Tag Archives: January Peace Love Art Activism

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

President Andrew Jackson

January 29, 1834: Andrew Jackson became the first president to use federal troops to quell labor unrest. the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal construction teams consisted primarily of Irish, German, Dutch and black workers who, with primitive tools, were forced to work long hours for low wages in dangerous conditions. Fed up, the workers rioted on January 29, but were quickly put down by federal troops. The move set precedent for future labor-management relations. When labor uprisings increased toward and into the turn of the century, business leaders were confident in the knowledge that they could turn to local, state or federal government leaders to head off labor unrest. (see Feb 20)

President Barak Obama

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29, 2009: President Obama signed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act, which allowed victims of pay discrimination to file a complaint with the government against their employer within 180 days of their last paycheck. Previously, victims (most often women) were only allowed 180 days from the date of the first unfair paycheck.  (White House archive article) (see Feb 24)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Pace v. Alabama

January 29, 1883:  the US Supreme Court affirmed in Pace v. Alabama, that Alabama’s anti-miscegenation statute was constitutional.

The plaintiff, Tony Pace, an African-American man, and Mary Cox, a white woman, were residents of the state of Alabama, who had been arrested in 1881 because their sexual relationship violated the state’s anti-miscegenation statute. They were charged with living together “in a state of adultery or fornication” and both sentenced to two years imprisonment in the state penitentiary in 1882.

They could not marry each other under Alabama law. Interracial marital sex was deemed a felony, whereas extramarital sex (“adultery or fornication”) was only a misdemeanor. Because of the criminalization of interracial relationships, they were penalized more severely for their extramarital relationship than if they had been both whites or both black. The Alabama code stated:

“If any white person and any negro, or the descendant of any negro to the third generation, inclusive, through one ancestor of each generation was a white person, intermarry or live in adultery or fornication with each other, each of them must, on conviction, be imprisoned in the penitentiary or sentenced to hard labor for the county for not less than two nor more than seven years.” (see Oct 15)

Montgomery Bus Boycott

January 29, 1956: Martin Luther King, Jr fined for driving thirty miles an hour in a twenty-five mile zone. (see MBB for expanded chronology) (next BH, see Feb 2)

George Whitmore, Jr

January 29, 1965: Kings County DA Aaron E. Koota met with five representatives of the Brooklyn N.A.A.C.P. who demand that he dismiss the indictment against Whitmore for the Minnie Edmonds murder. Koota refused and told the press that Whitmore’s “guilt or innocence of this crime should be determined by a jury based on all the evidence in the case.” (see Whitmore for expanded story)

137 shots

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29, 2013: Cleveland Mayor Frank Jackson, Safety Director Martin Flask, and Chief Michael McGrath reported that at least 63 Cleveland Police cars were involved in the pursuit or played some role in the chase that ended with police firing 137 shots and killing Timothy Russell and  Malissa Williams.  (see 137 for expanded coverage)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Mixed Bloods

With the Nelson Act of 1905, the United States federal government had taken control over the education of the Alaska territory’s Native children and appointed the Alaskan territorial government to oversee the education of “white children and children of mixed blood who lead a civilized life.” Soon after, four children of “mixed blood” petitioned the Alaska Federal District Court for a writ of mandamus requiring the Sitka School District to admit the students to the locally controlled schools established by the Nelson Act. The schools in Sitka served white children and had refused to allow the “mixed blood” pupils to enroll.

On January 29, 1908, the District Court issued its ruling. Reasoning that Congress understood that “where mixed bloods live among and associate with the uncivilized, they become subject to and influenced by their environment as naturally as water seeks its level,” the Court held that Congress only intended the Nelson Act to mandate the enrollment of “mixed bloods” who: “Had for themselves, or, in cases where they were minors living with parents or guardians, the parents or guardians had, put off the rude customs, modes of life, and associations, and taken up their abode and life free from an environment which retarded their development in lines of progressive living, systematic labor, individual ownership and accumulation of property, intellectual activity, and well–defined and respected domestic and social relations.”

In contrast, the Court reasoned, children in families “which preferred the other life, without its attendant responsibilities and obligations to society at large, was provided a system of education under the control of the Secretary of the Interior, more appropriate to their undeveloped mental condition, and through which they could, in view of their surroundings, be better instructed.”

Applying this new rule to the case at hand, the Court went on to analyze pictures of the parents, their clothing, residence, place of worship, associates, and occupation to determine whether the families, in fact, led civilized lives. The Court concluded that the children and their families were not civilized and not entitled to admission to the Sitka schools, and that they were required to instead attend the federally-run, assimilation-focused schools for Native children.  (see April 6, 1917)

Chief Wahoo

January 29, 2018: the Cleveland Indians baseball organization announced that it would stop using the Chief Wahoo logo on their uniforms beginning in 2019, according to Major League Baseball, which said the popular symbol was no longer appropriate for use on the field.

The cartoonish caricature of a Native American that has assumed several forms over the years, first appeared on the Indians’ uniforms in 1948.

Phillip Yenyo, the executive director of the American Indian Movement of Ohio, cheered the decision as, “another step in the right direction,” but lamented that it was being put off for a year.” (see Feb 23)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

ADA

The Seeing Eye

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29, 1929: The Seeing Eye was incorporated in Nashville, TN. Its purpose was to train dogs to guide the blind.

League for the Physically Handicapped

In 1935: to protest the fact that their requests for employment with the Works Progress Administration (WPA) had been stamped ‘PH’ (physically handicapped), 300 members of the League for the Physically Handicapped stage a nine-day sit in at the Home Relief Bureau of New York City. Eventually, they help secure several thousand jobs nationwide. The League of the Physically Handicapped is accepted as the first organization of people with disabilities by people with disabilities. (see August 14, 1935)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

Olga Owens Huckins

January 29, 1958: the Boston Herald printed a letter from Olga Owens Huckins attacking the pesticide DDT as dangerous. She also wrote to her friend Rachel Carson, which prompted Carson to write ‘Silent Spring.’   (see August 29, 1962)

Ozone

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29, 1978: Sweden became the first country to outlaw aerosol sprays. The ban was enacted to address the harmful effects of aerosol on the Earth’s ozone layer.  (NYT article) (see December 11, 1980)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29 Music et al

Bob Dylan

January 29, 1961: Dylan visited Woody Guthrie (see Dylan for more) (next Dylan, see Apr 11)

We Can Work It Out

January 29 – February 4, 1966: ”We Can Work It Out” by the Beatles #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Sound City Acid Test

January 29, 1966 : Acid Test at Sound City Studios in San Francisco. (see February)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear News

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29, 1964: Stanley Kubrick’s Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb opened. The movie’s popularity was evidence of changing attitudes toward atomic weapons and the concept of nuclear deterrence. (see May 24)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

More $

January 29, 1968: President Johnson asked for $26.3 billion to continue the war in Vietnam and announced an increase in taxes. Johnson had been given a glowing report on progress in the war from Gen. William Westmoreland. Westmoreland stated in a speech before the National Press Club that, “We have reached an important point when the end begins to come into view. I am absolutely certain that, whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing. The enemy’s hopes are bankrupt.”  (see Jan 30)

Weather Underground

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29, 1975: the Weather Underground bombed the U.S. State Department main office in Washington, D.C.  (Vietnam, see “March 1 and following”; WU, see December 3, 1980)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Symbionese Liberation Army

January 29, 1979: Twenty-two months into her seven-year term, President Carter commuted the sentence of Patty Hearst. (see June 16, 1999)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

January 29, 1998: the judge in the Paula Jones lawsuit ruled that Monica Lewinsky was “not essential to the core issues” of the Jones case, and ordered that all evidence related to Lewinsky be excluded from the Jones proceedings. (see Clinton for expanded story)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

Eric Rudolph

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

January 29, 1998: Eric Rudolph bombed an abortion clinic in Birmingham, Alabama killing a Birmingham police officer and part-time clinic security guard Robert Sanderson, and critically injuring nurse Emily Lyons. (see May 31, 2003)

Dr George Tiller

On May 31, 2009, Scott Roeder had assassinated women’s health care provider Dr George Tiller.  On January 29, 2010 a jury returned a verdict of guilty for Roeder on charges of one count first-degree murder and two counts of aggravated assault after less than 40 minutes of deliberation. (NYT article) (WH & Terrorism, see April 1)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Free Speech

January 29, 2010: Culpeper County Public Schools in Virginia decided on this date to discontinue using the newest edition of the diary of Anne Frank, officially The Diary of a Young Girl: The Definitive Edition. The 50th anniversary edition contains sections not in previous editions and, according to the school district, some parents objected to her candid discussion of her emerging sexuality.

The Diary of Anne Frank, as it is generally known, is widely regarded as a classic of modern literature. It is the diary of a young Jewish girl who, along with her family, was hidden from the Nazis in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Her diary covers the period from June 1942 to August 1944. The family was exposed in 1944, and Anne and her sister eventually died of disease at the Bergen Belsen extermination camp. Her father Otto Frank survived and arranged for the publication of Anne’s diary.

Over the years, a number of  schools and libraries has banned or challenged  the book. In 1983, the Alabama State Textbook Committee argued that the book should be rejected for classroom use because it is “a real downer.  (see March 2, 2011)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

January 29, 2017: Reince Priebus, the White House chief of staff, appeared to reverse a key part of President Trump’s immigration order saying that people from the affected countries who hold green cards would not be prevented from returning to the United States. Priebus also said that border agents had “discretionary authority” to detain and question suspicious travelers from certain countries. That statement seemed to add to the uncertainty over how the executive order will be interpreted and enforced in the days ahead.

Part of the president’s order gave preferential treatment to Christians who tried to enter the United States from majority-Muslim countries. In a Twitter post, Mr. Trump deplored the killings of Christians in the Middle East without noting the killings of Muslims, who have been killed in vastly greater numbers in Iraq, Syria and elsewhere. (NYT video) (see Jan 30)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism

Trump Impeachment

January 29, 2020:  the NYT reported that the White House and Senate Republicans had worked aggressively to discount damaging revelations from John R. Bolton and line up the votes to block new witnesses from testifying in President Trump’s impeachment trial, in a push to bring the proceeding to a swift close.

As the Senate opened a two-day, 16-hour period of questioning from senators, Mr. Trump laced into Mr. Bolton, his former national security adviser, whose unpublished manuscript contains an account that contradicts his impeachment defense. The president described Mr. Bolton on Twitter as a warmonger who had “begged” for his job, was fired, and then wrote “a nasty & untrue book.” (next TI, see Jan 30 or see Trump for expanded chronology)

January 29 Peace Love Art Activism
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January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

American Miners’ Association

January 28 Peace Love Art ActivismJanuary 28, 1861: American Miners’ Association formed.  (see June 17, 1864)

Yablonski murders

January 28, 1977: the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania overturned Tony Boyle’s conviction in the Yablonski murders and ordered that he be given a new trial. The court found that the trial judge had improperly refused to allow a government auditor to testify. Boyle’s attorneys said that the auditor’s testimony could have exonerated Boyle. (see Sept 15)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Julia Ward Howe

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

January 28, 1908: author and activist Julia Ward Howe, famous for her composition, “The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. (see Feb 24)

Women’s Action Coalition

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

January 28, 1992: motivated largely by frustration over the recent confirmation of Clarence Thomas as a Supreme Court Justice, a group of New York City women formed the Women’s Action Coalition (WAC), a direct-action organization devoted to the support of women’s rights. Although the group officially disbanded in 1994, they continued to gather informally for various actions. (see Apr 5)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Robert Johnson

January 28, 1934: police arrested Robert Johnson, a 40-year-old black man, in Tampa, Florida, and accused him of raping and robbing a white woman. The subsequent investigation quickly cleared Johnson of the charges, but nonetheless issued a warrant accusing him of stealing chickens and turkeys. As a result, Johnson was not released, bud did have to be transferred from the city jail to the county jail. On January 30 Deputy Constable Thomas Grave, assigned to move  Robert Johnson, will decide to do the transfer so after midnight; this was not standard procedure, and Grave later claimed he opted for a late night transfer to avoid waking up early in the morning. Around 2:30 a.m. on January 30th, Graves placed Johnson in the front seat of the police car and began driving to the county jail; on the way, Graves’s vehicle was stopped by three cars full of white men who allegedly disarmed Graves and made him lie face down in the backseat of his car while they kidnapped Robert Johnson.

The mob carried Johnson off to a wooded part of town along the Hillsborough River near Sligh Avenue, where about thirty people were gathered to watch the lynching. Johnson was killed with four shots to the head and one to the body, all fired from the pistol the mob had taken from Deputy Constable Graves.

Governor David Sholtz called for an investigation of the lynching and a grand jury was convened. Though Deputy Constable Graves testified that he was beaten by the mob, the grand jury noted that he bore no bruises or other signs of injury. Nevertheless, the grand jury’s investigation did not produce any charges of conspiracy and no one was prosecuted for Robert Johnson’s murder.  [EJI article] (see Jan 30)

SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID

January 28 Peace Love Activism

January 28, 1997: four apartheid-era police officers, appearing before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, admit to the 1977 killing of Stephen Biko, a leader of the South African “Black consciousness” movement. (see June 16, 1999)

Clarence H. Graham

January 28, 2015: Clarence H. Graham was known by many titles in his hometown: Honor student. Vietnam veteran. Social worker. Father. And criminal, for an act that is now considered heroic. 

On this date the State of South Carolina officially vacated the misdemeanor conviction that it had secured more than a half-century earlier against Mr. Graham and other black civil rights protesters who were dragged by the police from a segregated lunch counter, convicted of trespassing and sentenced to 30 days’ labor in a county prison camp. (see Feb 10)

Stephon Clark

January 28, 2019: lawyers for the family of Stephon Clark, the unarmed black man who was fatally shot last March by Sacramento police officers, filed a wrongful-death lawsuit alleging that the officers who fired had racially profiled the 22-year-old and used excessive force.

The complaint, filed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California, names the two officers — Terrence Mercadal and Jared Robinet — as well as the City of Sacramento as defendants. It seeks at least $20 million in damages and was filed on behalf of Mr. Clark’s two sons, his parents and his grandparents. [NYT article] (B & S, see Feb 4; SC, see March 2, 2019)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

January 28 Music et al

Fear of Rock

January 28, 1944: 500 teenagers at a public forum mocked the idea that boogie-woogie music caused delinquency. Symphony conductor Arthur Rodzinsky had warned about the bad influence of boogie-woogie. The forum was one of a series of planned forums organized by The New York Times. The teenagers also discussed delinquency, mixed marriages and war work.  (see May 8, 1954)

Roots of Rock January 28 Peace Love Activism

January 28, 1956: Elvis Presley made his first appearance on national television on “The Dorsey Brothers Stage Show” on CBS. (see Apr 3)

Jimi Hendrix

January 28 Peace Love Activism

January 28, 1970, Winter Festival for Peace held in Madison Square Garden. Among the artists involved were: Blood Sweat and Tears, Peter Paul and Mary, Jimi Hendrix (only sang two songs and ambled off), Richie Havens, Harry Belefonte, Voices of East Harlem, the Rascals, Dave Brubeck, Paul Desmond, Judy Collins, cast of Hair. The show ended at 4 AM. Richie Haven’s commented, “Since man has been on earth, peace has never really been here. If we can do it now, it’ll be a first.”  (article from jimihendrix dot come) (see Mar 25)

We Are the World

January 28, 1985 – “We Are the World” recorded by the super group USA for Africa. It was written by Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie.

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Clarence Earl Gideon

January 28, 1964: the publication of Gideon’s Trumpet by Anthony Lewis. The book provided history of Gideon’s landmark case (see Gideon for expanded Gideon story)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

January 28, 1965, from an AP report:  “An $8,500 federal grant for birth control — including the distribution of oral contraceptive pills — has been approved for the South Texas Planned Parenthood Clinic of Corpus Christi. It is believed the funds, given as a part of the Johnson administration’s war on poverty, are the first authorized for such a clinic not under the direction of a state welfare agency. The $8,500 is part of a $295,200 package for the Corpus Christi area from the Office of Economic Opportunity. The bulk of the money will go for other health, education and welfare measures.” (see June 7)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

January 28, 1969: in the Santa Barbara Channels (California) an oil rig blow-out occurred 6 miles off the coast on Union Oil’s Platform A in the Dos Cuadras Offshore Oil Field. Within a ten-day period, an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 barrels of crude oilspilled into the Channel and onto the beaches of Santa Barbara County

The Santa Barbara oil spill  was the largest oil spill in United States waters by that time and ranks third after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon and 1989 Exxon Valdez spills. It remains the largest oil spill to have occurred in the waters off California. (see June 22)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

January 28, 1973: a cease-fire officially went into effect in the Vietnam War. (see Feb 5)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Iran hostage crisis

January 28 Peace Love Activism
The escapees – Bob Anders, Kathy Stafford, Joe Stafford, Cora Lijek, Mark Lijek and Lee Schatz.

January 28, 1980: six United States diplomats, posing as Canadians, managed to escape from Tehran, Iran as they board a flight to Zürich, Switzerland. (see Apr 7)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Gays in the military

January 28, 1982: the US Department of Defense created a new policy to ban homosexuals from the military: “Homosexuality is incompatible with military service. The presence in the military environment of persons who engage In homosexual conduct or who, by their statements, demonstrate a propensity to engage in homosexual conduct, seriously impairs the accomplishment of the military mission. The presence of such members adversely affects the ability of the Military Services to maintain discipline, good order, and morale; to foster mutual trust and confidence among service members, to ensure the integrity of the system of rank and command; to facilitate assignment and worldwide deployment of service members who frequently must live and work under close conditions affording minimal privacy: to recruit and retain members of the Military Services; to maintain the public acceptability of military service; and to prevent breaches of security.”  (see March 2,  1982)

Gays in the Boy Scouts

January 28, 2013: news leaked out that the Boy Scouts of America might eliminate its ban on gay scouts and leaders. “The Boy Scouts would not, under any circumstances, dictate a position to units, members, or parents,” said Deron Smith, a spokesman for the Boy Scouts of America. “This would mean there would no longer be any national policy regarding sexual orientation, and the chartered organizations that oversee and deliver Scouting would accept membership and select leaders consistent with each organization’s mission, principles, or religious beliefs.” If approved as proposed, LGBTQ Scout policy would become a local decision.   (LGBTQ & BSA, see Feb 6)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Challenger

January 28 Peace Love Activism

January 28, 1986: space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after liftoff from Cape Canaveral, killing all seven crew members. (NYT article)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

see CLINTON IMPEACHMENT for expanded story

January 28, 199: in a party-line vote, the Senate OKed a Republican plan for the impeachment trial’s deposition phase, and sets February 12 as a target date for the trial’s end. 

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

AIDS

January 28, 2003: President George W. Bush announced the creation of the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in his State of the Union address. PEPFAR was a $15 billion, 5-year plan to combat AIDS, primarily in countries with a high burden of infections. (see June 5, 2006)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

IRAQ

January 28, 2003: President George W. Bush said in his State of the Union address that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein had sought uranium from Africa. (The claim was later disputed by former ambassador Joseph Wilson, whom the CIA had asked to investigate. (text of speech) (see Feb 5)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

January 28, 2015:  executions were put on hold in Oklahoma after the U.S. Supreme Court said that the state cannot perform executions using a specific drug while the justices consider a challenge over whether the sedative ensures prisoners won’t suffer. (see Feb 13)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

January 28, 2017: US District Judge Ann Donnelly blocked part of the president’s actions regarding the Jan 27 ban, preventing the government from deporting some arrivals who found themselves ensnared by the presidential order. But it stopped short of letting them into the country or issuing a broader ruling on the constitutionality of Mr. Trump’s actions.

Her ruling stated in part, “There is imminent danger that, absent the stay of removal, there will be substantial and irreparable injury to refugees, visa-holders, and other individuals from nations subject to the January 27, 2017, Executive Order.”

Large crowds of protesters turned out at airports around the country to denounce Trump’s ban. (NYT article) (see Jan 29)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

January 28, 2017: a NY Times article reported that between 1977 and 1980 the US government had sent roughly 4,000 troops to the Enewetak Atoll in the middle of the Pacific Ocean to clean up the fallout from dozens of nuclear tests on the ring of coral islands, Initiall the men were given protective gear, but that was taken away and most worked in shirts and short and no respirators.

Hundreds said they were plagued by health problems, including brittle bones, cancer and birth defects in their children. Many were already dead. Others were too sick to work.

The military stated there was no connection between those illnesses and the cleanup. It stated that radiation exposure during the work fell well below recommended thresholds and safety precautions were top notch. So the government refused to pay for the veterans’ medical care.

Congress had recognized that troops were harmed by radiation on Enewetak during the original atomic tests, which occurred in the 1950s, and had decided that those men should be cared for and compensated.  (see Feb 12)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Trump Impeachment

January 28, 2020: the NYT reported that President Trump’s defense team appealed to the Senate to disregard a new account by the former national security adviser John R. Bolton that had bolstered the impeachment case against the president. But by day’s end, Republican leaders working feverishly to block testimony from Mr. Bolton or other witnesses indicated they had not yet corralled the votes to do so.

On the final day of arguments on Mr. Trump’s behalf, Jay Sekulow, one of the president’s private lawyers, sought to raise doubts about Mr. Bolton’s claim in an unpublished manuscript that Mr. Trump tied the release of military aid to Ukraine to investigations into his political rivals, calling it an “unsourced allegation” that was “inadmissible” in his impeachment trial. (next TI, see Jan 29 or see Trump for expanded chronology)

January 28 Peace Love Art Activism
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January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Adam Crosswhite

January 27, 1847: more than 100 citizens of Marshall, Michigan, helped Adam Crosswhite and his family, who had escaped slavery, to flee to Canada rather than be captured by bounty hunters. Crosswhite and his family had fled a Kentucky plantation after he learned his four children were going to be sold. When a deputy sheriff arrived, he wound up arresting the bounty hunters, rather than the Crosswhite family, which made it safely to Canada. Later, the family returned to Marshall. Crosswhite’s escape played a part in the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. (see Feb 16)

see Montgomery Bus Boycott for expanded story

January 27, 1956: ML King received a threatening phone call. (next BH, see Feb 2)

Medgar W. Evers assassination

January 27, 1964: The State prosecution accepted a full slate of white men to sit as a jury in the case of Byron De La Beckwith, accused of the rifle slaying of Medgar W. Evers on June 12, 1963.  (BH, see Jan 31; ME, see Feb 5)

see George Whitmore, Jr for expanded story

January 27, 1965: The New York Times quotes an unnamed assistant to NY County DA Frank Hogan as saying, “I am positive that the police prepared the confession for George Whitmore, Jr., just as his lawyer charged a few days ago. I am also sure that the police were the ones who gave Whitmore all the details of the killings that he recited to our office.”

Robert Lacey, Black and shot

January 27 Peace Love Activism

January 27, 1967:Jefferson County, Alabama sheriff deputies went to the home of Robert Lacey, a black father of six, because Mr. Lacey had failed to take the family dog to the veterinarian after it bit a neighborhood child. The health department had instructed the family to take the dog in for a rabies test, but the family did not own a car and had no means of transporting the animal.

The deputies knocked at the door as Mr. Lacey was getting out of the shower, and when he answered the door they told him to get dressed and go with them. Mr. Lacey asked why and told the deputies to just take the dog. The deputies said they weren’t interested in the dog and told him to get dressed. As Mr. Lacey was doing so, a gun he kept in his dresser fell to the floor. In response, the deputies pushed Mr. Lacey against the wall and attempted to handcuff him. Mr. Lacey offered to walk to the car with them, but one of the deputies said, “Boy, you gonna leave here with handcuffs on, dead or alive.”

Mr. Lacey was a large man; as the deputies attempted to wrestle him down, one of them fell to the ground and the other then shot Mr. Lacey in the leg. The deputies later claimed Mr. Lacey lunged at them before the second shot, but Mr. Lacey’s family insisted Mr. Lacey fell to the ground before the deputy shot him again, “between the eyes.” Neighbors who ran to the house after the shooting were instructed by police to move the body before the coroner arrived.

Lacey’s death marked the second black man killed by Jefferson County law enforcement within nine days, and would be one of ten total law enforcement killings of black men in the Birmingham, Alabama, area within a 14 month period spanning from 1966 to 1967. (see Feb 6)

Eldon Avenue Axle Plant Revolutionary Union Movement

January 27, 1969: a group of Detroit African-American auto workers known as the Eldon Avenue Axle Plant Revolutionary Union Movement led a wildcat strike against racism and bad working conditions. They were critical of both automakers and the UAW, condemning the seniority system and grievance procedures as racist.  (LH, see Dec 31; BH, see Mar 10)

Irene Morgan

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

On July 16, 1944 Irene Morgan, 27, recovering from a miscarriage, and traveling by bus from Virginia to Baltimore for a doctor’s appointment, refused to relinquish her seat [as well as another black woman] to a white couple.

The driver, angered by Morgan’s refusal, drove the bus to the Middlesex County town of Saluda and stopped outside the jail. A sheriff’s deputy came aboard and told Morgan that he had a warrant for her arrest. She continued to refuse and had to be physically subdued. She was jailed for resisting arrest and violating Virginia’s segregation law.

On June 3, 1946, in Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia, the U.S Supreme Court (6 – 1 decision) found in favor of Irene Morgan, calling segregated seating on interstate buses an “impermissible burden on interstate commerce.”

On January 27, 2001: President Bill Clinton presented the Presidential Citizens Medal to Irene Morgan. (2007 NYT obit) (see Feb 21)

Emmett Till

January 27, 2017: in a Vanity Fair magazine article, Duke University professor Timothy B. Tyson reported that Carolyn Bryant Donham (the woman who accused Till of inappropriate behavior) told him that the story she and others told about Emmett Till were false. Tyson wrote that Donham said of her long-ago allegations—that Emmett grabbed her and was menacing and sexually crude toward her–“that part is not true.” (next BH, see Feb 11; see ET for expanded chronology)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestones

Incandescent lamp

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

January 27, 1880:  Thomas Edison received a patent for his electric incandescent lamp.  (see March 23, 1883)

Wireway

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

January 27, 1948: Wire Recording Corporation of America announced the first magnetic tape recorder. The ‘Wireway’ machine with a built-in oscillator sold for $149.50. (see June 21)

iPad

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism January 27, 2010:  Apple CEO Steve Jobs unveiled the iPad tablet computer during a presentation in San Francisco. (Video via YouTube)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear and Chemical Weapons/News

Frenchman Flat

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

January 27, 1951:  the era of US atomic testing in the Nevada desert began as an Air Force plane dropped a one-kiloton bomb on Frenchman Flat. (video via YouTube) (see Mar 6)

Space treaty

January 27, 1967:  President Johnson and counterparts in London and Moscow signed the “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space.” Signatories agree, among other points, that outer space will remain demilitarized (including nuclear weapons), no territorial claims on earth orbit or any planetary bodies will be made and that astronauts or cosmonauts who find themselves landing off course will be returned to their home countries. (see Feb 14)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

January 27 Music et al

John Coltrane

January 27, 1960: John Coltrane released “Giant Steps” album, considered a classic jazz album and one that saxophonists still measure themselves by today. The Penguin Guide.

Lindsay Planer wrote in AllMusic, “History will undoubtedly enshrine this disc as a watershed the likes of which may never truly be appreciated. “

Peppermint Twist

January 27 – Feb 16 – “Peppermint Twist” by Joey Dee & the Starlighters #1 Billboard Hot 100.

Instant Karma

January 27, 1970: John Lennon wrote and recorded “Instant Karma” In his words, “I wrote it for breakfast, recorded it for lunch and we’re putting it out for dinner.” It became the third Lennon single to appear before the official breakup of the Beatles. The only exaggeration in John’s description was the part about dinner: wasn’t actually released to the public until Feb 6. (see Instant Karma for more) (next Beatles, see Mar 8)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

Policy failing

January 27, 1965: President Johnson received a memorandum stating that the current Vietnam policy was clearly not working. The Viet Cong were on the move and on the rise and supplied by North Vietnam. The South Vietnam government was unstable as well. (see Feb 7)

Anti-Vietnam War ads

January 27, 1968: the subways and elevated trains in Chicago began allowing anti-Vietnam War ads on this day. The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) had refused to carry the ads for two years. The Illinois ACLU sued on behalf of the Chicago Women for Peace and the North Shore Women for Peace, chapters of the Women Strike for Peace organizations. The federal judge dismissed the suit when the CTA capitulated and agreed to carry the ads. The ad, addressed to President Lyndon Johnson, read: “War is Not Peace. Tyranny is Not Freedom. Hate is Not Love. End the War in Vietnam.” (see Jan 29)

Paris Peace Accords

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

January 27, 1973: representatives of the United States, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam signed the Paris Peace Accords, ending the Vietnam War. The United States’s chief negotiator, Dr. Henry Kissinger, was awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in concluding the treaty and ending hostilities. (see Jan 28)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Space Race

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

January 27, 1967: a fire during routine testing of the Apollo spacecraft (scheduled to be the first manned mission of the Apollo manned lunar landing program, with a target launch date of February 21, 1967) killed three astronauts — Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chafee — in their capsule.

Immediately after the fire, NASA convened the Apollo 204 Accident Review Board to determine the cause of the fire. Although the ignition source was never conclusively identified, the astronauts’ deaths were attributed to a wide range of lethal design and construction flaws in the early Apollo Command Module. The manned phase of the project was delayed for 20 months while these problems were corrected. (Washington Post 50th anniversary article) (see Apr 20)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Watergate Scandal

January 27, 1975: in the wake of the Watergate scandal and the attendant abuses of power by the Nixon administration, and also recent revelations of illegal CIA spying on Americans [in The New York Times on December 22, 1974], the Senate created the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with respect to the Intelligence Agencies. Known as the Church Committee after its chair, Senator Frank Church (D–Idaho), the committee held public hearings about abuses by the intelligence agencies, and eventually published 14 reports on violations of the rights of American citizens by the intelligence agencies. The vote to create the committee was 82–4, indicating the depth of disgust over alleged abuses by the FBI and the CIA in the Senate.

The Church Committee reports are still an extremely valuable resource on the history of violations of American rights in the twentieth century. The Church Committee was paralleled by the Pike Committee, created by the House of Representatives on February 19, 1975. Following the revelations about the CIA by the Times, President Gerald Ford tried to head off Congressional investigations by creating the Rockefeller Commission to investigate the CIA on January 4, 1975, but that effort failed when Congress created the two committees.

The Church Committee hearings created sensation after sensation, with revelations of CIA assassination plots, and more. The Church Committee reports are still an invaluable source of information about the abuses of the CIA, the FBI, and other federal agencies. The reports also document the involvement of presidents, both Republican and Democratic, in approving many if not most of the abuses by the intelligence agencies. (see Watergate for its expanded story)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

January 27, 1977: the Vatican reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church’s ban on female priests. (see Mar 26)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

January 27, 1978: the Illinois Supreme Court reversed the Illinois Appellate Court and the Circuit Court of Cook County’s grant of Injunctive Relief in favor of the Village of Skokie and against the Nazi group headed by Frank Collin. The Nazis were free to March in Skokie pending resolution of the federal lawsuit filed by the ACLU on behalf of the Nazis. (see Feb 23)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

January 27, 1994: Michigan Judge Jessica R. Cooper of Oakland County Circuit Court dismissed charges against Jack Kevorkian in two deaths, becoming the fifth lower court judge in Michigan to rule that assisted suicide was a constitutional right. (see JK for expanded chronology)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

Paula Jones

January 27, 1998: Paula Jones’ attorney, John Whitehead, answered Starr’s subpoena with several documents, possibly including Clinton’s deposition in the Jones suit. Clinton personal secretary, Betty Currie testified before the grand jury. First lady Hillary Rodham Clinton says in a broadcast interview that a “vast right-wing conspiracy” was behind the charges against her husband. A Portland, Ore., man, Andy Bleiler, alleged he had a five-year affair with Lewinsky, and his lawyer promises to turn over documents and items to Starr’s investigators. Clinton delivers his State of the Union address, making no mention of the scandal.

Senate votes

January 27, 1999: in twin 56-44 votes, the Senate refused to dismiss the charges against President Clinton and agreed to seek depositions from Monica Lewinsky, Vernon Jordan and Sidney Blumenthal. (see Clinton for expanded story)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Matthew Nestor convicted

January 27, 2011: a federal jury convicted Matthew Nestor, a former Pennsylvania police officer, of the most serious charge against him in what prosecutors said was a cover-up of the beating death of a Luis Ramirez, a Mexican immigrant. The jury delivered a less severe verdict against a second officer and acquitted a third.

The former officers, Matthew Nestor, Jason Hayes and William Moyer, were accused of helping a group of white teenage football players cover up their parts in the death of Luis Ramírez, an illegal Mexican immigrant who was fatally beaten in July 2008 in Shenandoah, Pa.

Nestor, the former Shenandoah police chief, was found guilty of falsifying records, a charge that could bring up to 20 years in prison, but he was acquitted of conspiracy. Moyer, a former Shenandoah lieutenant, was convicted of lying to the F.B.I., but acquitted of all other counts, including obstruction of justice, and he faces up to five years in prison. Hayes, a former patrolman, was acquitted of all charges. (see Ramirez for expanded chronology)

Refugees denied entry

January 27, 2017: President Trump suspended entry of all refugees to the US for 120 days, barred Syrian refugees indefinitely, and blocked entry into the United States for 90 days for citizens of seven predominantly Muslim countries: Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen.

The Department of Homeland Security said that the order also barred green card holders from those countries from re-entering the United States. (BBC piece) (see Jan 28)

More difficult

January 27, 2020:  CNN reported that the Supreme Court in a 5-4 vote  cleared the way for the Trump administration to make it more difficult for low-income immigrants seeking to come to or trying to remain legally in the United States.

The so-called public charge rule, unveiled in August, impacted people who rely on public assistance, including most forms of Medicaid, food stamps and housing vouchers.

Advocates and several states immediately opposed the rule, arguing that the changes would penalize immigrants who rely on temporary assistance from the government and impose costs on the states. (next IH, see Jan 31)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

January 27, 2017: U.S. District Judge Sam Sparks blocked Texas from requiring that fetal remains to be buried or cremated, saying the rule placed burdens on access to abortion that “substantially outweigh the benefits.”

Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton vowed to appeal, setting up another high-stakes battle over Texas’ attempts to regulate abortion providers — seven months after the U.S. Supreme Court overturned two Texas regulations that would have left nine abortion clinics operating in the state.

After hearing two days of testimony early this month, Sparks issued a preliminary injunction that indefinitely prohibited Texas from enforcing the rule, which would have required health facilities to ensure that fetal tissue was buried or cremated — with the ashes buried or appropriately scattered — whether from an abortion or miscarriage.

The rule did not apply to miscarriages at home or to early-term, drug-induced abortions that typically take place at home.

Sparks said the new standards were vague, inviting interpretations that would allow state health officials “to exercise arbitrary, and potentially discriminatory, enforcement on an issue connected to abortion and therefore sensitive and hotly contested.” (see Feb 18)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Trump Impeachment

January 27, 2020: on the second day of President Trump’s lawyers presenting arguments against his impeachment, they told senators that no evidence existed tying the president’s decision to withhold security aid from Ukraine to his insistence on the investigations. They say the investigations were requested out of a concern for corruption in Ukraine.

Yet a new account by the President’s former national security adviser John R. Bolton weakened that defense when he wrote for a forthcoming book that Trump had conditioned military aid for Ukraine on that country’s willingness to furnish information on his political rivals. [NYT article] (next TI, see Jan 28 or see Trump for expanded chronology)

January 27 Peace Love Art Activism
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