Tag Archives: May Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

Weems v United States

May 2, 1910: in Weems v. United States, the Supreme Court made a ruling that would significantly affect the debate on the death penalty. The case concerned a defendant who had been sentenced to fifteen years of hard labor, a heavy fine, and a number of other penalties for the relatively minor crime of falsifying official records. The Court overturned the sentence, ruling that the penalty was too harsh considering the nature of the offense. Ultimately, in the Weems decision, the Court set three important precedents concerning any sentencing:

  1. Cruel and unusual punishment is defined by the changing norms and standards of society and therefore is not based on historical interpretations.
  2. Courts may decide whether a punishment is unnecessarily cruel with regard to physical pain.
  3. Courts may decide whether a punishment is unnecessarily cruel with regard to psychological pain. (Justia article) (see February 8, 1924)
Maryland

May 2, 2013: Maryland’s Governor Governor Martin O’Malley signed a bill repealing the death penalty. The legislation went into effect October 1, 2013. In those cases in which the state had filed a notice to seek a death sentence, ‘the notice shall be considered withdrawn and it shall be considered a notice to seek a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole under specified circumstances,’ according to a press release from the Governor’s office. (see Oct 30)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights

May 2, 1914: suffrage parades and meetings held in nearly every state and Washington, D.C. (F, see May 9; VR, see January 12, 1915)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

ADA

Buck v Bell

May 2 Peace Love Activism

May 2, 1927: with one dissenting vote, the US Supreme Court ruled in Buck v. Bell that the compulsory sterilization of mental defectives such as Carrie S. Buck, a young Virginia woman, was constitutional under “careful” state safeguards. In his majority opinion, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes writes:  “(It) is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind…Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

This ruling has never been overturned.

Carrie had became pregnant when she was seventeen as a result of being raped by her foster parent’s nephew. Reporters and researchers that visited Buck later in life claimed she was a woman of normal intelligence. Later in life, she expressed regret that she had been unable to have additional children. Carrie Buck died alone in a nursing home in 1983; she was buried in Charlottesville near her only child, Vivian, who had died at age eight. (see May 2, 2002)

At the Nuremberg trials after World War II, Nazi doctors explicitly cited Holmes’s opinion in Buck v. Bell as part of their defense. (2016 NPR story) (see January 29, 1929)

Carrie Buck

May 2 Peace Love Activism

May 2, 2002: Virginia Governor Mark R. Warner offered the “Commonwealth’s sincere apology for Virginia’s participation in eugenics.” at the erection of an historical marker for Carrie Buck in Charlottesville, Virginia where she was born. (see June 20)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

McCarthyism

Joe McCarthy

May 2, 1957: Joe McCarthy died at the Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland from a condition related to his cirrhotic liver.  He was forty-eight. (NY Daily News Flashback article) (see May 18, 1957)

Dalton Trumbo

May 2, 1975: Hollywood screenwriter Dalton Trumbo finally received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the 1956 film, The Brave One. The announced winner of the award at the Oscars ceremony on March 27, 1957 was “Robert Rich,” Trumbo’s pseudonym while he was blacklisted for his political views. (see May 17, 1995)


May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Birmingham students fire-hosed

May 2, 1963: more than 700 black children protesting racial segregation in Birmingham, Alabama, were arrested, blasted with fire hoses, clubbed by police, and attacked by police dogs. As part of the Children’s Crusade launched by Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to revive the Birmingham anti-segregation campaign, more than 1000 African American children trained in nonviolent tactics walked out of their classes and assembled at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church to march to downtown Birmingham. Hundreds were arrested and transported to jail in school buses and paddy wagons but the children refused to relent. (see May 4)

Dee/Moore Murders

May 2 Peace Love Activism

May 2, 1964: members of the Ku Klux KIan kidnapped Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore from the main street in Meadville, Mississippi and took them to the Homochitto National Forest where they were tied to a tree and beaten. The Klansmen placed Dee and Moore in a trunk of a car and transported them to Tallulah, LA, where they dumped them, while they were still alive, into the Old Mississippi River. (Cold Cases Project article) (BH, see, May 5; see Dee & Moore for expanded story)

Black Panthers

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2, 1967: armed members of the Black Panther Party entered the California state capital to protest a bill that restricted the carrying of arms in public. Outrage at the incident will lead to the beginning of restrictive gun laws and a backlash of the re-interpretation of the 2nd amendment as the right of individuals (not simply the militia) to bear arms. (BH, see May 6; BP, see Oct 28)

BLACK & SHOT/Walter Scott

May 2, 2017: Michael T. Slager, the former South Carolina police officer who spent years fighting charges of shooting and killing Walter Scott, an unarmed black man, pleaded guilty in his federal case. “We hope that Michael’s acceptance of responsibility will help the Scott family as they continue to grieve their loss,” Slager’s lawyer, Andrew J. Savage III said in a statement. (Scott, see Dec 7)

BLACK & SHOT/Jordan Edwards

May 2, 2017:  police chief Jonathan Haber of the Balch Springs Police Department announced that he had fired officer, Roy Oliver who used a rifle to shoot into a moving vehicle full of teenagers and killed Jordan Edwards, 15, as he was seated in the front passenger seat.

                Haber said his decision was based in part on the department’s internal affairs investigation, which had been completed, and the body-camera footage from the two officers at the scene, (JE, see May 5)

BLACK & SHOT/Alton B Sterling

May 2, 2017: (see July 5, 2016) the federal government announced that, officers, Blane Salamoni and Howie Lake II, the two white police officers in the fatal shooting on the July 5, 2016 of Alton B. Sterling, a black man in Baton Rouge, La would not be charged. The incident caused widespread unrest. State charges were still pending. (B & S, see May 5; see Sterling, see March 27, 2018)

 

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

Student protests

May 2, 1964: Some 400–1,000 students march through Times Square, New York and another 700 in San Francisco, in the first major student demonstration against the Vietnam War. Smaller marches also occur in Boston, Seattle, and Madison, Wisconsin. (see May 24)

Nixon orders protest ended

May 2, 1971: the Nixon administration canceled the protester’s permit. U.S. Park Police and Washington Metropolitan Police, dressed in riot gear, raided the encampment. The police formed up in phalanxes and slowly moved through the park firing tear gas and knocking down tents, forcing out the campers. The campers scattered towards the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial. (see May 3)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 Music et al

Enoch Light

May 2 – 8, 1960: Enoch Light/Terry Snyder and the All Stars’ was Billboard’s #1 stereo album.  Enoch Henry Light was a classical violinist, bandleader, and recording engineer. As A & R chief and vice-president of Grand Award Records, he founded Command Records in 1959. Light’s name was prominent on many albums both as musician and producer. He is credited with being one of the first musicians to go to extreme lengths to create high-quality recordings that took full advantage of the technical capabilities of home audio equipment of the late 1950s and early 1960s, particularly stereo effects that bounced the sounds between the right and left channels (often described as “ping-pong”). He also was the first to use the “gate fold” style album cover that became well-known with the Beatles Sgt. Pepper’s album in 1967. (see August 30 – September 3, 1963)

The Beatles

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 – June 5, 1964: The Beatles’ Second Album (released April 10) became the Billboard #1 album (only four of the twelve songs were written by the Beatles). (see May 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Sunshine silver mine

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2, 1972: a fire at the Sunshine silver mine in Kellogg, Idaho, caused the death of 91 workers who died from carbon monoxide poisoning, likely caused by toxic fumes emitted by burning polyurethane foam, used as a fire retardant. (see June 19)

Writers Guild

May 2, 2017: the Writers Guild of America reached a tentative deal with the major studios and networks for a new film and TV contract for the union’s nearly 13,000 members. (Variety article) (see May 9)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

Nationalist Socialist party

May 2, 1977: The Skokie Village Board, in response to a request from Nationalist Socialist party for a permit to march in front of Skokie Village Hall, passes three ordinances which 1) require a $350,000.00 indemnity bond to be posted in advance of any march 2) prohibits the distribution of printed material which promotes hatred of groups of people and 3) prohibits demonstrations by individuals wearing military style uniforms (see June 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Calvin Graham

May 2, 1978: the Secretary of the Navy authorized the issuance of an honorable discharge to Graham, effective April 5, 1943. (see Graham for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

Falklands War

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2, 1982: the British submarine HMS Conqueror torpedoed and sank Argentine cruiser General Belgran. More than 320 Argentine sailors died – the single biggest loss of life in the war. Margaret Thatcher faced criticism over the sinking because the vessel was outside the 200-mile exclusion zone around the Falklands. (Falklands, see May 4; Nuclear, see June 12)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

May 2, 1994:  a Detroit jury acquitted Kevorkian of charges he violated the state’s assisted suicide ban in the death of Thomas Hyde. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

May 2, 2002:  California police arrested Rev Paul Shanley and later charged on three counts of child rape. He denied the charges. (see June 14)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Luis Ramirez

May 2, 2009: Brandon Piekarsky and Derrick Donchak were acquitted of all serious charges against them stemming from the fatal beating of Luis Ramirez, a Mexican immigrant, on July 12, 2008 in Shenandoah, PA. (Immigration, see Oct 30; see Ramirez for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

Osama bin Laden

May 2, 2011: a day after his death, U.S. forces buried Osama bin Laden’s body at sea, The forces handled the body in accordance with Islamic practice and tradition. The sea buriel prevented a burial site from becoming a “terrorist shrine.” (aljazeera dot com article) (see Oct 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism
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May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1, 1794:  the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers (shoemakers) was organized in Philadelphia to negotiate wages for its members, becoming the first trade union in the United States. (1806 trial)

First cigar factory 

In 1810: first American cigar factory opens in Suffield, Connecticut. All the workers are women. (Suffield Historical Society article)

United Tailoresses of New York

In 1825: the United Tailoresses of New York founded. This was the first union strictly for women. (Womens Studies article) (Labor, see October 31, 1829; Feminism, see April 29,1827)

Five-day, 40-hour week

May 1, 1926: Ford Motor Company became one of the first companies in America to adopt a five-day, 40-hour week for workers in its automotive factories. (see May 20)

Federal minimum wage

May 1, 1974: the federal minimum wage rose to $2 per hour. (history of the minimum wage) (see June 3)

“A Day Without Immigrants”

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1, 2006: rallies in cities across the U.S. for what organizers call “A Day Without Immigrants.” An estimated 100,000 immigrants and sympathizers gathered in San Jose, Calif., 200,000 in New York, 400,000 each in Chicago and Los Angeles. In all, there were demonstrations in at least 50 cities. (Guardian article) (see May 29, 2007)

Feminism

Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell

May 1, 1855: Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell were married by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, and issued a statement denouncing the loss of a woman’s rights upon marriage. (text via alexpeak dot com)

Matilda Josyln Gage

In 1862: Matilda Josyln Gage gave Flag Presentation Speech to 122nd regiment as they go off to the Civil War. Opposing President Lincoln, who says the war is being fought to preserve the union, Gage tells soldiers they are fighting for an end to slavery and freedom for all citizens. (Feminism, see June 25, 1863; see Gage for expanded story)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Charleston City Railway Company

May 1, 1861: the Charleston City Railway Company adopted a resolution allowing all persons equal access to streetcars. (see Sept 22)

Confederate slave treatment

May 1, 1863:  On December 24, 1862, Confederate President Jefferson Davis had issued orders to the Confederate Army “that all negro slaves captured in arms be at once delivered over to the executive authorities of the respective States to which they belong, to be dealt with according to the law of said States.” A joint resolution adopted by the Confederate Congress and signed by Mr. Davis on May 1, 1863, adjusted this policy to provide that all “negroes or mulattoes, slave or free, taken in arms should be turned over to the authorities in the state in which they were captured and that their officers would be tried by Confederate military tribunals for inciting insurrection and be subject, at the discretion of the court and the president, to the death penalty.”


The treatment of African Americans in Confederate custody varied, depending on location and the capturing commander but atrocities committed against black troops during the Civil War, such as the massacre of surrendering black troops at Fort Pillow, Tennessee, have been well documented. (see July 13 to July 16)

Memphis revolt

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1, 1866: three days of race riots in Memphis, one of the bloodiest outbreaks of Reconstruction, left 46 black residents and two white residents dead, five black women raped and 91 homes, four churches and eight schools destroyed by fires. Fighting had already taken place between black soldiers and white Memphis policemen. The Freedman’s Bureau reported the police had been treating the African-American soldiers with brutality. False rumors spread among the white community that black citizens were planning an armed rebellion. No one was ever arrested or prosecuted for the killings. (Black Past article) (BH, see May 10; RR, see September 4, 1875)

Voting Rights

May 1, 1867: Registration of black and white voters began on this day in the South. By the end of October, 1.3 million citizens had registered, including 700,000 African Americans. These black voters constituted a majority in five states: Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina. (BH, see May 9; VR, June 9, 1868)

Dr. John Slawson

May 1, 1947: Dr. John Slawson, executive vice president of the American Jewish Committee presented a national program to protect civil rights to the President’s Committee on Civil Rights. The program included plans to deal with violations of the basic privileges, and also to resist group dissension, race and religious discrimination, and bigotry of all kinds. (1989 NY Times obit) (see June 29)

Integrated political rally

May 1, 1948:  police arrested Glen Taylor, Progressive Party candidate for Vice President on Henry Wallace’s ticket,  in Alabama for violating segregation laws by attempting to hold an integrated political rally. Taylor’s jailer is Birmingham police commissioner Bull Connor. (Today in Civil Rights History article) (see June 24, 1948)

School Desegregation denied

May 1, 1959: ordered to integrate its schools under Brown v. Board of Education, Prince Edward County, Virginia, chose instead to close all public schools on this day. They remained closed until 1964, when the Supreme Court ordered the county to open them, in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, on May 25, 1964. While the schools were closed, the Prince Edward Foundation supported private academies to educate white students. There were no formal arrangements for African-American students; some were supported by private groups and others went to out-of-state schools. The “Lost Class of ’59” was one of the great tragedies of the struggle over school desegregation following Brown v. Board of Education. The Little Rock, Arkansas, schools were also closed for the academic year 1958–1959 because of resistance to racial integration.

The closing of the Prince Edward County schools was just one part of the program of “massive resistance” to school integration after the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Brown v. Board of Education, on May 17, 1954. Other actions included the Southern Manifesto, signed by 100 members of Congress on March 12, 1956; an Alabama law that would have required the disclosure of the names of NAACP members, but which the Supreme Court in NAACP v. Alabama declared unconstitutional on June 30, 1958; and a set of Virginia laws designed to restrict the activities of the NAACP (September 29, 1956; April 2, 1963).

The school closing episode left a lasting legacy for education and race in the county. The 2010 Census reported that the county population was 36 percent African-American. The public school population, however, was a majority African-American, while only 5 percent of the private schools, the legacy of the closing crisis, were African-American. (BH & SD, see June 26)

To Kill a Mockingbird

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1, 1961: Harper Lee received Pulitzer Prize in fiction for To Kill a Mockingbird. (Black History, see May 4; Harper Lee, see May 21, 2006)

Rodney King

May 1, 1992: Rodney King made an emotional plea for calm, stating, “People, I just want to say, can we all get along? Can we get along? Can we stop making it horrible for the older people and the kids?” (BH, & RR, see May 4; King, see Aug 4)

Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing

May 1, 2001: a jury convicted Thomas Blanton of taking part in the Ku Klux Klan’s 1963 bombing of a Birmingham, Ala., church that killed four girls, and he was given four life sentences — one for the murder of each girl. After the verdict was announced, U.S. Attorney Doug Jones announced, “Justice delayed is still justice, and we have it in Birmingham, Ala.” (BH, see June 16 see May 22, 2002)

Baltimore Police investigation

May 1, 2015: (from NYT) The state’s attorney of Baltimore, in an unexpected announcement, said…that she had probable cause to file homicide, manslaughter and misconduct charges against the police officers in the death of Freddie Gray, who died after sustaining a spinal cord injury while in police custody.

In a news conference…the state’s attorney, Marilyn J. Mosby, said that the death of Mr. Gray had been ruled a homicide and that the police had been negligent in his death. (see June 9)

“We have probable cause to file criminal charges,” Ms. Mosby said. As she spoke outside the War Memorial here, dozens of police officers dressed in riot gear stood nearby.

Ms. Mosby described repeated mistreatment of Mr. Gray. She said that time and again police officers had mistreated him . She said they had arrested him with no grounds, violating police procedure by putting him in cuffs and leg cuffs in the van without seat belting him and then repeatedly failing to get him medical attention.

She said that when he was removed from the wagon, “Mr. Gray was no longer breathing at all.”

The death, Ms. Mosby said, is believed to be the result of a fatal injury to Mr. Gray while he was riding in the van without a seatbelt. (see June 9)

Jordan Edwards

May 1, 2017: Balch Springs Police Department (Texas) officer, Roy Oliver shot and killed 15-year-old Jordan Edwards. Edwards was a freshman at Mesquite High School and died as the result of a single rifleshot wound to the head. The teen was the youngest person to have been killed by police in the U.S. in 2017. (see May 2)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1, 1932: the baby son of Charles A. Lindbergh was kidnapped from his home in Hopewell, New Jersey. The body of the infant is found in the nearby woods two months later. The incident leads Congress to pass a federal kidnapping statute, popularly known as the Lindbergh Act, that makes the crime a capital offense. Similar ‘Lindbergh laws’ are enacted in more than 20 states by the end of the decade. (see August 14, 1936)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

The Cold War

see Francis Gary Powers for more

May 1, 1960: the Soviets shot down a U-2 spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers. The 31-year-old Powers was already a veteran of several covert aerial reconnaissance missions. The CIA recruited him in 1956 to fly the Lockheed U-2, a spy plane that could reach altitudes of 80,000 feet, essentially making it invulnerable to Soviet anti-aircraft weapons. The U-2 was equipped with a state-of-the-art camera designed to snap high-resolution photos from the edge of the atmosphere.(CW, see May 12; Powers, see May 16)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

see May 1 Music et al for more

Teenage Culture

May 1, 1957: the first issue of 16 Magazine came out, with Elvis on the cover. (see Aug 5)

Herman’s Hermits

May 1 – 21, 1965: “Mrs Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” by Herman’s Hermits #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Beatles’ final scheduled live appearance in Britain

May 1, 1966: The Beatles’ final scheduled live appearance in Britain. It was their fourth appearance at the New Musical Express Annual Poll-Winners’ All-Star Concert, which took place at the Empire Pool in Wembley, London. The Beatles performed before an audience of 10,000.

The group were on a bill which also included The Spencer Davis Group, The Fortunes, Herman’s Hermits, Roy Orbison, The Overlanders, The Alan Price Set, Cliff Richard and The Shadows, The Rolling Stones, The Seekers, The Small Faces, Sounds Incorporated, Dusty Springfield, Crispian St Peters, The Walker Brothers, The Who, The Yardbirds and Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich. The comperes were Peter Murray and Jimmy Savile.

The Beatles played a 15-minute set which included five songs: I Feel Fine, Nowhere Man, Day Tripper, If I Needed Someone and I’m Down.

Although ABC TV was filming the concert, Brian Epstein failed to reach an agreement over terms, so the cameras were turned off while The Beatles performed. The group was, however, filmed receiving their poll awards. (see May 16)

Lennon deportation

May 1, 1972: Judge Bernard J. Lasker signed a temporary order in Federal Court restraining the Immigration and Naturalization Service from holding a deportation hearing for John Lennon and Yoko Ono. Judge Lasker ruled that the Government must first hold a hearing on a motion made by the Lennons before it takes up the matter of deportation. Lennon’s motion asks that they be classified as “aliens of distinguished merit and ability.” (see May 11)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestone & Cultural Milestone

Super 8 film

May 1, 1965:   after press releases in April, Eastman Kodak Co. introduced its Super 8 film format at the International Photography Exposition in New York. One of the main selling points: the plastic cartridge that made loading the film much easier. (TM, see August 20, 1967; CM, see September 8, 1966)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

George Aiken

May 1, 1969: in a speech on the floor of the Senate, George Aiken (R-Vermont), senior member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, urged the Nixon administration to begin an immediate “orderly withdrawal” of U.S. forces from South Vietnam. Aiken said, “It should be started without delay.” The speech was widely regarded as the end of the self-imposed moratorium on criticism that senators had been following since the Nixon administration took office. (see May 9)

College campus protests

May 1, 1970: protests erupted on campuses across the US over the Cambodian invasion including Kent State University (Ohio). (see May 3)

Helium balloons stymie helicopters 

May 1, 1971: 35,000 war protesters camped out in West Potomac Park near the Washington Monument park to listen to rock music and plan for the coming action. The government planned to use low flying helicopters to disrupt the protest. This tactic was stymied by the launching of large numbers of helium filled balloons. (see May 2)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Marijuana

May 1, 1971:  in a televised news conference responding to question about the White House Conference on Youth, which had voted to legalize marijuana, President Nixon said:   “As you know, there is a Commission that is supposed to make recommendations to me about this subject; in this instance, however, I have such strong views that I will express them. I am against legalizing marijuana. Even if the Commission does recommend that it be legalized, I will not follow that recommendation… I can see no social or moral justification whatever for legalizing marijuana. I think it would be exactly the wrong step. It would simply encourage more and more of our young people to start down the long, dismal road that leads to hard drugs and eventually self-destruction.” (see June 17)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Calvin Graham

May 1, 1978: the General Counsel of the Navy informed the Secretary of the Navy that authority existed on April 5, 1943 (date of Graham’s enlistment cancellation) for the issuance of an honorable discharge. (see Graham for expanded story)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1, 2003:  President George W. Bush landed in a jet on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast and, in a speech to the nation, declared: [M]y fellow Americans: Major combat operations in Iraq have ended. (next IWII, see May 29; last troops leave Iraq, see August 18, 2010)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Stop and Frisk Policy

May 1, 2009: a new analysis of NYPD stop-and-frisk data prompted critics to raise new questions about the tactic’s effectiveness. (see May 12)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

May 1, 2011: U.S. officials announced that al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was killed in a Special Operation conducted by the CIA and United States Navy SEALs (under the direction of President Obama), in Pakistan. (see May 2)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

May 1, 2014: several CSX tanker cars carrying crude oil derailed and caught fire along the James River near downtown Lynchburg, Va. (see June 23)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

May 1, 2017: the Supreme Court left intact California’s ban on “gay conversion” therapy aimed at turning youths under age 18 away from homosexuality, rejecting a Christian minister’s challenge to the law asserting it violates religious rights.

                The justices, turning away a challenge to the 2012 law for the second time in three years, let stand a lower court’s ruling that it was constitutional and neither impinged upon free exercise of religion nor impacted the activities of clergy members.

                The law prohibited state-licensed mental health counselors, including psychologists and social workers, from offering therapy to change sexual orientation in minors. The Supreme Court in 2014 refused to review the law after an appeals court rejected claims that the ban infringed on free speech rights under U.S. Constitution’s the First Amendment. (LGBTQ, see May 11; Separation, see June 26)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Fair Housing

May 1, 2017: in the Bank of America Corp. v. City of Miami, the Supreme Court held 5 – 3 that the Fair Housing Act allowed the city of Miami to bring a lawsuit alleging that two banks, Bank of America and Wells Fargo. Miami, violated the law when they issued riskier but more costly mortgages to minority customers than they had offered to white borrowers.

                It was not complete win for the city, as the court also ruled that the lower court should have applied a tougher test to determine whether the city can recover compensation for its losses. This meant that the case would return to the lower court for it to decide whether there was enough of a connection between the banks’ lending practices and the city’s economic injuries to hold the banks liable. (see February 23, 2018)

May 1 Peace Love Art Activism
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May Peace Love Art Activism

May Peace Love Art Activism

Sometimes I cannot find a specific date for certain events. The following list is of things that have occurred in May, but I don’t know when. If you know, let me know. 

BLACK HISTORY

Dred Scott in Mays
Dr John Emerson

In May 1836: Dr John Emerson assigned to Fort Snelling in the Wisconsin territory (a free territory as per the Missouri Compromise [1820]). Scott taken there with Emerson.

Two weeks before Scott arrived at Fort Snelling, Congress passed the Wisconsin Enabling Act, effectively making slavery illegal in the Wisconsin territory under three distinct statutes

                1) the act mandated that the laws of Michigan, which was a free state, govern the new territory

                2) the act made the Northwest Ordinance applicable in the territory, which also prohibited slavery

                3) the act reaffirmed and supplemented the Missouri Compromise.

Thus, by taking Scott to this territory and keeping him there for two and a half years, Emerson was breaking the law in three distinct ways. These facts provided Scott with a legitimate basis on which to claim his freedom in court, although Scott did not act on this opportunity.

Harriet Robinson

May 1836 – April 1838: Sometime during this period, Dred Scott married Harriet Robinson, a slave owned by Major Lawrence Taliaferro, the Indian Agent stationed near Fort Snelling.  Taliaferro was also a justice of the peace, and in that capacity he performed a formal wedding ceremony for his slave and her new husband. This was extraordinary and significant, and while not giving Dred Scott a new claim to freedom, the formal marriage provided another factual basis for his claim that he became free while he lived at Fort Snelling. Under the laws of the Southern states, a slave could never be legally married. Slave couples, of course, “married” each other throughout the South. Often a master performed a ceremony for his slaves. Sometimes white clergymen or slave preachers consecrated slave unions. Some slaves simply announced they were married or went to their masters to ask permission to live as a couple. Often slave communities developed their own ceremonies exchanging vows such as “until death or master do part.” Slaves understood the precarious nature of their personal lives.

                From the Chicago-Kent Law Review (3/29/2007) No Southern state allowed slaves to be married under the eyes of the law for three important reasons.

                First, as law students learn in family law, a marriage is a contract between three parties—the two spouses and the state. Slaves could never have a legal marriage because American slaves could not be parties to contracts.  No American slave state allowed slaves to make contracts or in any other way perform legally binding acts, including marriages.

                Second, a legal recognition of slave marriages would have undermined the property interest of masters. Such marriages might have limited the right of the master to sell one of the partners.

                Finally, recognition of slave marriages might have led slaves to claim other rights. The legal right to marry implies the right to raise your own children, and under common law a husband or wife cannot be compelled to testify against his or her spouse in a prosecution. A husband at common law had a duty to protect is wife from assaults from others, but slaves could never protect their wives from the assaults of their masters or overseers.

Scotts to St Louis

In May 1840: the Army sent Dr. Emerson to Florida to serve in the Seminole War. On his way there he left his wife and the Scotts in St. Louis. (BH, see March 9, 1841)

Dred Scott 14 years later

In May 1854: Federal Judge Robert William Wells told the jury that Scott’s status was to be determined by Missouri law. Since the Missouri Supreme Court had already decided that Scott was a slave, the federal jury upheld his status as a slave.
If an Illinois court had previously declared Scott free, then the result would have been different. Judge Wells might then have held that, under the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the Constitution, that Missouri was obligated to recognize the judicial proceedings that had emancipated Scott. But, no such proceeding had in fact ever taken.
place in Illinois or in the Wisconsin Territory. Thus, Scott and his family remained slaves.

The next stop in Dred Scott’s legal odyssey was the United States Supreme Court. An appeal would be more expensive than the Blows, by now Scott’s main financial patrons, could afford. Moreover, this was not a case that Scott’s lawyer, Rosewell Field,  was able to finance or even argue. However, Montgomery Blair, a Washington lawyer well connected to Missouri politics, agreed to take the case for free. (see Dec 1854)

In May 1856: the Supreme Court postponed a decision and scheduled reargument for the following term. (see Dred Scott for the expanded story)

Freedman’s Village

In May 1863:  the U.S. government established the Freedman’s Village across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., to help address the needs of the growing number of individuals who had escaped slavery in the south during the Civil War. These free men and women — often referred to as “contrabands” by the government — had all traveled north from Virginia, the Carolinas and other regions of the south in hope of finding work and opportunity. Under the direction of the government and the American Missionary Association, the Freedman’s Village was intended to house, train and educate freedmen, women, and their children. The village, originally located in what is today Arlington Cemetery, was run by the Freedman’s Bureau during most of its existence. Homes in the village were made of wood and housed two to four families each. As the community grew, the village provided housing, education, training for employment skills, church services, medical care and food for the former slaves. [VA Foundations article] (see May 1)

 

Marcus Garvey

In May – June 1916: Garvey began a year-long, 38-state speaking tour that takes him across America. 

Marcus Garvey a year later

In May 1917: Garvey returned to New York after completing his U.S. speaking tour. Thirteen members joined to form the New York branch of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. (BH, see May 5; see Garvey for expanded story)

”SCOTTSBORO BOYS”

In May 1950: Andy Wright was paroled again. He found a job in an Albany, NY  hospital. When asked about Victoria Price upon his release, Andy said: “I’m not mad because the girl lied about me. If she’s still living, I feel sorry for her because I don’t guess she sleeps much at night.” He was the last Scottsboro defendant to leave jail. (see  Scottsboro for expanded story)

School Desegregation

On August 30, 1971 Robert Miles and four other Klansmen had bombed 10 empty school buses shortly before a court-order issued by Judge Damon Keith to use busing to integrate schools in Pontiac, Michigan, was supposed to go into effect. In May 1973 Miles and his co-defendants were convicted of the bus bombings. Miles then spent the rest of the decade in jail, first at Leavenworth and from October 1974 until his release in late 1979 from the Federal prison in Marion. (BH, see June 14, SD, see June 21)

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Feminism

 

National American Woman Suffrage Association

In May 1890: the National American Woman Suffrage Association  formed as a unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA). 

Matilda Gage

In 1893: Matilda Gage published her magnum opus, Woman, Church, and State.

Gage also spoke of organized religion: “The greatest evils to women in all ages have come through the bondage of the Church. Women must think for themselves and realize that the story of the creation with the pair in the garden and the speaking serpent standing on his tail was a myth.” (Feminism, see Nov 7; see Gage for expanded story)

“The Matilda effect”

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In May 1993: science historian Margaret W. Rossiter described and names “The Matilda effect.” The abstract of the article stated: Recent work has brought to light so many cases, historical and contemporary, of women scientists who have been ignored, denied credit or otherwise dropped from sight that a sex-linked phenomenon seems to exist, as has been documented to be the case in other fields, such as medicine, art history and literary criticism. Since this systematic bias in scientific information and recognition practices fits the second half of Matthew 13:12 in the Bible, which refers to the under-recognition accorded to those who have little to start with, it is suggested that sociologists of science and knowledge can add to the ‘Matthew Effect’, made famous by Robert K. Merton in 1968, the ‘Matilda Effect’, named for the American suffragist and feminist critic Matilda J. Gage of New York, who in the late nineteenth century both experienced and articulated this phenomenon. Calling attention to her and this age-old tendency may prod future scholars to include other such ‘Matildas’ and thus to write a better, because more comprehensive, history and sociology of science. (next Feminism, see Aug 5)

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Vietnam

British withdraw

In May 1946: British troops withdrew from Vietnam (see “In July”)

Sons and Daughters in Touch

In May 1989: Sons and Daughters in Touch formed to locate, unite and support America’s Gold Star Children who lost their fathers in the Vietnam War. Among the 58,286 Americans lost in Southeast Asia, it is estimated that more than one-third were fathers. (see June 21, 1992)

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United Farm Workers

César E. Chávez /Prop 14

May 1976: Proposition 14 drive gets 719,000 signatures.  Although the measure didn’t pass, it forced lawmakers to vote money for the Agricultural Labor Relations Board (ALRB). (California Women for Ag article) (see March 10, 1978)

Arturo Rodriguez

In May 1993: veteran UFW organizer Arturo Rodriguez succeeded César E. Chávez as union president. (LA Times article) (Aug 8, 1994)

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May Music et al

Pete Seeger

In May, 1962: a Court of Appeals overturned the conviction of Pete Seeger. Fortuitously for Seeger, that same week Peter, Paul, and Mary’s cover of Seeger’s “Where Have All the Flowers Gone?”  hit the Top 40 chart and his blacklisting began to dissipate.(see June 27)

James Brown Live at the Apollo

In May 1963: recorded October 24, 1962, James Brown and The Famous Flames released Live at the Apollo. In 2003, the album was ranked number 24 on Rolling Stone magazine’s list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2004, it was one of 50 recordings chosen that year by the Library of Congress to be added to the National Recording Registry.

Little Stevie Wonder

In May 1963 – recorded in June 1962 during a Motortown Revue performance at the Regal Theater in Chicago Little Stevie Wonder’s The 12 Year Old Genius album released.

Beatles and LSD

In May 1967: Paul McCartney announced that all the Beatles had “dropped acid.” (see May 20)

The Road to Bethel

In May 1969: Hugh Romney and the Hog Farm commune hired to work at festival for security, free food, and free stage. (see May 6)

John Yoko and the Dakota

In May 1973: John Lennon and Yoko Ono moved from Greenwich Village to a 12-room apartment at the Dakota near Manhattan’s Central Park. The couple had been drifting apart, however, and she had busied herself recording the albums Approximately Infinite Universe and Feeling The Space. (see May 30)

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LGBTQ

Radicalesbians

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In May 1970: a group of lesbians–some who were members of NOW, but unhappy with the group’s direction–formed their own group called the Lavender Menace, which later became known as the Radicalesbians. The group presented a manifesto, “The Woman-Identified Woman,” at The Second Congress to Unite Woman in May 1970.

Karla Jay, PhD, a member of the organization, wrote that the manifesto “…[S]tarted by defining a lesbian as the ‘rage of all women condensed to the point of explosion.’ The true lesbian, we wrote, acted ‘in accordance with her inner compulsion to be a more complete and freer human being.’…In addition to desexualizing lesbianism, the document declared that lesbianism is a socially constructed ‘category of behavior possible only in a sexist society characterized by rigid sex roles and dominated by male supremacy…In a society in which men do no oppress women, and sexual expression is allowed to follow feelings, the categories of homosexuality would disappear.”’ (History as a Weapon article) (see May 18, 1970)

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FREE SPEECH

Student Rights

In May 1983: after reviewing the May 13 edition of the paper, the principal of Hazelwood East High School (Florissant, MO),Robert Reynolds, decided that two articles should not be published. The articles covered teenage pregnancy at Hazelwood East and the effects of divorce on students. Reynolds decided to delete the two pages on which they appeared, thus deleting additional articles as well. (Landmark Cases article) (see August 27, 1985)

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Marijuana

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In May 1985:  made by Unimed,  Marinol is the trade name for dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of the principal psychoactive components of botanical marijuana. It was approved in May 1985 for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who fail to respond to conventional antiemetic treatments. In December 1992, it was approved by FDA for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Marketed as a capsule, Marinol was originally placed in Schedule II. (Medical Marijuana article) (see September 6, 1988)

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AIDS

May – June, 1988: The CDC mailed a brochure, Understanding AIDS, to every household in the U.S: approximately 107 million brochures. (see December 1, 1988)

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