says. (next IH, see May 4; next DACA, see Aug 3)

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Consumer Protection

May 1, 2018: federal authorities issued 13 warning letters to companies that sold vaping products like liquid nicotine in packaging that might appeal to children, including products that resembled juice boxes and candy.

The joint action by the Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission was the latest step by the federal government to crack down on the vaping industry, particularly on devices that are popular with teenagers. (see Nov 15)

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Fourth Amendment

May 1, 2018: Judge Thomas A. Rappa Jr. of the New Hampshire Circuit Court ruled that the arrests of several people last summer who were charged with drug possession at an immigration checkpoint set up by the United States Border Patrol were unconstitutional under state and federal law.

Border Patrol agents working with state officials had conducted what the American Civil Liberties Union described as illegal drug searches. Sixteen residents were arrested in August at an immigration checkpoint set up on a major interstate highway about 90 miles from the Canadian border, where federal agents said they were looking for people trying to enter the country illegally.

Rappa stated that,  “While the stated purpose of the checkpoints in this matter was screening for immigration violations, the primary purpose of the action was detection and seizure of drugs,” [ 14-page ruling] (see May 9)

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