Tag Archives: May Peace Love Art Activism

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

 Anarchism in the US
US Labor History

May 3, 1886: Chicago, striking workers from Cyrus McCormick’s Harvester plant clash with police. Four workers were killed, and several were wounded. (2011 Taylor & Francis article) (see May 4, 1886)

National Farmers’ Holiday Association

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 1932: Milo Reno, former president of the Iowa Farmers’ Union, founded the National Farmers’ Holiday Association (FHA). The FHA fought foreclosures, sometimes by blocking the roads and physically preventing a sheriff from selling a farmer’s home and land. Other times, they held penny auctions, where everyone refused to bid more than a few pennies for the farm. The farm would then be given back to its original owner with no debt and the bank would only be a few cents richer. (Encyclopedia of the Great Plains article) (see January 4, 1933)

Emma Goldman

May 3, 1935: from the New York Times: [Montreal] Emma Goldman was hailed as “one of the great women of the age,” whose qualities of mind and should would be remembered long after she had gone by Rabbi Stern of Montreal last night when friends and admirers of Miss Goldman gave a farewell dinner before she leaves for Europe.” (see Goldman for expanded story)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

NAACP

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 1910: the National Negro Committee first met in 1919. On this date it chose “National Association for the Advancement of Colored People” as its organization name. (see June 25)

SCOTTSBORO BOYS
Sheriff Matt Wann

May 3, 1932: Sheriff Matt Wann murdered while serving a warrant for the arrest of a Harry Hambrick for the failure to support his wife. Wann had mistakenly arrested Hambrick’s brother and Hambrick shot and killed Wann. Hambrick was never caught nor tried in abstencia. Several deputies were with Wann assisting with the arrest.

Olen Montgomery

May 3, 1934: after a May Day rally to support them, Olen Montgomery wrote to his mother:  “That thing they had here on May Day what good did it do. Not any at all. I’m still locked up in the cell. Instead of the I.L.D. trying to make it better for me here in jail they are making it harder for me by trying to demand the people to do things. Listen, send me some money. Send me three dollars like I told you in my first letter.” (see Scottsboro for expanded story)

Continued student protest

May 3, 1963: despite the brutal treatment by police the day before, hundreds more school children marched in Birmingham.  Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene “Bull” Connor directed local police and firemen to attack the children with high-pressure fire hoses, batons, and police dogs. Images of children being brutally assaulted by officers and dogs appeared on television and in newspapers throughout the nation and world, provoking global outrage. The United States Department of Justice soon intervened. (see May 7)

Viola Liuzzo

May 3, 1965: the trial of Collie Wilkins, one of Viola Liuzzo’s killers began. (BH, see May 4; see Liuzzo for expanded story)

Northwestern University

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 1968: more than 100 African-American students took over a building at Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. They wanted African-American history, literature and art included in the curriculum. Their efforts led to the establishment of an African-American studies department, which now offers a doctoral program.  (NU article) (see May 11)

Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act

May 3, 2007: The House of Representatives passed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, but the bill gets stuck in Senate committee. (BH, see May 10; Shepard, see Sept 27; LGBTQ, see June 14)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Alien Land Law

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 1913: California enacted the Alien Land Law, barring Asian immigrants from owning land. California tightened the law further in 1920 and 1923, barring the leasing of land and land ownership by American-born children of Asian immigrant parents or by corporations controlled by Asian immigrants. These laws were supported by the California press, as well as the Japanese and Korean (later Asiatic) Exclusion League and the Anti-Jap Laundry League (both founded by labor unions) – groups claiming tens of thousands of members.

However, animosity for Asian immigrants was not solely local. In May 1912, President Woodrow Wilson wrote to a California backer: “In the matter of Chinese and Japanese coolie immigration I stand for the national policy of exclusion (or restricted immigration). … We cannot make a homogeneous population out of people who do not blend with the Caucasian race. … Oriental coolieism will give us another race problem to solve, and surely we have had our lesson.”

California did not stand alone. Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming all enacted discriminatory laws restricting Asians’ rights to hold land in America. In 1923, the United States Supreme Court reviewed various versions of the discriminatory land laws – and upheld every single one. Most of these discriminatory state laws remained in place until the 1950s, though Kansas and New Mexico did not repeal their provisions until 2002 and 2006, respectively. Florida has to date refused to repeal a constitutional provision authorizing its government to enact such discriminatory legislation. (California online archives) (see February 5, 1917)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Pledge of Allegiance

Walter Gobitas

May 3, 1937: as the rest of the world headed toward World War II, patriot fervor swept the U.S., as it had before, during and after World War I. One expression of that movement involved state laws requiring public school students to salute the flag each morning. The Jehovah’s Witnesses, however, regarded saluting the flag as an expression of a commitment to a secular authority and unfaithfulness to God. As a result, some families had their children refuse to participate in the compulsory salute. On this day, Walter Gobitas (the family name was misspelled in the court case) sued the Minersville, Pennsylvania, School Board, in a case that ended up in the Supreme Court (Minersville School District v. Gobitis; June 3, 1940). The Court upheld the compulsory salute, but, in a dramatic reversal three years later, ruled the compulsory flag salute unconstitutional in West Virginia v. Barnette on June 14, 1943). (see Pledge for expanded story)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Fair Housing

Shelley v. Kraemer

May 3, 1948: the Supreme Court ruled that racially-restrictive covenants violate the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, even covenants between private individuals. In Shelley v. Kraemer, the Court overturned a covenant among members of a neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri that restricted home sales to only white families. (Oyez article) (see July 15, 1949)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Judicial Milestone

Hernandez v Texas

May 3, 1954:  unanimous Supreme Court decision re the question: Is it a denial of the Fourteenth Amendment equal protection clause to try a defendant of a particular race or ethnicity before a jury where all persons of his race or ancestry have, because of that race or ethnicity, been excluded by the state?

The Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment protected those beyond the two classes of white or Negro, and extends to other racial groups in communities depending upon whether it can be factually established that such a group exists within a community. The Court concluded that the Fourteenth Amendment “is not directed solely against discrimination due to a ‘two-class theory’” but in this case covers those of Mexican ancestry. (Oyez article)(see June 16, 1958)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

173rd Airborne

May 3 Peace Love Activism

May 3, 1965: the lead element of the 173rd Airborne Brigade (“Sky Soldiers”), stationed in Okinawa, departed for South Vietnam. It was the first U.S. Army ground combat unit committed to the war. Combat elements of the 173rd Airborne Brigade included the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Battalions, 503rd Infantry; the 3rd Battalion, 319th Airborne Artillery; Company D, 16th Armor; Troop E, 17th Cavalry; and the 335th Aviation company. (see May 8)

James A. Rhodes

May 3, 1970: during a press conference, the Republican governor of Ohio, James A. Rhodes, called anti-war protesters “the worst type of people we harbor in America, worse than the brown shirts and the communist element.” Governor Rhodes ordered the National Guard to quell the demonstration at Kent State University. (see Rhodes for expanded story)

Mayday Tribe

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 1971: the Harris Poll claimed that 60 percent of Americans opposed the Vietnam War. Police arrested about 7,000 antiwar protesters after skirmishes with metropolitan police and Federal troops throughout large areas of the Washington, DC. About 150 were also injured in the six hours of disturbances as the protesters, demanding an immediate halt to the war in Vietnam, were thwarted in their plan to stop government operations. Shortly before 11 P.M., more than 12 hours after most of the arrests were made, Will Wilson, the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division, set up procedures for them to be released. The protesters called themselves the Mayday Tribe.

Rennie Davis, a leader of the Mayday Tribe, a militant activist and one of the Chicago Seven convicted under the Federal anti-riot law, was taken into custody by the Federal Bureau of Investigation about 4 P.M. as he emerged from a news conference in midtown Washington. He was held on $25,000 bond on a charge of conspiring to violate citizens’ rights to travel in interstate commerce and to work for agencies of the United States Government. A warrant was issued for the arrest of John Froines, another member of the Chicago Seven, on the same charge. (Vietnam, see May 27; Chi8, see November 2, 1972)

WAR POWERS ACT

May 3, 1973: Clement J. Zablocki (D-WI) introduced the War Powers Act. It intended to check the president’s power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress. (see July 18)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Japanese Internment Camps

 Michi Weglyn

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

May 3, 1976: Weglyn’s Years of Infamy published. It became one of the most widely read and cited books on the internment. (see Internment for expanded story)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

Walter LaGrand

May 3 Peace Love Activism

May 3, 1999: Arizona executed German national Walter LaGrand. In addition to US courts, the International Court of Justice in the Hague heard the case where Judge Christopher Weeramantry of Sri Lanka urged the US Government to use “all the measures at its disposal’ to prevent the execution. Germany asked the world court to intervene after Arizona Governor Jane Hull rejected appeals from German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder and Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer to stop the execution. Germany did not have the death penalty and contended Arizona failed to advise the LaGrand brothers of their right to consular assistance at their trials. The LaGrands were born in Germany but came to the United States when they were children.

LaGrand twice refused offers of lethal injeciton and reportedly chose the gas chamber to protest the death penalty. As of Apr. 21, 2010, LaGrand is the last prisoner to be executed by the gas chamber. (see January 31, 2000)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

U.N. Human Rights Commission

U.N. Human Rights Commission

May 3, 2001, the United States was voted off the U.N. Human Rights Commission in Geneva for the first time since its inception in 1947. The commission investigates human-rights abuses around the world. France, Austria and Sweden were chosen for the three seats allocated to Western countries that were up for election. One diplomat speculated that U.S. policies on the Middle East might have swung some countries to reject its candidacy, but according to Reuters, some diplomats said they believed the Bush administration’s opposition to the Kyoto climate change treaty as well as its insistence on a missile defense contributed to the loss. (UN Human Rights Council site)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

Phoenix Bishop Thomas J. O’Brien

May 3, 2003:  in a five-page agreement with a county prosecutor, Phoenix Bishop Thomas J. O’Brien acknowledged he hid allegations of sex abuse by priests and surrenders some of his authority. The deal is extraordinary, both as a personal statement of wrongdoing and as an agreement between a church leader and civil authority that changes how a diocese does business. (see June 18)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Medical Marijuana

Puerto Rico

May 3, 2015: Gov. Alejandro Garcia Padilla, the governor of Puerto Rico, signed an executive order to permit the use of medical marijuana. (see June 1)

May 3 Peace Love Art Activism
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May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

Weems v United States

May 2, 1910: in Weems v. United States, the Supreme Court made a ruling that would significantly affect the debate on the death penalty. The case concerned a defendant who had been sentenced to fifteen years of hard labor, a heavy fine, and a number of other penalties for the relatively minor crime of falsifying official records. The Court overturned the sentence, ruling that the penalty was too harsh considering the nature of the offense. Ultimately, in the Weems decision, the Court set three important precedents concerning any sentencing:

  1. Cruel and unusual punishment is defined by the changing norms and standards of society and therefore is not based on historical interpretations.
  2. Courts may decide whether a punishment is unnecessarily cruel with regard to physical pain.
  3. Courts may decide whether a punishment is unnecessarily cruel with regard to psychological pain. (Justia article) (see February 8, 1924)
Maryland

May 2, 2013: Maryland’s Governor Governor Martin O’Malley signed a bill repealing the death penalty. The legislation went into effect October 1, 2013. In those cases in which the state had filed a notice to seek a death sentence, ‘the notice shall be considered withdrawn and it shall be considered a notice to seek a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole under specified circumstances,’ according to a press release from the Governor’s office. (see Oct 30)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights

May 2, 1914: suffrage parades and meetings held in nearly every state and Washington, D.C. (F, see May 9; VR, see January 12, 1915)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

ADA

Buck v Bell

May 2 Peace Love Activism

May 2, 1927: with one dissenting vote, the US Supreme Court ruled in Buck v. Bell that the compulsory sterilization of mental defectives such as Carrie S. Buck, a young Virginia woman, was constitutional under “careful” state safeguards. In his majority opinion, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes writes:  “(It) is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind…Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

This ruling has never been overturned.

Carrie had became pregnant when she was seventeen as a result of being raped by her foster parent’s nephew. Reporters and researchers that visited Buck later in life claimed she was a woman of normal intelligence. Later in life, she expressed regret that she had been unable to have additional children. Carrie Buck died alone in a nursing home in 1983; she was buried in Charlottesville near her only child, Vivian, who had died at age eight. (see May 2, 2002)

At the Nuremberg trials after World War II, Nazi doctors explicitly cited Holmes’s opinion in Buck v. Bell as part of their defense. (2016 NPR story) (see January 29, 1929)

Carrie Buck

May 2 Peace Love Activism

May 2, 2002: Virginia Governor Mark R. Warner offered the “Commonwealth’s sincere apology for Virginia’s participation in eugenics.” at the erection of an historical marker for Carrie Buck in Charlottesville, Virginia where she was born. (see June 20)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

McCarthyism

Joe McCarthy

May 2, 1957: Joe McCarthy died at the Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland from a condition related to his cirrhotic liver.  He was forty-eight. (NY Daily News Flashback article) (see May 18, 1957)

Dalton Trumbo

May 2, 1975: Hollywood screenwriter Dalton Trumbo finally received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for the 1956 film, The Brave One. The announced winner of the award at the Oscars ceremony on March 27, 1957 was “Robert Rich,” Trumbo’s pseudonym while he was blacklisted for his political views. (see May 17, 1995)


May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Birmingham students fire-hosed

May 2, 1963: more than 700 black children protesting racial segregation in Birmingham, Alabama, were arrested, blasted with fire hoses, clubbed by police, and attacked by police dogs. As part of the Children’s Crusade launched by Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to revive the Birmingham anti-segregation campaign, more than 1000 African American children trained in nonviolent tactics walked out of their classes and assembled at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church to march to downtown Birmingham. Hundreds were arrested and transported to jail in school buses and paddy wagons but the children refused to relent. (see May 4)

Dee/Moore Murders

May 2 Peace Love Activism

May 2, 1964: members of the Ku Klux KIan kidnapped Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore from the main street in Meadville, Mississippi and took them to the Homochitto National Forest where they were tied to a tree and beaten. The Klansmen placed Dee and Moore in a trunk of a car and transported them to Tallulah, LA, where they dumped them, while they were still alive, into the Old Mississippi River. (Cold Cases Project article) (BH, see, May 5; see Dee & Moore for expanded story)

Black Panthers

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2, 1967: armed members of the Black Panther Party entered the California state capital to protest a bill that restricted the carrying of arms in public. Outrage at the incident will lead to the beginning of restrictive gun laws and a backlash of the re-interpretation of the 2nd amendment as the right of individuals (not simply the militia) to bear arms. (BH, see May 6; BP, see Oct 28)

BLACK & SHOT/Walter Scott

May 2, 2017: Michael T. Slager, the former South Carolina police officer who spent years fighting charges of shooting and killing Walter Scott, an unarmed black man, pleaded guilty in his federal case. “We hope that Michael’s acceptance of responsibility will help the Scott family as they continue to grieve their loss,” Slager’s lawyer, Andrew J. Savage III said in a statement. (Scott, see Dec 7)

BLACK & SHOT/Jordan Edwards

May 2, 2017:  police chief Jonathan Haber of the Balch Springs Police Department announced that he had fired officer, Roy Oliver who used a rifle to shoot into a moving vehicle full of teenagers and killed Jordan Edwards, 15, as he was seated in the front passenger seat.

                Haber said his decision was based in part on the department’s internal affairs investigation, which had been completed, and the body-camera footage from the two officers at the scene, (JE, see May 5)

BLACK & SHOT/Alton B Sterling

May 2, 2017: (see July 5, 2016) the federal government announced that, officers, Blane Salamoni and Howie Lake II, the two white police officers in the fatal shooting on the July 5, 2016 of Alton B. Sterling, a black man in Baton Rouge, La would not be charged. The incident caused widespread unrest. State charges were still pending. (B & S, see May 5; see Sterling, see March 27, 2018)

 

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

Student protests

May 2, 1964: Some 400–1,000 students march through Times Square, New York and another 700 in San Francisco, in the first major student demonstration against the Vietnam War. Smaller marches also occur in Boston, Seattle, and Madison, Wisconsin. (see May 24)

Nixon orders protest ended

May 2, 1971: the Nixon administration canceled the protester’s permit. U.S. Park Police and Washington Metropolitan Police, dressed in riot gear, raided the encampment. The police formed up in phalanxes and slowly moved through the park firing tear gas and knocking down tents, forcing out the campers. The campers scattered towards the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial. (see May 3)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 Music et al

Enoch Light

May 2 – 8, 1960: Enoch Light/Terry Snyder and the All Stars’ was Billboard’s #1 stereo album.  Enoch Henry Light was a classical violinist, bandleader, and recording engineer. As A & R chief and vice-president of Grand Award Records, he founded Command Records in 1959. Light’s name was prominent on many albums both as musician and producer. He is credited with being one of the first musicians to go to extreme lengths to create high-quality recordings that took full advantage of the technical capabilities of home audio equipment of the late 1950s and early 1960s, particularly stereo effects that bounced the sounds between the right and left channels (often described as “ping-pong”). He also was the first to use the “gate fold” style album cover that became well-known with the Beatles Sgt. Pepper’s album in 1967. (see August 30 – September 3, 1963)

The Beatles

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2 – June 5, 1964: The Beatles’ Second Album (released April 10) became the Billboard #1 album (only four of the twelve songs were written by the Beatles). (see May 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Sunshine silver mine

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2, 1972: a fire at the Sunshine silver mine in Kellogg, Idaho, caused the death of 91 workers who died from carbon monoxide poisoning, likely caused by toxic fumes emitted by burning polyurethane foam, used as a fire retardant. (see June 19)

Writers Guild

May 2, 2017: the Writers Guild of America reached a tentative deal with the major studios and networks for a new film and TV contract for the union’s nearly 13,000 members. (Variety article) (see May 9)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

Nationalist Socialist party

May 2, 1977: The Skokie Village Board, in response to a request from Nationalist Socialist party for a permit to march in front of Skokie Village Hall, passes three ordinances which 1) require a $350,000.00 indemnity bond to be posted in advance of any march 2) prohibits the distribution of printed material which promotes hatred of groups of people and 3) prohibits demonstrations by individuals wearing military style uniforms (see June 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Calvin Graham

May 2, 1978: the Secretary of the Navy authorized the issuance of an honorable discharge to Graham, effective April 5, 1943. (see Graham for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

Falklands War

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

May 2, 1982: the British submarine HMS Conqueror torpedoed and sank Argentine cruiser General Belgran. More than 320 Argentine sailors died – the single biggest loss of life in the war. Margaret Thatcher faced criticism over the sinking because the vessel was outside the 200-mile exclusion zone around the Falklands. (Falklands, see May 4; Nuclear, see June 12)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

May 2, 1994:  a Detroit jury acquitted Kevorkian of charges he violated the state’s assisted suicide ban in the death of Thomas Hyde. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

May 2, 2002:  California police arrested Rev Paul Shanley and later charged on three counts of child rape. He denied the charges. (see June 14)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Luis Ramirez

May 2, 2009: Brandon Piekarsky and Derrick Donchak were acquitted of all serious charges against them stemming from the fatal beating of Luis Ramirez, a Mexican immigrant, on July 12, 2008 in Shenandoah, PA. (Immigration, see Oct 30; see Ramirez for expanded story)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

Osama bin Laden

May 2, 2011: a day after his death, U.S. forces buried Osama bin Laden’s body at sea, The forces handled the body in accordance with Islamic practice and tradition. The sea buriel prevented a burial site from becoming a “terrorist shrine.” (aljazeera dot com article) (see Oct 11)

May 2 Peace Love Art Activism
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May Peace Love Art Activism

May Peace Love Art Activism

Sometimes I cannot find a specific date for certain events. The following list is of things that have occurred in May, but I don’t know when. If you know, let me know. 

BLACK HISTORY

Dred Scott in Mays
Dr John Emerson

In May 1836: Dr John Emerson assigned to Fort Snelling in the Wisconsin territory (a free territory as per the Missouri Compromise [1820]). Scott taken there with Emerson.

Two weeks before Scott arrived at Fort Snelling, Congress passed the Wisconsin Enabling Act, effectively making slavery illegal in the Wisconsin territory under three distinct statutes

                1) the act mandated that the laws of Michigan, which was a free state, govern the new territory

                2) the act made the Northwest Ordinance applicable in the territory, which also prohibited slavery

                3) the act reaffirmed and supplemented the Missouri Compromise.

Thus, by taking Scott to this territory and keeping him there for two and a half years, Emerson was breaking the law in three distinct ways. These facts provided Scott with a legitimate basis on which to claim his freedom in court, although Scott did not act on this opportunity.

Harriet Robinson

May 1836 – April 1838: Sometime during this period, Dred Scott married Harriet Robinson, a slave owned by Major Lawrence Taliaferro, the Indian Agent stationed near Fort Snelling.  Taliaferro was also a justice of the peace, and in that capacity he performed a formal wedding ceremony for his slave and her new husband. This was extraordinary and significant, and while not giving Dred Scott a new claim to freedom, the formal marriage provided another factual basis for his claim that he became free while he lived at Fort Snelling. Under the laws of the Southern states, a slave could never be legally married. Slave couples, of course, “married” each other throughout the South. Often a master performed a ceremony for his slaves. Sometimes white clergymen or slave preachers consecrated slave unions. Some slaves simply announced they were married or went to their masters to ask permission to live as a couple. Often slave communities developed their own ceremonies exchanging vows such as “until death or master do part.” Slaves understood the precarious nature of their personal lives.

                From the Chicago-Kent Law Review (3/29/2007) No Southern state allowed slaves to be married under the eyes of the law for three important reasons.

                First, as law students learn in family law, a marriage is a contract between three parties—the two spouses and the state. Slaves could never have a legal marriage because American slaves could not be parties to contracts.  No American slave state allowed slaves to make contracts or in any other way perform legally binding acts, including marriages.

                Second, a legal recognition of slave marriages would have undermined the property interest of masters. Such marriages might have limited the right of the master to sell one of the partners.

                Finally, recognition of slave marriages might have led slaves to claim other rights. The legal right to marry implies the right to raise your own children, and under common law a husband or wife cannot be compelled to testify against his or her spouse in a prosecution. A husband at common law had a duty to protect is wife from assaults from others, but slaves could never protect their wives from the assaults of their masters or overseers.

Scotts to St Louis

In May 1840: the Army sent Dr. Emerson to Florida to serve in the Seminole War. On his way there he left his wife and the Scotts in St. Louis. (BH, see March 9, 1841)

Dred Scott 14 years later

In May 1854: Federal Judge Robert William Wells told the jury that Scott’s status was to be determined by Missouri law. Since the Missouri Supreme Court had already decided that Scott was a slave, the federal jury upheld his status as a slave.
If an Illinois court had previously declared Scott free, then the result would have been different. Judge Wells might then have held that, under the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the Constitution, that Missouri was obligated to recognize the judicial proceedings that had emancipated Scott. But, no such proceeding had in fact ever taken.
place in Illinois or in the Wisconsin Territory. Thus, Scott and his family remained slaves.

The next stop in Dred Scott’s legal odyssey was the United States Supreme Court. An appeal would be more expensive than the Blows, by now Scott’s main financial patrons, could afford. Moreover, this was not a case that Scott’s lawyer, Rosewell Field,  was able to finance or even argue. However, Montgomery Blair, a Washington lawyer well connected to Missouri politics, agreed to take the case for free. (see Dec 1854)

In May 1856: the Supreme Court postponed a decision and scheduled reargument for the following term. (see Dred Scott for the expanded story)

Marcus Garvey

In May – June 1916: Garvey began a year-long, 38-state speaking tour that takes him across America. 

Marcus Garvey a year later

In May 1917: Garvey returned to New York after completing his U.S. speaking tour. Thirteen members joined to form the New York branch of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. (BH, see May 5; see Garvey for expanded story)

”SCOTTSBORO BOYS”

In May 1950: Andy Wright was paroled again. He found a job in an Albany, NY  hospital. When asked about Victoria Price upon his release, Andy said: “I’m not mad because the girl lied about me. If she’s still living, I feel sorry for her because I don’t guess she sleeps much at night.” He was the last Scottsboro defendant to leave jail. (see  Scottsboro for expanded story)

School Desegregation

On August 30, 1971 Robert Miles and four other Klansmen had bombed 10 empty school buses shortly before a court-order issued by Judge Damon Keith to use busing to integrate schools in Pontiac, Michigan, was supposed to go into effect. In May 1973 Miles and his co-defendants were convicted of the bus bombings. Miles then spent the rest of the decade in jail, first at Leavenworth and from October 1974 until his release in late 1979 from the Federal prison in Marion. (BH, see June 14, SD, see June 21)

May Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

 

National American Woman Suffrage Association

In May 1890: the National American Woman Suffrage Association  formed as a unification of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA). 

Matilda Gage

In 1893: Matilda Gage published her magnum opus, Woman, Church, and State.

Gage also spoke of organized religion: “The greatest evils to women in all ages have come through the bondage of the Church. Women must think for themselves and realize that the story of the creation with the pair in the garden and the speaking serpent standing on his tail was a myth.” (Feminism, see Nov 7; see Gage for expanded story)

“The Matilda effect”

May Peace Love Art Activism

In May 1993: science historian Margaret W. Rossiter described and names “The Matilda effect.” The abstract of the article stated: Recent work has brought to light so many cases, historical and contemporary, of women scientists who have been ignored, denied credit or otherwise dropped from sight that a sex-linked phenomenon seems to exist, as has been documented to be the case in other fields, such as medicine, art history and literary criticism. Since this systematic bias in scientific information and recognition practices fits the second half of Matthew 13:12 in the Bible, which refers to the under-recognition accorded to those who have little to start with, it is suggested that sociologists of science and knowledge can add to the ‘Matthew Effect’, made famous by Robert K. Merton in 1968, the ‘Matilda Effect’, named for the American suffragist and feminist critic Matilda J. Gage of New York, who in the late nineteenth century both experienced and articulated this phenomenon. Calling attention to her and this age-old tendency may prod future scholars to include other such ‘Matildas’ and thus to write a better, because more comprehensive, history and sociology of science. (next Feminism, see Aug 5)

May Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

British withdraw

In May 1946: British troops withdrew from Vietnam (see “In July”)

Sons and Daughters in Touch

In May 1989: Sons and Daughters in Touch formed to locate, unite and support America’s Gold Star Children who lost their fathers in the Vietnam War. Among the 58,286 Americans lost in Southeast Asia, it is estimated that more than one-third were fathers. (see June 21, 1992)

May Peace Love Art Activism

United Farm Workers

César E. Chávez /Prop 14

May 1976: Proposition 14 drive gets 719,000 signatures.  Although the measure didn’t pass, it forced lawmakers to vote money for the Agricultural Labor Relations Board (ALRB). (California Women for Ag article) (see March 10, 1978)

Arturo Rodriguez

In May 1993: veteran UFW organizer Arturo Rodriguez succeeded César E. Chávez as union president. (LA Times article) (Aug 8, 1994)

May Peace Love Art Activism

May Music et al

Pete Seeger

In May, 1962: a Court of Appeals overturned the conviction of Pete Seeger. Fortuitously for Seeger, that same week Peter, Paul, and Mary’s cover of Seeger’s “Where Have All the Flowers Gone?”  hit the Top 40 chart and his blacklisting began to dissipate.(see June 27)

James Brown Live at the Apollo

In May 1963: recorded October 24, 1962, James Brown and The Famous Flames released Live at the Apollo. In 2003, the album was ranked number 24 on Rolling Stone magazine’s list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2004, it was one of 50 recordings chosen that year by the Library of Congress to be added to the National Recording Registry.

Little Stevie Wonder

In May 1963 – recorded in June 1962 during a Motortown Revue performance at the Regal Theater in Chicago Little Stevie Wonder’s The 12 Year Old Genius album released.

Beatles and LSD

In May 1967: Paul McCartney announced that all the Beatles had “dropped acid.” (see May 20)

The Road to Bethel

In May 1969: Hugh Romney and the Hog Farm commune hired to work at festival for security, free food, and free stage. (see May 6)

John Yoko and the Dakota

In May 1973: John Lennon and Yoko Ono moved from Greenwich Village to a 12-room apartment at the Dakota near Manhattan’s Central Park. The couple had been drifting apart, however, and she had busied herself recording the albums Approximately Infinite Universe and Feeling The Space. (see May 30)

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LGBTQ

Radicalesbians

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In May 1970: a group of lesbians–some who were members of NOW, but unhappy with the group’s direction–formed their own group called the Lavender Menace, which later became known as the Radicalesbians. The group presented a manifesto, “The Woman-Identified Woman,” at The Second Congress to Unite Woman in May 1970.

Karla Jay, PhD, a member of the organization, wrote that the manifesto “…[S]tarted by defining a lesbian as the ‘rage of all women condensed to the point of explosion.’ The true lesbian, we wrote, acted ‘in accordance with her inner compulsion to be a more complete and freer human being.’…In addition to desexualizing lesbianism, the document declared that lesbianism is a socially constructed ‘category of behavior possible only in a sexist society characterized by rigid sex roles and dominated by male supremacy…In a society in which men do no oppress women, and sexual expression is allowed to follow feelings, the categories of homosexuality would disappear.”’ (History as a Weapon article) (see May 18, 1970)

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FREE SPEECH

Student Rights

In May 1983: after reviewing the May 13 edition of the paper, the principal of Hazelwood East High School (Florissant, MO),Robert Reynolds, decided that two articles should not be published. The articles covered teenage pregnancy at Hazelwood East and the effects of divorce on students. Reynolds decided to delete the two pages on which they appeared, thus deleting additional articles as well. (Landmark Cases article) (see August 27, 1985)

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Marijuana

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In May 1985:  made by Unimed,  Marinol is the trade name for dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of the principal psychoactive components of botanical marijuana. It was approved in May 1985 for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who fail to respond to conventional antiemetic treatments. In December 1992, it was approved by FDA for the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Marketed as a capsule, Marinol was originally placed in Schedule II. (Medical Marijuana article) (see September 6, 1988)

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AIDS

May – June, 1988: The CDC mailed a brochure, Understanding AIDS, to every household in the U.S: approximately 107 million brochures. (see December 1, 1988)

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