Tag Archives: December Peace Love Art Activism

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Roberts v The City of Boston

December 4, 1849: the case of Roberts v The City of Boston began on behalf of Sarah Roberts, a Black five-year-old who was barred from school. The suit was heard by the Massachusetts Supreme Court and the judge presiding was Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw. The lawsuit was part of an organized effort by the African-American community to end racially segregated schools. A city ordinance passed in 1845 had said any child “unlawfully excluded from the public schools” could recover damages (which meant they could sue the city). Sarah had been forced to walk past five other schools to reach the “colored” school in Smith Court.

School authorities argued that special provisions had been made for “colored” students. Since Boston maintained racially segregated schools, that Sarah passed five White schools on her way to the black schools, the school board contended, was of no consequence. Roberts retained the talented attorney, abolitionist, and later United States Senator Charles Sumner. Sumner worked with Robert Morris, a young Black abolitionist and activist lawyer from Boston. This formidable legal team broke new ground in their argument before the court. Invoking “the great principle” embodied in the Constitution of Massachusetts, they asserted that all persons, regardless of race or color, stand as equals before the law. (see Sarah Roberts for expanded chronology) (SD, see In April, 1850)

Dred Scott

Late 1849 or early 1850: Irene Emerson left Missouri for Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1850 she married Dr. Calvin C. Chaffee, a Springfield physician with antislavery leanings who later became a Republican congressman. Although no longer in Missouri, Irene Emerson remained the defendant in Dred Scott’s freedom suit before the Missouri state courts. Her brother, a prosperous New York merchant with strong personal and professional ties to St. Louis, continued to act on her behalf in defending the case and would become the named defendant in the federal case. (see Dred Scott for expanded chronology)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 4, 1915: the NAACP led protest demonstrations against the showing of the movie The Birth of a Nation. The racism that African Americans experienced in both the South and the North during the war years could be glimpsed in many arenas of American life, including the movies. It is not surprising, perhaps, that The Birth of a Nation, which appeared in March 1915, was both one of the landmarks in the history of American cinema and a landmark in American racism.

Historian Thomas Cripps has characterized The Birth of a Nation as “at once a major stride for cinema and a sacrifice of black humanity to the cause of racism.” Based on two historical novels, The Clansman, An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan (1905) and The Leopard’s Spots: A Romance of the White Man’s Burden, 1865 – ­1900 (1902), and a play, The Clansman (1906), written by a North Carolina lawyer turned preacher, Thomas Dixon Jr., The Birth of a Nation recounts the history of the Civil War and Reconstruction through the eyes and experiences of Southern whites who vehemently opposed the political and social progress made by newly freed African Americans after the Civil War. Much of the novel’s tone, which Cripps describes as “a nightmare of interracial brutality, rape and castigation,” found its way into The Birth of a Nation. (next BH, see Dec 8)

Winfred LynnDecember 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 4, 1942: Winfred Lynn, an African-American landscape gardener on Long Island, New York, challenged the racially segregated draft in World War II. Lynn’s challenge cited the 1940 Selective Service Act, which included a racial non-discrimination clause. Although rarely mentioned by historians, the clause in the Selective Service Act was arguably the first federal civil rights law of the twentieth century.

On September 27, 1940, civil rights leader A. Philip Randolph had confronted President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the White House about his failure to implement the non-discrimination clause of the law, but without success.

The NAACP refused to take Lynn’s case, regarding it as too controversial in the midst of wartime. Arthur Garfield Hays, general counsel for the ACLU, agreed to handle the case. The Federal District Court in Brooklyn on this day denied Lynn’s writ of habeas corpus and dismissed the case. On February 3, 1944 the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, by a 2-1 vote, upheld the lower court decision.  [ACLU story] (see June 20, 1943 for more; next BH, see Dec 8)

School desegregation–Clinton, Tennessee

December 4 Peace Love Activism

December 4, 1956:  Clinton, Tennessee’s Rev. Paul Turner, the white minister of the First Baptist Church, was severely beaten after escorting the “Clinton 12” to school.

The twelve students were Jo Ann Allen (now Boyce), Bobby Cain, Theresser Caswell, Minnie Ann Dickey (now Jones), Gail Ann Epps (now Upton), Ronald Hayden, William Latham, Alvah J. McSwain (now Lambert), Maurice Soles, Robert Thacker, Regina Turner (now Smith), and Alfred Williams. A bronze statue of the “Clinton Twelve” is now displayed outside a newly-remodeled front entrance to the former Green McAdoo School, where the twelve students had attended elementary school. [Black Then article]  (SD, see May 17, 1957)

Louis Armstrong

In 1957: although the blues and folk music had often been associated with protest music,  jazz also had its contributors.

The usually low-key Louis Armstrong cancelled a State Department-sponsored tour of the USSR in 1957. “The way they are treating my people in the South, the government can go to hell. The people over there ask me what’s wrong with my country. What am I supposed to say?”  [2007 NYY story] (see January 10, 1957)

Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 4, 1964: FBI agents arrested 19 Mississippi men on federal conspiracy charges in connection with the slayings of three civil rights workers, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, in Mississippi. (next BH, see Dec 6; see Murders for expanded chronology)

Black Panthers assassinated

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 4, 1969: 14 police officers assassinated Black Panthers Fred Hampton, 21, and Mark Clark, 22, as they slept in their Chicago apartment. About a hundred bullets had been fired in what police described as a fierce gun battle with members of the Black Panther Party. However, ballistics experts later determined that only one of those bullets came from the Panthers’ side.

In addition, the “bullet holes” in the front door of the apartment, which police pointed to as evidence that the Panthers had been shooting from within the apartment, were actually nail holes created by police in an attempt to cover up the attack. Four other Black Panthers were wounded in the raid, as well as two police officers.(contemporary NYT article) (next BH & BP, see Dec 8)

Johnnie Mae Chappell

December 4, 2002: nearly four decades after a Johnnie Mae Chappell was slain [March 23, 1964], President George W. Bush requested the Justice Department review the killing and police investigation which followed.

Former Jacksonville police detective Lee Cody, who, along with his partner, was fired by the department for investigating the killing of Johnnie Mae Chappell without authorization, had written to Bush and asked for assistance.

Cody received a letter from the White House which said it had sent his “inquiry to the Department of Justice, which will review your correspondence.”

“I can prove what I’m saying,” Cody said. (BH, see January 6, 2003; Chappell, see March 26, 2003)

James C. Anderson

December 4, 2012: William Montgomery, 23, pleaded guilty to hate crime charges in the killing of James Anderson (see June 26, 2011).  Three others had already pleaded guilty and awaited sentencing.  Montgomery did not participate in running over Anderson. Another suspect, Jonathan Gaskamp, 20, also pleaded guilty to hate crimes charges in assaults against other blacks. (see January 17, 2103)

Laquan McDonald

December 4, 2018:  Cook County Judge Domenica Stephenson denied defense requests for directed acquittals in the trial of the three Chicago police officers charged with lying about the shooting of Laquan McDonald.

Stephenson rejected the defense contention that prosecutors failed to prove their case. Stephenson was hearing the case in a bench trial, without a jury. [CBS News article]

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Lucy Burns

December 4, 1916: Lucy Burns, along with four other women, took strategic positions in the front row of the visitors’ gallery during President Wilson’s formal address to Congress. They unfurled a banner that read, “Mr. President, What Will You Do for Woman Suffrage?” (see January 8, 1917)

 Dianne Feinstein

December 4, 1978: Dianne Feinstein became San Francisco’s first woman mayor when she was named to replace George Moscone, who had been assassinated.  (see February 15, 1979)

Women’s Health

December 4, 2012: the Oklahoma Supreme Court struck down two anti-abortion laws. In two separate opinions the Court ruled unconstitutional laws requiring women seeking abortions to have an ultrasound image placed in front of them while they hear a description of the fetus, and that ban off-label use of certain abortion-inducing drugs. (NYT article) (see January 6, 2013)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

The Red Scare

December 4, 1947: President Harry Truman had ordered the creation of an Attorney General’s List of Subversive Organizations as part of his Federal Loyalty Program, which he established on March 21, 1947. The list was officially published in the Federal Register on this day. The list became a quasi-official blacklist, as members of listed organizations lost jobs or suffered other penalties because of their association with alleged left-wing organizations. Organizations had no way to protest or appeal being listed, and individuals were labeled subversive even though they had quit the organizations years before, or had only had a brief association in the first place.

The Attorney General’s List encouraged other lists that were used to label and blacklist people. (see Dec 14)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 4 Music et al

I Want To Hold Your Hand

December 4, 1963: Capitol Records issued a press release announcing that it will begin selling the Beatles’ first U.S. 45 rpm single, “I Want To Hold Your Hand,” on Monday, January 13th, 1964. (also see Busy Beatle December 1963) (next Beatles, see Dec 6)

Beatles for Sale

December 4 Peace Love Activism

December 4, 1964, The Beatles: UK release, Beatles for Sale. (next Beatles, see Dec 15)

Future Woodstock Performers

December 4 Peace Love Activism

December 4, 1965 the former Warlocks, now Grateful Dead played their first show as the Grateful Dead  in San Jose, CA at the second of Ken Kesey’s Acid Tests. (Jerry Garcia, age 23; Phil Lesh, age 25; Pigpen, age 20; Bob Weir, age 18; Bill Kreutzmann, age 19). Owsley Bear Stanley participated for the first time. (FWP, see “In June Music”; LSD, see December 11; Dead, see Dec 10)

“Turn! Turn! Turn!”

December 4, 1965, “Turn! Turn! Turn!” by the Byrds #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Space Race

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 4 – 18, 1965: American astronauts Frank Borman and Jim Lovell fly Gemini 7 for fourteen days, setting an endurance record for that time. (next SR, see Dec 15 – 16)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

César E. Chávez, Dolores Huerta, and the UFW

December 4, 1970, : Superior Court Judge Gorden Cambell sentenced Chávez to ten days in jail for violating an injunction prohibiting the lettuce boycott against growers who did not have contracts with his union. Coretta Scott King and Ethel Kennedy, visited Chavez in jail. [NYT article] (see Dec 24, 1970)

United Auto Workers

December 4, 2015: the United Auto Workers won a victory in Chattanooga, Tenn., as a group of skilled tradesmen successfully voted to create a collective bargaining unit at Volkswagen AG’s only U.S. plant. The vote pertains to a small group of skilled tradesmen but allows the UAW to set up a bargaining unit for them to negotiate for wages, benefits and work rules with the German auto maker, and will open the door to wider representation. The group includes a little more than 160 electricians, welders and other repair workers that maintain the assembly line. (see March 29, 2016)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

Charles Hegna

December 4, 1984: four armed men seized a Kuwaiti airliner en route to Pakistan and forced it to land in Tehran, where the hijackers killed American passenger Charles Hegna. (see Dec 9)

Terry AndersonDecember 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 4, 1991: militants in Lebanon released kidnapped American journalist Terry Anderson after 2,454 days in captivity. (see October 12, 2000)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Somalia

December 4, 1992: U.S. military forces land in Somalia. (see January 3, 1996)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

December 4, 1998: lawyers for President Bill Clinton asked the House Judiciary Committee for three to four days to make their defense presentation. (see Clinton for expanded chronology)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism
Native Americans & Environmental Issues

December 4, 2016: federal officials announced that they would not approve permits for construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline beneath a dammed section of the Missouri River that tribes said sat near sacred burial sites.

The decision was a victory for hundreds, perhaps thousands, of protesters camped near the construction site who had opposed the project because they said would it threaten a water source and cultural sites. Federal officials had given the protesters until tomorrow to leave a campsite near the construction site.

In a statement, the Department of the Army’s assistant secretary for Civil Works, Jo-Ellen Darcy, said that the decision was based on a need to explore alternate routes for the pipeline crossing. “Although we have had continuing discussion and exchanges of new information with the Standing Rock Sioux and Dakota Access, it’s clear that there’s more work to do,” Ms. Darcy said. “The best way to complete that work responsibly and expeditiously is to explore alternate routes for the pipeline crossing.” (NA, see  Dec 29; Env, see Dec 5)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Colin Kaepernick

December 4, 2017: Time magazine announced that Colin Kaepernick was a finalist for their Person of the Year award. (see Dec 5)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

December 4, 2018:  Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the Trump administration would begin the formal process to scrap the landmark Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty within 60 days unless Russia returns to compliance with the treaty’s terms. [NYT article]

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

December 4, 2019: The Vatican announced that Pope Francis had accepted the resignation of Bishop Richard Malone. No reason was immediately given. All bishops are required to submit their resignation to the Pope when they turn 75. Malone was 73.

For more than a year, thousands of Catholics in Buffalo had pleaded, protested and prayed for his resignation. They had circulated petitions, held placards at prayer vigils, even tried to meet Malone’s plane at the airport.

Both the FBI and New York’s Attorney General were investigating clergy abuse and cover ups in the Buffalo diocese, according to the Buffalo News. The newspaper had also reported that more than 220 lawsuits have been filed against the diocese alleging clergy abuse. Already, Buffalo has paid abuse survivors more than $175 million through a victim’s compensation fund. [CNN article] (next SAoC, see February 18, 2020)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Trump Impeachment Inquiry/Public

December 4, 2019:  the House Judiciary Committee began assessing what action to take and what articles of impeachment to draft, if it decided to draft them.

Chairman Jerry Nadler, D-N.Y., invited witnesses because he said the members of the Judiciary Committee needed to understand the historical and legal context for impeachment in deciding how to proceed.

Three professors of law—Noah Feldman of Harvard Law School, Pamela Karlan of Stanford University, and Michael Gerhardt of the University of North Carolina—told the Judiciary Committee that they worried deeply about Trump’s actions in the Ukraine affair —and thought they appeared to justify the power of impeachment as enshrined in the Constitution by its framers.

A fourth witness–Jonathan Turley of George Washington University Law School—said he personally opposed Trump, differed with the three saying the factual case so far developed against Trump would cheapen impeachment and create a dangerous precedent both for Congress and the executive branch. [NYT article] (see TII/P for expanded chronology)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Cannabis

December 4, 2020: in a 228 to 164 vote, the U.S. House of Representatives approved the Marijuana Opportunity, Reinvestment and Expungement (MORE) Act, a bill to federally legalize marijuana.

The vote was mostly along party lines, five Republicans supported the reform and six Democrats opposed it.

Under MORE, cannabis would be federally descheduled and those with prior convictions would have their records expunged. The descheduling provisions would be retroactive, too.

Despite the unprecedented House victory for reformers, few believe the legislation stands a chance in the Republican-controlled Senate, at least before the end of the current Congress early next month. Vice President-elect Kamala Harris (D-CA) was the lead sponsor of the Senate companion version of the bill. [MM article] (next Cannabis, see or see CCC for expanded chronology.

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

December 4, 2020: Judge Nicholas G. Garaufis of the U.S. District Court in Brooklyn ordered the Trump administration to fully restore the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), an Obama-era program designed to shield young, undocumented immigrants from deportation, dealing what could be a final blow to President Trump’s long-fought effort to end the protections.

President Obama created DACA in 2012 and since then it protected more than 800,000 individuals, known as “dreamers,” who met a series of strict requirements for eligibility.

But those protections had been under legal and political siege from Republicans for years, leaving the immigrants who were enrolled in DACA uncertain whether the threat of deportation from the United States would quickly return with a single court order or presidential memorandum.

Garaufis directed the administration to allow newly eligible immigrants to file new applications for protection under the program, reversing a memorandum issued in the summer by Chad Wolf, the acting secretary of Homeland Security, which restricted the program to people who were already enrolled. As many as 300,000 new applicants could now be eligible, according to the lawyers who pushed for the reinstatement. [NYT story] (next IH, see January 12, 2021; next DACA, see January 20, 2021)

December 4 Peace Love Art Activism

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

December 3, 1867: Democratic President Andrew Johnson gave his annual message to Congress

In his message, Johnson said that “Negroes have shown less capacity for government than any other race of people. No independent government of any form has ever been successful in their hands. On the contrary, wherever they have been left to their own devices they have shown a constant tendency to relapse into barbarism.”  [CNN article] (next BH, see May 11)

Clinton Melton

December 3, 1955: in Glendora, Mississippi. Otis Kimball, a cotton gin operator, asked Clinton Melton to fill his car up with gas. Kimball became enraged because of something having to do with this transaction, and he threatened to come back to the gas station and kill Melton. Kimball was driving the automobile of J. W. Milam, one of the men who had been acquitted of killing Emmett Till in August of 1955. Kimball did in fact return to the station with a shotgun. With no provocation, he shot and killed Melton in full view of the gas station owner and other witnesses. (see Melton for more; next Black History, see January 3, 1956)

March to Montgomery

December 3, 1965: an all-white jury found Collie Wilkins, Eugene Thomas, and William Eato guilty of the murders of Viola Liuzzo and  Leroy Moton on March 25, 1965. The three were sentenced to 10 years in prison. (see Liuzzo for expanded chronology; next BH, see Dec 9)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

December 3, 1946: in Oakland, California, 130,000 workers from 142 unions – including workers from factories, industries, services, retail stores, transportation systems, and more – declared a “work holiday” and walked off their jobs in support of striking department store clerks and in opposition to police intervention that was facilitating strike breaking activity. The Oakland General Strike lasted for two days. (see April 7, 1947)

The Red Scare

December 3, 1948: the House Un-American Activities Committee announced that former Communist spy Whittaker Chambers had produced microfilm of secret documents hidden inside a pumpkin on his Maryland farm. (see April 4, 1949)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

December 3 Music et al

The Beatles before their US appearance

December 3, 1961: the Beatles’ had  their first formal meeting with Brian Epstein, where he proposed to them that he become their manager. The Beatles were interested, but they are not ready to make a commitment, so a second meeting is arranged for December 6.

The Who

December 3, 1965: The Who [Pete Townsend, 20; Keith Moon, 19; Roger Daltrey, 21; and John Entwistle, 21] released My Generation album.

Rubber Soul

December 3, 1965: Beatles released Rubber Soul. (see My Generation Rubber Soul for more) (see Dec 6)

“Winchester Cathedral”

December 3 – 9, 1966: “Winchester Cathedral” by The New Vaudeville Band #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

Long war

December 3, 1962: Roger Hilsman, director of the State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research, sent a memorandum to Secretary of State Dean Rusk pointing out that the communist Viet Cong fighters were obviously prepared for a long war. (see January 2, 1963)

My Lai Massacre

December 3, 2016: Lawrence Colburn, the Army helicopter gunner who along with two comrades intervened in the U.S. slaughter of unarmed villagers in My Lai, an act of heroism for which he received the Soldier’s Medal three decades after the fact, died. [NYT obit]

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism
STUDENT ACTIVISM & FREE SPEECH

December 3, 1964: police arrested some 800 students at the University of California at Berkeley who had stormed the administration building the previous day and staged a massive sit-in. (see Student Free Speech Movement for expanded chronology). (FS & SA, see January 4, 1965)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestones

Heart transplant

December 3, 1967:  surgeons in Cape Town, South Africa led by Dr. Christiaan Barnard performed the first human heart transplant on Louis Washkansky, who lived 18 days with the new heart. (see February 16, 1968)

Text message

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

December 3, 1992:  the first telephone text message was sent by British engineer Neil Papworth, who transmitted the greeting “Merry Christmas” from his work computer in Newbury, Berkshire, to Vodafone executive Richard Jarvis’ mobile phone. (see January 3, 1996)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Weather Underground

December 3, 1980: Bernardine Dohrn, a former leader of the radical Weather Underground, surrendered to authorities in Chicago after more than a decade as a fugitive. (next WU, see October 20, 1981)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

The Cold War

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

December 3, 1989: meeting off the coast of Malta, President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev issued statements strongly suggesting that the long-standing animosities at the core of the Cold War might be coming to an end. (see May 6, 1992)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

December 3, 1992: the Michigan Legislature passes a ban on assisted suicide to take effect on March 30, 1993. (see JK for expanded chronology)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

December 3, 1996: following the world’s first-ever trial on the freedom to marry, led by co-counsel Dan Foley and Evan Wolfson, Hawaii Judge Kevin Chang ruled that the state did not have a legitimate reason for depriving same-sex couples of the freedom to marry.(see February 21, 1997)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

December 3, 1998: after two staffers look at internal Justice Department memos, Judiciary Committee Chairman Henry Hyde tells Republicans that campaign fund-raising will not be part of the impeachment debate. (see Clinton for expanded chronology)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

Boston archdiocese

December 3, 2002:  new revelations about eight priests in Boston archdiocese accused of abusing women and girls, taking drugs and supplying drugs in return for sexual favors. (NYT article) (see Dec 6)

Orange County, CA

December 3, 2004: after two years of talks, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange County reached a record settlement with 87 victims of abuse by priests and lay employees, agreeing to the largest payment ever made by the church in cases involving sexual misconduct, parties involved in the talks said.

The payment was at least $100 million, exceeding the $85 million agreed to by the Archdiocese of Boston last year, said a participant in the discussions who could not be named because of a judicial order against speaking to the news media. (NYT article) (see February 7, 2005)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Fair Housing

Dallas discrimination

December 3, 2013: a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development investigation found that Dallas officials promoted discrimination against minorities and the disabled through affordable-housing practices that violate federal civil rights laws.

According to a 29-page letter outlining the initial findings, “the evidence shows that there was a pattern of negative reactions to projects that would provide affordable housing in the northern sector of Dallas and that those decisions were inconsistent with the goals required by HUD program obligations.”December 3, 2015, Feminism:  Defense Secretary Ashton B. Carter said that the Pentagon will open all combat jobs to women. “There will be no exceptions,” Mr. Carter said at a news conference. The groundbreaking decision overturns a 1994 Pentagon rule that restricts women from artillery, armor, infantry and other such combat roles, even though in reality women often found themselves in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past 14 years. [ProPublica article] (see June 25, 2015)

Mississippi flag

December 3, 2018: a federal appeals court did not revive a lawsuit that had tried to block Ocean Springs, Mississippi from flying the state flag that includes the Confederate battle emblem.

The 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed U.S. District Judge Louis Guirola Jr ‘s decision that dismissed the lawsuit against Ocean Springs.

The lawsuit had called the flag “racially demeaning and hostile” and claimed the city violated the federal Fair Housing Act by flying the flag and sending the message that black people are unwelcome.

Guirola had ruled that the plaintiffs didn’t prove they suffered unequal treatment by the Ocean Springs government. The panel of three appeals court judges agreed.

“The only act they allege is the City’s resolution requiring the Mississippi state flag to be flown over public buildings,” the appeals court judges wrote. “That is not a ‘discriminatory housing practice’ as required by the FHA, and plaintiffs are therefore not ‘aggrieved persons’ under the statute.” [Star Trib article] (see January 15, 2019)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

December 3, 2015: Defense Secretary Ashton B. Carter said that the Pentagon will open all combat jobs to women. “There will be no exceptions,” Mr. Carter said at a news conference. The groundbreaking decision overturns a 1994 Pentagon rule that restricts women from artillery, armor, infantry and other such combat roles, even though in reality women often found themselves in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past 14 years. (NYT article) (see June 7, 2016)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Colin Kaepernick

December 3, 2017: the ACLU of Southern California presented the Eason Monroe Courageous Advocate Award to Colin Kaepernick.

Our next honoree took a stand. He took a stand knowing he would risk his job,” Southern California ACLU Executive Director Hector Villagra said. “And he has lost his job, one that he loved and was supremely talented and skilled at. He took a stand knowing that some would criticize him, and he has been viciously and unfairly criticized. He has been called a traitor, because too many people in this country confuse dissent for disloyalty. He took a stand knowing some would even threaten him, and he has had his life threatened, which is why, though we are profoundly honored to have him here, we didn’t publicize his presence tonight.”

Kaepernick raised a fist as he received a standing ovation. [Slate article] (for expanded CK story follow this link)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Trump Impeachment Inquiry

December 3, 2019: House Democrats released an impeachment report that found the president “placed his own personal and political interests above the national interests of the United States.”

The report by the House Intelligence Committee was a sweeping indictment of the president’s behavior, concluding that he sought to undermine American democracy and endangered national security, then worked to conceal his actions from Congress. Democrats left it to another committee to decide whether to recommend Mr. Trump’s impeachment, but their report presented what are all but certain to be the grounds on which the House votes to formally charge him. [NYT article] (see TII for expanded chronology)

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Pledge of Allegiance & Student Rights

December 3, 2019: Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton intervened to defend a Houston-area school district in its lawsuit with the student, India Landry. Landry, 18, who filed a lawsuit after she was expelled last year from Windfern High School for refusing to stand for the flag during the US Pledge of Allegiance

“School children cannot unilaterally refuse to participate in the pledge,” Mr Paxton – the state‘s most senior law enforcement officer – said in a news release.

December 3 Peace Love Art Activism

Cannabis

December 2, 2020: the United Nations’ Commission for Narcotic Drugs voted to remove cannabis for medicinal purposes from a category of the world’s most dangerous drugs, a highly anticipated and long-delayed decision that could clear the way for an expansion of marijuana research and medical use.

The Commission, includes 53 member states, considered a series of recommendations from the World Health Organization on reclassifying cannabis and its derivatives. But attention centered on a key recommendation to remove cannabis from Schedule IV of the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs — where it was listed alongside dangerous and highly addictive opioids like heroin. [NYT article] (next Cannabis, see or see CCC for expanded cannabis chronology)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

John Brown

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

December 2, 1859: the government hung militant abolitionist John Brown for murder and treason in the wake his unsuccessful attack on the US armory at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. The evening before the execution, a group of soldiers slept in the courtroom. One of them was John Wilkes Booth. [AH article] (Brown and Slave Revolts, see Dec 23)

Follow the Drinking Gourd

In 1860s: African Americans sang of their dream for freedom and equality before the Civil War, during it, and long after. Though its origin is sometimes disputed, Follow the Drinking Gourd is still thought of as a song used by “riders” on and “conductors” of the Underground Railroad system used to help slaves escape to safety and freedom by using coded directions. The “drinking gourd” likely refers to the North Star in the Little Dipper’s handle. (BH, see February 22, 1862)

Follow the drinking gourd

Follow the drinking gourd

For the old man is a waitin’

For to carry you to freedom

Follow the drinking gourd

When the sun comes up

And the first Quail calls

Follow the drinking gourd

For the old man is a waitin’

For to carry you to freedom

The riverbank will make a mighty good road

The dead trees show you the way

Left foot, peg foot travelin’ on

The river ends between two hills

There’s another river on the other side

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

December 2, 1922: the Republican caucus voted to drop the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill. Republican Senator Lodge stated, “The conference was in session nearly three hours and discussed the question very thoroughly. Of course the Republicans feel very strongly, as I do, that the bill ought to become a law. The situation before us was this: Under the rules of the Senate the Democrats, who are filibustering, could keep up that filibuster indefinitely, and there is no doubt they can do so.

An attempt to change the rules wold only shift the filibuster to another subject. We cannot pass the bill in this Congress and, therefore, we had to choose between giving up the whole session to a protracted filibuster or going ahead with regular business of the session….The conference decided very reluctantly that it was our duty to set aside the Dyer bill and go on with the business of the session.” (BH, see Dec 8; Dyer, see July 13, 1923)

Jo Ann Robinson/Montgomery Bus Boycott

In 1950: Jo Ann Robinson became president of the Women’s Political Council in Montgomery, AL. As president, she began to study the issue of bus segregation, which affected the many blacks who were the majority of riders on the city system. First, members appeared before the City Commission to report abuses on the buses, such as blacks who were first on the bus being required later to give up seats for whites as buses became crowded. The commission acted surprised but did nothing. (next BH & Feminism, see March 31, 1950)

In 1953 Robinson and other local black leaders met with the three commissioners of Montgomery. Robinson’s group complained that the city did not hire any black bus drivers, said that segregation of seating was unjust, and that bus stops in black neighborhoods were farther apart than in white ones, although blacks were the majority of the riders. The commissioners refused to change anything. Robinson and other WPC members met with bus company officials on their own. The segregation issue was deflected, as bus company officials said that segregation was city and state law. The WPC achieved a small victory, as the bus company officials agreed to have the buses stop at every corner in black neighborhoods, as was the practice in white neighborhoods. (next BH, see June 8; next Feminism, see May 18, 1954)

December 2, 1955: Jo Ann Robinson drove to the various Montgomery schools to drop off the handbills to the students who distributed them in the schools and ask students to take them home for their parents. The handbills asked blacks to boycott the buses the following Monday, December 5, in support of Parks. By Friday night, word of a boycott had spread all over the city. That same night, local ministers and civil rights leaders held a meeting and announced the boycott for Monday. With some ministers hesitant to engage their congregations in a boycott, about half left the meeting in frustration. They decided to hold a mass meeting Monday night to decide if the boycott should continue. (BH, see Dec 3; see MBB for expanded chronology)

Bernard Whitehurst Jr. killed

December 2, 1975: a white police officer named Donald Foster shot and killed Bernard Whitehurst Jr., a 32-year-old Black man, after mistaking him for a crime suspect. Rather than acknowledge the mistake, Foster and other officers planted a gun near Mr. Whitehurst’s body as part of an elaborate cover-up of tragic police violence. There was no autopsy report and Mr. Whitehurst’s family was not even notified that he had been killed; they found out about his death shortly after when one family member heard about it on the radio. [EJI article] (next BH, see January 22, 1976)

BLACK & SHOT/Rumain Brisbon

December 2, 2014: Phoenix Police Officer Mark Rine was investigating a tip that 34-year-old Rumain Brisbon was selling drugs inside an SUV on. Police said Brisbon didn’t obey the officer’s commands and instead fled inside an apartment complex where a struggle ensued. During the struggle, Rine mistook a pill bottle in Brisbon’s pants for a gun and fatally shot him, according to police. Brisbon was unarmed, though police found a gun in his SUV. (see January 30, 2015)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestones

December 2

December 2, 1901: Gillette patented the KC Gillette Razor. It was first razor to feature a permanent handle and disposable double-edge razor blades. (see Dec 12)

Artificial heart

December 2, 1982:  Barney B. Clark became the first recipient of an artificial heart. The 61-year-old retired dentist from Seattle underwent a 7½-hour operation at the University of Utah Medical Center in Salt Lake City. The operation was performed by a surgical team headed by Dr. William C. DeVries. Clark survived with the artificial heart for over 3 months. He died on March 23, 1983. [Smithsonian article] (see January 24, 1984)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights

December 2, 1918: President Wilson urged passage of federal woman suffrage amendment in annual address to Congress. (see January 1, 1919)December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Suppression of the Traffic in Persons

December 2, 1949: the United Nation adopted the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others. (next Feminism, see Jo Ann Robinson above under Black History)

Eisenhower/Birth control

December 2, 1959: President Dwight Eisenhower stated in a press conference that birth control:  “I cannot imagine anything more emphatically a subject that is not a proper political or government activity or function or responsibility. . . . The government will not, so long as I am here, have a positive political doctrine in its program that has to do with the problem of birth control. That’s not our business.” (Nuclear, see May 11, 1960; CW, see May 12, 1960)

Nuclear/ Chemical News

Enrico Fermi

December 2, 1942: Enrico Fermi, the Italian-born Nobel Prize-winning physicist, directed and controlled the first nuclear chain reaction in his laboratory beneath the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, ushering in the nuclear age. Upon successful completion of the experiment, a coded message was transmitted to President Roosevelt: “The Italian navigator has landed in the new world.”  (NN, see April 17, 1945; TI, see February 14, 1946)

Train derailment

December 2, 1962:  a Louisville and Nashville train derails in Marietta, Georgia while carrying nuclear weapons components. (see Dec 24)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

McCarthyism

December 2

December 2, 1954: the US Senate censured Senator Joseph McCarthy 67 – 22 for “conduct contrary to Senatorial tradition.” It was only the third time in the Senate’s history that such a censure was issued. (see February 23, 1955)

Fidel Castro

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

December 2, 1961: Cuban leader Fidel Castro declared himself a Marxist-Leninist who would lead Cuba to Communism.

Morning Dew

In 1962: Bonnie Dobson will release post apocalyptic song, “Morning Dew” It was later covered most famously by the Grateful Dead.

Train derailment

December 2, 1962:  a Louisville and Nashville train derails in Marietta, Georgia while carrying nuclear weapons components. (see Dec 24)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

December 2

December 2, 1962: following a trip to Vietnam at President John F. Kennedy’s request, Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield (D-Montana) became the first U.S. official to refuse to make an optimistic public comment on the progress of the war. Originally a supporter of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, Mansfield changed his opinion of the situation after his visit.

He claimed that the $2 billion the United States had poured into Vietnam during the previous seven years had accomplished nothing. He placed blame squarely on the Diem regime for its failure to share power and win support from the South Vietnamese people. He suggested that Americans, despite being motivated by a sincere desire to stop the spread of communism, had simply taken the place formerly occupied by the French colonial power in the minds of many Vietnamese.

Mansfield’s change of opinion surprised and irritated President Kennedy.(Vietnam, see Dec 3; SVL, see May 6, 1963)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

see December 2 Music et al for more

Beatles on TV

December 2, 1963: The Beatles appeared on Morecambe and Wise, one of the more popular TV shows in the UK. (see Dec 4)

Monkees

December 2 – December 29, 1967 – “Daydream Believer” by the Monkees #1 single on the Billboard Hot 100.

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

December 2, 1967 – January 5, 1968 – The Monkees Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn, & Jones Ltd. the Billboard #1 album.

Wonderwall Music

December 2, 1968: George Harrison’s Wonderwall Music album released. (next Beatles, see Dec 20; see Wonderwall for expanded story)

George Harrison/Delaney & Bonnie

December 2, 1969: on December 1, George Harrison had watched husband and wife act Delaney and Bonnie Bramlett perform at the Albert Hall in London. On December 2 he joined them on stage in Bristol, for his first stage appearance since The Beatles’ final concert on 29 August 1966. Freed from the attentions of Beatlemania, he was able to be a largely anonymous band member, although he did sing songs including Everybody’s Trying To Be My Baby on at least one occasion. Harrison stayed on the tour for six dates until it ended. They played two shows each night, in Bristol, Birmingham, Sheffield, Newcastle, Liverpool and Croydon. (see Dec 15)

“Thriller”

December 2, 1983: MTV broadcasts Michael Jackson’s “Thriller” video with a running time of 13 minutes and 42 seconds.

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

STUDENT ACTIVISIM & FREE SPEECH

December 2, 1964: activist Mario Savio led Berkeley Free Speech Movement in occupation of the University of Berkeley’s Sproul Hall to protest ban on campus activism.  The ban was lifted in January. (see Free Speech for expanded chronology)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

December 2, 1970: the Environmental Protection Agency began operating under director William Ruckelshaus. (see February 26, 1972)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

December 2, 1971, United Arab Emirates independent of United Kingdom. (see July 10, 1973)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Iran Uprising

December 2, 1978:  anti-Shah protesters poured through Tehran chanting “Allah is great.” (see Dec 11)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

December 2, 1982: in 1977, an Oklahoma medical examiner named Jay Chapman proposed that death-row inmates be executed using three drugs administered in a specific sequence: a barbiturate (to anesthetize inmates), pancuronium bromide (to paralyze inmates and stop their breathing) and lastly potassium chloride (which stops the heart). Chapman’s proposal was approved by the Oklahoma state legislature the same year and quickly adopted by other states. On this date, Texas became the first to use the procedure, executing 40-year-old Charles Brooks for murdering Fort Worth mechanic David Gregory. (see Dec 7)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Irish Troubles

December 2, 1999: a power-sharing cabinet of Protestants and Catholics sat down together for the first time in Northern Ireland. (see Troubles for expanded chronology)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

December 2, 2006: “Not working well.” Donald Rumsfeld, description of the Iraq strategy in a classified memo written two days before he resigned. [NYT article] (see Dec 6)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Fourth Amendment

December 2, 2014: a federal appeals court struck down a 2011 Florida law requiring drug tests for people seeking welfare benefits even if they are not suspected of drug use, a measure pushed by Gov. Rick Scott in his first term in office.

The three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit, in Atlanta, ruled that the law, one of the strictest in the country, was an unreasonable search because Florida officials had failed to show a “substantial need” to test all people who applied for welfare benefits. Applicants were required to submit to urine tests, a measure that Mr. Scott said would protect children of welfare applicants by ensuring that their parents were not buying and using drugs.

The state has not demonstrated a more prevalent, unique or different drug problem among TANF applicants than in the general population,” the panel said in its unanimous decision, using an acronym for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. [MH article] (see Dec 11)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Cannabis

December 2, 2020: the United Nations’ Commission for Narcotic Drugs voted to remove cannabis for medicinal purposes from a category of the world’s most dangerous drugs, a highly anticipated and long-delayed decision that could clear the way for an expansion of marijuana research and medical use.

The Commission, includes 53 member states, considered a series of recommendations from the World Health Organization on reclassifying cannabis and its derivatives. But attention centered on a key recommendation to remove cannabis from Schedule IV of the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs — where it was listed alongside dangerous and highly addictive opioids like heroin. [UN article] (next Cannabis, see Dec 4 or see Cannabis for expanded chronology)

December 2 Peace Love Art Activism