Category Archives: Activism

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism


Amistad case

March 9, 1841: In the Amistad case the U.S. government eventually appealed the case to the Supreme Court. Former president John Quincy Adams, who represented the Amistad Africans in the Supreme Court case, argued in his defense that it was the illegally enslaved Africans, rather than the Cubans, who “were entitled to all the kindness and good offices due from a humane and Christian nation.”

The Amistad survivors were aided, in their defense, by the American Missionary Association, an organization affiliated with the effort to colonize freed slaves overseas. African-American Mosaic includes information about the history of the colonization movement, the colonization of slaves in Liberia, and personal stories of former slaves who chose to move overseas.

The Supreme Court issued a ruling freeing the remaining thirty-five survivors of the Amistad mutiny. Although seven of the nine justices on the court hailed from Southern states, only one dissented from Justice Joseph Story’s majority opinion. Private donations ensured the Africans’ safe return to Sierra Leone in January 1842.        

Adams’s victory in the Amistad case was a significant success for the abolition movement. (archives dot gov article) (see Nov 7)

Thomas Moss, Calvin McDowell, & Henry Steward lynched

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

March 9, 1892: three young black men, Thomas Moss, Calvin McDowell, and Henry Steward, had opened the People’s Grocery Company in Memphis, Tennessee. Located across the street from a white-owned grocery store that had been the local black community’s only option, the new business reduced the white store’s profits and threatened the racial order by forcing whites to compete economically with blacks.

A white mob formed, intent on using force to put the black grocery out of business, and the black grocers armed themselves for defense. When the mob attacked, shots were fired and three white men were wounded. Moss, McDowell, and Steward were arrested and sensational newspaper reports published the next day fanned the flames of racial outrage. On March 9, 1892, a white mob stormed the Memphis jail, seized all three men and brutally lynched them. No one was punished for the killings.

Ida B. Wells, a 29-year-old black schoolteacher and journalist living in Memphis, was a friend of the three murdered men and was deeply impacted by their deaths. She published an editorial urging local blacks to “save our money and leave a town which will neither protect our lives and property, nor give us a fair trial in the courts, but takes us out and murders us in cold blood when accused by white persons.” As a result, a white mob destroyed her office (see May 27) and printing press. The mob had intended to lynch her but she was visiting Philadelphia at the time. 

More than 6000 African Americans heeded her call.  Wells would devote her entire life to documenting and challenging the injustice of lynching through research, writing, speaking, and activism. (NYT obit for Ida B Wells) (next BH & Lynching, see Apr 6 or see 19th century for expanded lynching chronology; next Wells, see May 27)

Congress of Racial Equality

March 9, 1942:  the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), was founded in Chicago on this day as an offshoot of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (founded on November 11, 1915). The new group conducted sit-ins challenging segregated restaurants in Chicago in 1943. (CORE site) (see July 1)

Albany Movement

March 9, 1963: four Black girls took seats at a white lunch counter at Albany, GA’s Lee Drugs. There were asked to leave and the police were called. The girls were arrested a block away and charged with violating an anti-trespassing ordinance. (see Albany for expanded story)

Muhammad Ali

March 9, 1964:  Ali said he would take another Selective Service examination in Louisville March 13.. Ali had taken a test earlier but there were reports he failed to pass the mental examination. (see Mar 20)

Turnaround Tuesday

March 9, 1965:  King led another march to the Edmund Pettus Bridge. About 2,000 people, more than half of them white and about a third members of the clergy, participate in the second march. King led the march to the bridge, then told the protesters to disperse. The march became known as Turnaround Tuesday.

That night White supremacists beat up white Unitarian Universalist minister James J. Reeb in Selma. (see March for expanded story;  MLK, see Mar 21)

George Whitmore, Jr

March 9, 1965:  Police Sergeant Thomas J. Collier, who took the initial report from Elba Borrero, testified that Borrero did not mention the attempted rape but rather alleged only that her assailant “attempted to take her pocketbook.” (see Whitmore for expanded story)

Rodney King grand jury

March 9, 1991: [from NYT] A Los Angeles County grand jury undertook an investigation of all 15 police officers present when King was clubbed, kicked and stomped by three officers who did not realize that they were being videotaped.

King’s doctor, Edmund Chein, said at a news conference that the beating had left the victim with a fractured eye socket, a broken cheekbone, a broken leg, bruises, facial nerve damage, a severe concussion and burns from a police stun gun. (BH & RK, see Mar 1)

Rodney King testifies

March 9, 1993: King testified at the federal trial of 4 Los Angeles, California police officers accused of violating his civil rights when they beat him during an arrest. (NYT article) (see March 15)

Amadou Diallo

March 9, 1999: in the wake of the shooting of unarmed Guinean immigrant Amadou Diallo, the first class action was filed against New York City for what plaintiffs call unlawful stop and frisk practices and racial profiling by police officers. Through the lawsuit, Daniels, et al. v. The City of New York, et al., the Center of Constitutional Rights requested that the court disband the NYPD’s Street Crime Unit. (S & F, see Mar 19; Diallo, see Mar 31)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Westmoreland County Coal Strike

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

March 9, 1910: the Westmoreland County Coal Strike of 1910 – 1911 was a strike by coal miners represented by the United Mine Workers of America. The strike is also known as the “Slovak strike” because about 70 percent of the miners were Slovak immigrants.

It began in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, on March 9, 1910, and ended on July 1, 1911.  At its height, the strike encompassed 65 mines and 15,000 coal miners. Sixteen people were killed during the strike, nearly all of them striking miners or members of their families. The strike ended in a defeat for the union. (libcom dot org article) (see Oct 1)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism


Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire

In late November 1941  Walter Chaplinsky, a Jehovah’s Witness, was was passing out pamphlets and preaching that organized religion was a “racket.” The rhetoric eventually sparked a gathering of a throng, which in turn, caused a scene. A police officer removed Chaplinsky. Along the way, he met the town marshal, who had earlier warned Chaplinsky to keep it down and avoid causing a commotion. Chaplinsky attacked him verbally. He was arrested. The complaint against Chaplinsky charged that he had shouted: “You are a God-damned racketeer” and “a damned Fascist”. Chaplinsky admitted that he said the words charged in the complaint, with the exception of the name of the deity

On March 9, 1942: Chaplinsky v New Hampshire. The US Supreme Court, in a unanimous decision, upheld the Chaplansky’s arrest. Writing the decision for the Court, Justice Frank Murphy advanced a “two-tier theory” of the First Amendment. Certain “well-defined and narrowly limited” categories of speech fall outside the bounds of constitutional protection. Thus, “the lewd and obscene, the profane, the libelous,” and (in this case) insulting or “fighting” words neither contributed to the expression of ideas nor possessed any “social value” in the search for truth.

Murphy wrote:  There are certain well-defined and narrowly limited classes of speech, the prevention and punishment of which have never been thought to raise any constitutional problem. These include the lewd and obscene, the profane, the libelous, and the insulting or “fighting” words those which by their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace. It has been well observed that such utterances are no essential part of any exposition of ideas, and are of such slight social value as a step to truth that any benefit that may be derived from them is clearly outweighed by the social interest in order and morality. (see Apr 13)

New York Times v. Sullivan

March 9, 1964: New York Times v. Sullivan. The First Amendment, as applied through the Fourteenth, protected a newspaper from being sued for libel in state court for making false defamatory statements about the official conduct of a public official, because the statements were not made with knowing or reckless disregard for the truth. Supreme Court of Alabama reversed and remanded, i.e. the Court held that defamatory falsehoods about public officials can be punished — only  if the offended official can prove the falsehoods were published with “actual malice,” i.e.: “knowledge that the statement was false or with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not.” Other kinds of “libelous statements” are also punishable. (FS, see Mar 30; Sullivan, see Apr 6)

Frank Wilkinson

March 9, 1966: defying the North Carolina law that banned from speaking on state college and university campuses “known” Communists, “known” advocates of the violent overthrow of the state, and persons who took the Fifth Amendment regarding Communist Party membership, Frank Wilkinson, leader of the campaign to abolish the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), and Herbert Aptheker, a historian and member of the Communist Party, mocked the ban by speaking to students from the other side of the low wall that circles the University of North Carolina campus. In February 1968, a three-judge District Court panel deliberated for 10 minutes and then declared the ban unconstitutional. (FS, see Mar 21; Red Scare, see February 8, 1968; North Carolina, see February 19, 1968)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism


Japanese massacre French

March 9, 1945: fearful that the successful American Pacific campaign might include Vietnam, the Japanese start a coup d’état killing some two thousand French officers and disarmed and interned twelve thousand more—and then, in an attempt to win Vietnamese support, declared Vietnam “independent” and allowed the puppet emperor, Bao Dai, to remain on the throne so long as he did their bidding. (see Aug 16)


March 9, 1965: President Johnson authorized the use of Napalm, the petroleum based anti-personnel bomb. (see Mar 16)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

“A Report on Senator Joseph McCarthy”

March 9, 1954: CBS TV News correspondent, Edward R Murrow, Fred Friendly, and their news team produced a half-hour See It Now special entitled “A Report on Senator Joseph McCarthy”. Murrow used excerpts from McCarthy’s own speeches and proclamations to criticize the senator and point out episodes where he had contradicted himself. Murrow and Friendly paid for their own newspaper advertisement for the program; they were not allowed to use CBS’s money for the publicity campaign or even use the CBS logo. (see Apr 6)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism


Ruth Handler

March 9, 1959: the first Barbie doll went on display at the American Toy Fair in New York City. Created by Ruth Handler, Handler subsequently designed a prosthetic breast that resembled a natural one.  The name of the prosthetic company is Nearly Me. (see November 20, 1961)

March for Women’s Lives

March 9, 1986: National Organization for Women coordinated the March for Women’s Lives in Washington, D. C., for the purpose of keeping abortion and birth control legal.

With some 125,000 participants, it was the largest march for women’s rights in the U.S. to this date. Seven other marches for women’s rights also take place in 1986, in Los Angeles, CA; Denver, CO; Harrisburg, PA; Trenton, NJ; Boston, MA; Seattle, WA; and Portland, OR. (next Feminism  June 11)

Dr. Antonia Novello

March 9, 1990: Dr. Antonia Novello sworn in as the U.S. Surgeon General, becoming the first woman (and first Hispanic) to hold this office. (cfmedicine site bio) (see March 20, 1991)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

March 9 Music et al

March 9 – 15, 1963: Allan Sherman’s My Son the Celebrity is the Billboard #1 album.

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

Tsuruga, Japan

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

March 9, 1981: a nuclear accident at a Japan Atomic Power Company plant in Tsuruga, Japan, exposed 59 workers to radiation on this day in 1981. The officials in charge failed to timely inform the public and nearby residents. (see June 7)


March 9, 2015: in a rare direct congressional intervention into diplomatic negotiations, the 47 Republican senators signed an open letter addressed to “leaders of the Islamic Republic of Iran” declaring that any agreement without legislative approval could be reversed by the next president “with the stroke of a pen.” (next N/C N & Iran, see Apr 2)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

March 9, 1985: the first-ever Adopt-a-Highway sign was erected on Texas’s Highway 69. The highway was adopted by the Tyler Civitan Club, which committed to picking up trash along a designated two-mile stretch of the road. (see May 16)

Mustafa Ali

March 9, 2017:  Mustafa Ali, who has worked at the EPA for 24 years, and was head of the Environmental Protection Agency program aimed at protecting minority populations from pollution resigned. The Trump administration had proposed to completely defund environmental justice efforts at the EPA. Ali submitted a resignation letter to EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt in which he implored the agency’s new leader to take seriously the concerns of minority  communities, which often bear the brunt of air and water pollution and live in areas near major industrial centers.

Scott Pruitt

March 9, 2017: Scott Pruitt, the head of the Environmental Protection Agency, said that carbon dioxide was not a primary contributor to global warming, a statement at odds with the global scientific consensus on climate change. Speaking of carbon dioxide, the heat-trapping gas produced by burning fossil fuels, Mr. Pruitt told CNBC’s “Squawk Box” that “I think that measuring with   precision human activity on the climate is something very challenging to do and there’s tremendous disagreement about the degree of impact, so no, I would  not agree that it’s a primary contributor to the global warming that we see.” (see Mar 15)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism


March 9, 1998: U.S. District Judge Susan Webber Wright rejected a request by Paula Jones’ attorneys to include evidence of a Monica Lewinsky affair during a Jones trial. (see Clinton for expanded story)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

March 9, 2009:   the U.S. military announced that 12,000 American soldiers would withdraw from Iraq by September, marking the first step in the Obama administration’s plan to pull U.S. combat forces out of the country by August 2010. [Washington Post, 3/9/09] (see March 12)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

Affordable Care Act

March 9, 2015: the U.S. Supreme Court told a lower court to reconsider whether the University of Notre Dame must comply with Obama administration regulations for the Affordable Care Act that aim to ensure contraceptive coverage for employees and students.

The order gave the Catholic university a new chance to argue that it is being improperly forced to violate its religious beliefs by facilitating what it considers to be abortion. A federal appeals court said Notre Dame had to comply with the regulations, which implement the 2010 Affordable Care Act. (BC, see Mar 20; ACA, see Mar 31; Notre Dame, see May 19)

March 9 Peace Love Art Activism

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism


George Boxley attempts revolt

March 6, 1815: George Boxley was a white storekeeper and mill owner. While living in Berkeley Parrish, Spotsylvania County, Virginia, he allegedly tried to coordinate a local slave rebellion in 1815, based on “heaven-sent” orders to free the enslaved. His plan was for slaves from Spotsylvania, and surrounding counties to meet at his home with horses, guns, swords and cubs. His plan involved capturing Richmond’s magazine or arsenal, and from there he planned to help the participating enslaved reach freedom. An enslaved girl, Lucy, informed her owner, Ptolemy Powell, who then informed the magistrate.

The plot was foiled. At least six enslaved people were executed and many others were arrested. Boxley was able to escape from the Spotsylvania County Jail when his wife, brought him a file, which he used to cut his chains and escape to freedom. A thousand dollars reward was offered for Boxley, but he was never caught. Boxley fled to Indiana, where he continued to help runaways and teach the principles of abolitionism on the railway to freedom. [NPS article]

Fort Blount revolt

In 1816: three hundred slaves and about 20 Native American allies hold Fort Blount on Apalachicola Bay, Florida for several days before being attacked by U.S. troops. (next BH &  Slave Revolts, see May 30, 1822 or see SR for expanded slave revolt chronology)

Dred Scott decision

March 6, 1857: Chief Justice Taney delivered the majority opinion of the Court.

It held that Dred Scott was not a “citizen of a state” and therefore was unable to bring suit in federal court. According to Taney, the authors of the Constitution had viewed all blacks as “beings of an inferior order, and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations, and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect.”

If the Court were to grant Scott’s petition, It would give to persons of the negro race, …the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, …to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased …the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and carry arms wherever they went.

As far as Scott’s previous residence in both a free state and a free territory, Justice Taney deferred to the Missouri State court’s: “…we are satisfied, upon a careful examination of all the cases decided in the State courts of Missouri referred to, that it is now firmly settled by the decisions of the highest court in the State, that Scott and his family upon their return were not free, but were, by the laws of Missouri, the property of the defendant; and that the Circuit Court of the United States had no jurisdiction, when, by the laws of the State, the plaintiff was a slave, and not a citizen.” (BH, see Sept 13; see Scott for expanded story)

Executive Order 10925

March 6, 1961: President John F. Kennedy signed Executive Order 10925. It required government contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.” It established the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. (full text of order) (see Mar 7)

Muhammad Ali

March 6, 1964: Cassius Clay adopted Muhammad Ali as his new name given to him by Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam, Ali’s name mean “Praiseworthy One.” (next BH, see Mar 12; Ali, see Mar 9)

Confederate flag

March 6, 2013:  Florida. After hearing heated arguments against and for flying a Confederate flag at the Pensacola Bay Center, the Escambia Board of County Commissioners voted in favor of a resolution that gives the county the option of flying the same five flags there that the city of Pensacola flies at its public buildings.

The commissioners voted 3-2 in favor of the resolution. It changed the commissioners’ decision in December to only fly the American and state of Florida flags at the Bay Center. The resolution gives the county the option to display historical flags at county buildings that are consistent with the flags the city of Pensacola flies. The city buildings have the American, British, French, Spanish and the National Flag of the Confederacy. (see Mar 7)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

Cultural/Technical Milestones

Oreo cookie

March 6, 1912: Oreo sandwich cookies were first introduced by the National Biscuit Co., which later became Nabisco. (see March 25, 1913)

Clarence Birdseye

March 6, 1930: retail frozen foods go on sale for the first time in Springfield, Massachusetts. Various fruits, vegetables, meat and fish were offered for sale. Clarence Birdseye had developed the method used to successfully freeze foods on a commercial scale. (see September 17, 1931)

Walter Cronkite

March 6, 1981: Walter Cronkite signed off for the last time as anchorman of “The CBS Evening News.” (see Aug 1)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Little Red Song Book

March 6, 1913: Joe Hill’s song “There is Power in a Union” appeared in the Little Red Song Book, published by the Wobblies (see May 26)

WV Teacher Strike

March 6, 2018:  the statewide West Virginia teachers’ strike ended when Gov. James C. Justice signed a bill to give teachers and other state employees a 5 percent pay raise. (see Apr 2)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism


President Ho Chi Minh

March 6, 1946: President Ho Chi Minh struck an agreement with France that recognized his country as an autonomous state within the Indochinese Federation and the French Union. (see Mar 20)

US Advisors

March 6, 1960: the US announced that 3,500 additional American soldiers would be sent to Vietnam as advisors. (see Nov 11)

U.S. Marines

March 6, 1965: the White House confirmed reports that, at the request of South Vietnam, the United States was sending two battalions of U.S. Marines for security work at the Da Nang air base to free South Vietnamese troops for combat.

That day, President Johnson had a private conversation with Democratic Senator Richard Russell o f Georgia explaining to him about the imminent deployment of the Marines. The President told Russell how General Westmorland and many others kept insisting of the deployment’s necessity. At the end of the conversation, Johnson said, “…a man can fight if he can see daylight down the road somewhere. But there ain’t no light in Vietnam. Not a bit.” (see Mar 8)

Weather Underground

March 6, 1970:  a nail bomb they were constructing detonated  and killed Weathermen members Theodore Gold, Diana Oughton, and Terry Robbins in their Greenwich Village townhouse. They had intended to plant the bomb at a non-commissioned officer’s dance at Fort Dix, New Jersey. (2015 NY Daily news article) (Vietnam, see Mar 10; WU, see May 21)

My Lai Massacre

March 6, 1998:  at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, the Army presented the Soldier’s Medal, for heroism not involving conflict with an enemy, to Hugh Thompson; to his gunner, Lawrence Colburn; and, posthumously, to Glenn Andreotta, who was killed in a helicopter crash three weeks after the My Lai massacre.

Thompson was the Army helicopter pilot who rescued Vietnamese civilians during the My Lai massacre, reported the killings to his superior officers in a rage over what he had seen, and testified at the inquiries. (2006 NYT obit) (see August 20, 2009)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

Nuclear/Chemical News

March 6, 1951:  trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg began in New York Southern District federal court. Judge Irving R. Kaufman presided over the espionage prosecution of the couple accused of selling nuclear secrets to the Russians (treason could not be charged because the United States was not at war with the Soviet Union). The Rosenbergs, and co-defendant, Morton Sobell, were defended by the father and son team of Emanuel and Alexander Bloch. The prosecution included the infamous Roy Cohn, best known for his association with Senator Joseph McCarthy. (Rosenberg Fund for Children site article)  (see Mar 29)

Georgy Malenkov

March 6, 1953: Georgy Malenkov was named premier and first secretary of the Communist Party. (1988 NYT obit) (see Mar 20)

North Korea

March 6, 2018: South Korean officials announced that North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, told South Korean envoys that his country was willing to begin negotiations with the United States on abandoning its nuclear weapons and that it would suspend all nuclear and missile tests while it is engaged in such talks. (NYT article) (see Apr 8)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism



March 6, 1957:  Ghana independent from the United Kingdom. It was the first African nation to achieve freedom from colonial rule. (see Aug 31)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

March 6 Music et al


March 6 – 19, 1961: soundtrack from the movie Exodus is Billboard #1 album for a second time.

My Girl

March 6 – 12, 1965: “My Girl” by the Temptations #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

John Lennon

March 6, 1973: the New York Office of the Immigration Department canceled John Lennon’s visa extension. It had been granted only five days before. (see JL for expanded chronology)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Wounded Knee

March 6, 1974: Federal District Court Judge Fred Nicol upset over confusing statement involving inaccessible FBI documents said he wanted the files intact in his chambers to inspect. He said, “I don’t care what the FBI agrees or disagrees on. I used to think the FBI was one of the best bureaus…but now I think it has deteriorated. It has deteriorated badly and I don’t care how many FBI agents are in the courtroom to hear this.”  (see June 18)

Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe

March 6, 1978: In Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe, The Supreme Court reversed the decision of the lower courts and held that Indian tribal courts do not have inherent criminal jurisdiction to try and to punish non-Indians, and hence may not assume such jurisdiction unless specifically authorized to do so by Congress. (see July 15)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism


Leonard Matlovich

March 6, 1975: in early 1974, Air Force Technical Sergeant Leonard Matlovich, a Vietnam veteran and winner of the Purple Heart and the Bronze Star, read an interview in the Air Force Times with gay activist Frank Kameny, who had counseled gays in the military. He met with Kameny and ACLU attorney David Addlestone, spending months formulating a plan. On this day, he hand-delivered a letter to his Langley AFB commanding officer, disclosing he was gay. When his commander asked, “What does this mean?” Matlovich replied, “It means Brown versus the Board of Education” — a reference to the landmark 1954 Supreme Court case outlawing racial segregation in public schools and Matlovich’s belief that homosexuals should also be treated without discrimination. (2015 Time article) (LGBTQ, see Mar 25; Matlovich, see Sept 16)

Transgender rights

March 6, 2017: The Supreme Court announced that it would not hear a major case on transgender rights after all, acting after the Trump administration changed the federal government’s position on whether public schools had to allow transgender youths to use bathrooms that matched their gender identities. 

In a one-sentence order, the Supreme Court vacated an appeal’s court decision in favor of a transgender boy, Gavin Grimm, and sent the case back for further consideration in light of the new guidance from the Trump administration. (see Mar 14)

F.V. v. Barron

March 6, 2018: in the case of F.V. v. Barron (formerly F.V. v. Armstrong),  U.S. Magistrate Judge Candy Dale ordered Idaho state officials to allow transgender people born in Idaho to apply to correct the gender markers on their State of Idaho birth certificates by April 6, 2018. Lambda Legal had filed a federal lawsuit in April 2017 challenging Idaho’s categorical ban on such corrections.

Candy wrote in her opinion, “After careful consideration, the Court finds IDHW’s policy of categorically and automatically denying applications submitted by transgender individuals to change the sex listed on their birth certificates is unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court finds further that any constitutionally sound rule must not include the revision history as to sex or name to avoid impermissibly compelling speech and furthering the harms at issue.”  (text of decision via Lambda Legal) (see Mar 12)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

Jack Kevorkian

March 6, 1996: the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that mentally competent, terminally ill adults have a constitutional right to aid in dying from doctors, health care workers and family members. It is the first time a federal appeals court endorses assisted suicide. (see Kevorkian for expanded story)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Trump tries again

March 6, 2017: President Trump signed a revised version of his executive order that would for the first time rewrite American immigration policy to ban migrants from predominantly Muslim nations, removing citizens of Iraq from the original travel embargo and scrapping a provision that explicitly protected religious minorities. (see Mar 8)

Trump sues California

March 6, 2018: the Justice Department filed a lawsuit against California’s Gov. Jerry Brown and the state’s attorney general, Xavier Becerra, over three state laws passed in recent months saying the sanctuary laws made it impossible for federal immigration officials to do their jobs and deport criminals who were born outside the United States. The Justice Department called the laws unconstitutional and asked a judge to block them. (next IH, see Mar 13); lawsuit, see  July 5)


March 6, 2019: U.S. District Judge Richard Seeborg of California  issued a court order to block the Trump administration’s plans to include a citizenship question on the 2020 census. He was the second judge to do so (for first order, see Jan 15)

Seeborg found that the administration’s decision to add the question violated administrative law. He also ruled that it was unconstitutional because it prevents the government from carrying out its mandate to count every person living in the U.S. every 10 years.

In short, the inclusion of the citizenship question on the 2020 Census threatens the very foundation of our democratic system — and does so based on a self-defeating rationale,” Seeborg wrote in a 126-page opinion . [NPR article] (next IH, see Mar 8; next Census, see Apr 5)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

March 6, 2017: the White House proposed preserving federal payments to Planned Parenthood if it discontinued providing abortions. Officials at the organization (which received about $500 million annually in federal funding) rejected the offer as an impossibility  . That money helps pay for women’s health services the organization provides, not for abortion services.

“Let’s be clear: Federal funds already do not pay for abortions,” Dawn Laguens, the executive vice president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, said. “Offering money to Planned Parenthood to abandon our patients and our values is not a deal that we will ever accept. Providing critical health care services for millions of American women is nonnegotiable.” (see Apr 13)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

Pledge of Allegiance./Student Rights

March 5, 2019: Roderick Ford of Tampa, the lawyer for Jabari Talbot, the 11-year-old student arrested for causing a disturbance at school and resisting arrest, said that the case against Jabiri was closed .

Ford provided a February 26 letter from Polk County Teen Court Director Clever English, showing the “case is closed and there were no issues pending.”

English also told Talbot’s mother, Dhakira Talbot, in the letter that the case was not entered into a criminal database and no delinquency record was created.

Although we are very thankful that the Polk County Juvenile Court has closed the file, and there will be no criminal prosecution by the Polk County State Attorney’s Office, our journey to justice against the perennial criminalization of millions of black youth who attend public schools continues, as a civil rights complaint is now currently pending before the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights,” said Ford. (next SR, see Sept 30; next Pledge, see Dec 3)

March 6 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Act to Regulate…

February 22, 1847: the US Congress enacted an Act to regulate the Carriage of Passengers in Merchant Vessels. Ships brought US products to Europe often used “passengers” as ballast for the return trip. In other words, the ship treated the passengers as cargo, not as people. Thousands became sick and died, particularly of typhus. This act was an attempt to curb such mistreatment.

Because of the Act’s limitations, ship owners increased their trips from Europe to Canada to bypass the law. The increase did not mean better conditions, but rather mean more crowded conditions and more deaths.

On August 15, 1909 the Ancient Order of Hiberians dedicated a Celtic Cross on the Grosse Island the site of a quarantine station and the site of graves for 5,000 Irish immigrants who had died at the station. (next IH, see January 31, 1848)

Nation of immigrants

February 22, 2108: the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services stopped characterizing the United States as “a nation of immigrants.”

Agency director, L. Francis Cissna informed employees that its mission statement had been revised to “guide us in the years ahead.” Gone was the phrase that described the agency as securing “America’s promise as a nation of immigrants.”

The original mission statement, created in 2005, said,: “U.S.C.I.S. secures America’s promise as a nation of immigrants by providing accurate and useful information to our customers, granting immigration and citizenship benefits, promoting an awareness and understanding of citizenship, and ensuring the integrity of our immigration system.”

The new version says: “U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services administers the nation’s lawful immigration system, safeguarding its integrity and promise by efficiently and fairly adjudicating requests for immigration benefits while protecting Americans, securing the homeland and honoring our values.”

Cissna’s mother immigrated to the United States from Peru and his wife’s mother came from the Middle East. He grew up speaking Spanish at home and speaks it exclusively with his children. (see Feb 26)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


Frazier Baker lynched

February 22, 1898: Frazier Baker, an African American who had recently been appointed postmaster of Lake City, S.C., and his infant daughter, Julia, were killed and his wife and three other daughters were maimed for life when a lynch mob set after them. Citizens of the small town of 500 residents set fire to the post office, where the Bakers lived, and shot them as they ran out.

The accused were indicted on twenty-four counts including “a conspiracy to injure and oppress Frazier B. Baker in the free exercise” of his civil rights.

Twenty-three of the counts charged conspiracy, but the count for the destruction of the mail did not. The trial started on April 10, 1899 in the Federal District Court of Charleston, South Carolina. Three of the men were found not guilty and the all-white jury remained deadlocked on a verdict for the other eight. The judge declared a mistrial and the federal prosecutors did not reopen the case. (Postal Museum article) (next BH, see Apr 25; see 19th century for expanded lynching chronology)

Frank George Pinkston and Charles Melvin Sherrod

February 22, 1960: about 200 students, led by Frank George Pinkston and Charles Melvin Sherrod, marched from the Virginia Union University campus to downtown Richmond, shutting down the shopping district. Police arrested 34 students taking part in sit-ins and pickets at Thalhimer’s Department Store.

The Greensboro Four

February 22 – 28, 1960: the lunch counters at F.W. Woolworth and Kress stores reopened, but were still segregated. Greensboro Mayor George H. Roach introduced the Greensboro Advisory Committee on Community Relations representing the City Council, the Chamber of Commerce and the Merchants Association. Chairman Ed Zane worked to increase public support for integration of lunch counters, encouraging people to write and express their opinions on the racial situation.

By the end of February, the sit-in movement had spread to more than 30 cities in eight states. ( see G4 for expanded chronology; next BH, see Mar 1)

Muhammad Ali

February 22, 1964: three days before the fight, a New York Times article stated that, “At the moment Cassius Marcellus Clay may very well be — to borrow his own florid description of himself — the “prettiest and greatest” of all heavyweight fighters. Before Tuesday midnight, however, the situation could very well undergo a rather violent metamorphosis.

On that evening the loud mouth from Louisville is likely to have a lot of vainglorious boasts jammed down his throat by a ham-like fist belonging to Sonny Liston, the malefic destroyer who is the champion of the world. The irritatingly confident Cassius enters this bout with one trifling handicap. He can’t fight as well as he can talk. (see Feb 25)

Katherine Johnson

February 22, 2019: NASA officially renamed a facility in West Virginia after Katherine Johnson, an African-American mathematician and centenarian whose barrier-breaking career was depicted in the film “Hidden Figures.”

The 2016 film, based on a book released earlier that year, depicted the struggle of Ms. Johnson and other black women for equality at NASA during the height of the space age and segregation. The mathematician tracked the trajectories of crucial missions in the 1960s.

“I am thrilled we are honoring Katherine Johnson in this way as she is a true American icon who overcame incredible obstacles and inspired so many,” Jim Bridenstine, the administrator of NASA, said in a statement. (see Feb 27)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Crime and Punishment

National Bail Fund

February 22, 1922: Roger Baldwin, Director of the ACLU, organized the National Bail Fund for Civil Liberties on this day to assist people being prosecuted in civil liberties cases. Baldwin announced a goal of raising $100,000, and said that $60,000 had already been raised. The Fund became one of the principal sources of bail assistance for civil liberties cases in the 1920s. (see March 31, 1958)

Pre-Trial Fairness Act

February 22, 2021: Illinois Gov. J.B. Pritzker signed the Illinois Pre-Trial Fairness Act making Illinois the first state to abolish cash bail payments for jail release for people who have been arrested and are waiting for their case to be heard.

The practice had long been controversial with criminal justice reform advocates who call cash bail a “poor people’s tax” that had a disproportionately negative impact on people of color. It left those who can’t come up with the money in jail for weeks or longer or even accepting plea deals as a way to get out.

Some of the provisions include requiring police officers to be licensed by the state and to wear body-cams by 2025, expanding training opportunities for officers, making it easier to decertify police officers who commit misconduct, and improving a victims compensation program by making resources more readily available to survivors. [NPR story] (next C & P, see Apr 22)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

February 22 Music et al

Roots of Rock

February 22, 1957: according to a NYT report, “Teenage rock ‘n’ roll enthusiasts stormed into Times Square area before dawn…and all day long they filled sidewalks, tied up traffic, and eventually required the attention of 175 policemen.

“They begin lining up at 4 A.M. to see the show at the Paramount Theatre. It wasn’t until 18 and a half hours later—at 10:30 P.M.—that the last of the line entered the theatre….The show featured Alan Freed.” (see Feb 25)

Billboard #1

February 22 – April 24, 1960: “Theme from a Summer Place” by Percy Faith #1 Billboard Hot 100.

Beatles Please

February 22, 1963: “Please Please Me” reached #1 in the UK. (see Mar 3)

Beatles Return

February 22, 1964: after a hectic but successful tour to the US, the Beatles returned to England. (see Beatles Back in the UK)

Beat Generation

February 22, 2021:  Lawrence Ferlinghetti died. (next Beat, see )

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


South Vietnam Leadership

February 22, 1965: Gen Nguyen Khanh announced that he had accepted the council’s decision. Although he was hastily given the title of ambassador at large, General Khanh would never again play a significant role in his country’s future.  (Vietnam, see Feb 26; SVL, see June 14)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans


February 22, 1970: after three months, not more than 100 were still occupying Alcatraz and boredom was the biggest problem. (NYT article) (see May 31)

Environmental Issues

February 22, 2108: federal District Court Judge William Orrick ruled against Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke’s attempt to delay the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Waste Prevention Rule.

The Environmental Defense Fund and a coalition of conservation and tribal citizen groups had asked the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California for a preliminary injunction to prevent Zinke from delaying the rule.

Orrick granted the request.

“The court’s decision to block Secretary Zinke’s unlawful suspension ensures the Waste Prevention Rule remains in place, protecting tribes, ranchers and families across the West,” said EDF Lead Attorney Peter Zalzal. “The protections restored by this decision will help to prevent the waste of natural gas, reduce harmful methane, smog-forming and toxic pollution, and ensure communities and tribes have royalty money that can be used to construct roads and schools.” (EI, see Feb 27; NA, see Apr 13)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Symbionese Liberation Army

February 22, 1974: the first day of food distribution for People in Need ended in riots. Randolph Hearst stated that $6 million was beyond his capabilities. “The matter is now out of my hands,” he said. His representative made an offer to pay $2 million upon the immediate release of Patty Hearst and an additional $2 million in January 1975. (see PH for expanded chronology)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


February 22, 1979: Saint Lucia independent of United Kingdom.  (next ID, see Oct 27)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Japanese Internment Camps

February 22 Peace Love Activism

February 22, 1983: The Report of the Commission of Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), entitled Personal Justice Denied, concluded that the exclusion, expulsion, and incarceration of Japanese-Americans were not justified by military necessity, and the decisions to do so were based on race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership. (see Internment for expanded chronology)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

Euro arrives

February 22, 2002: the ex-currencies of all euro-using nations cease to be legal tender in the European Union.

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History


February 22, 2011: when Apple released its annual review of labor conditions at its global suppliers, one startling revelation stood out: 137 workers at a China factory had been seriously injured by a toxic chemical used in making the signature slick glass screens of the iPhone. (see February 13, 2012)

WV Teacher Strike

February 22, 2018: West Virginia teachers’ strike began with a call from the West Virginia branches of the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association for teachers across West Virginia to strike. The strike was called in response to the comparatively low pay of West Virginia teachers, a pay raise passed by the legislature and signed by Governor Jim Justice that provided only a 2% raise for next year, and 1% raise for 2020 and a 1% raise for 2021 and a freeze on premiums for 16 months to benefits. Every public school district in the state closed. (USLH & WV, see Feb 27)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


Same-sex rights

February 22, 2012: U.S. District Court Judge Jeffrey White ruled in Golinski v. Office of Personnel Management, declaring that DOMA’s Section 3, which restricts marriage to different-sex couples, was unconstitutional. [Wikipedia article] (see Mar 1)

Transgender protection

February 22, 2017: overruling his own education secretary, President Trump rescinded protections for transgender students that had allowed them to use bathrooms corresponding with their gender identity.

In a joint letter, the top civil rights officials from the Justice Department and the Education Department rejected the Obama administration’s position that nondiscrimination laws required schools to allow transgender students to use the bathrooms of their choice.

That directive, they said, was improperly and arbitrarily devised, “without due regard for the primary role of the states and local school districts in establishing educational policy.” (see Mar 6)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


February 22 Peace Love Activism

February 22, 2013: The House of Representatives introduced its version of the Violence Against Women Act. It came under sharp criticism from Democrats and women’s and human rights groups for failing to include protections in the Senate bill for gay, bisexual or transgender victims of domestic abuse. The House bill eliminated “sexual orientation” and “gender identity” from a list of “populations” that face barriers to receiving victim services — and also stripped certain provisions regarding American Indian women on reservations. (see Feb 28)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


February 22, 2017: the Supreme Court sided with Ehlena Fry, a 13-year-old Michigan girl with cerebral palsy, who spent years battling school officials for the right to bring her service dog — a goldendoodle named Wonder — to class. The justices ruled unanimously that federal disability laws might allow Ehlena Fry to pursue her case in court without first having to wade through a lengthy administrative process.

Fry’s family had obtained a goldendoodle to help her open doors and retrieve items. Her school district initially refused to allow Wonder at school. Officials relented a bit in 2010, but they placed many restrictions on Wonder. Ehlena and her dog later transferred to another school.

Her family sued the school district for violations of federal disability laws. The case was dismissed after a judge said the Frys first had to seek an administrative hearing. An appeals court last year upheld that decision 2-1. (see Mar 20)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


February 22, 2017: the Supreme Court ruled in favor of a death row inmate Duane Buck in Texas whose own lawyers introduced evidence at trial that he was more likely to be dangerous in the future because he is black. The court ruled that ane Buck, would be able to go back into a lower court and argue that he should have a new sentencing hearing.

In a 6-2 ruling, Chief Justice John Roberts wrote the majority opinion holding that Buck has “demonstrated both ineffective assistance of counsel” and has an “entitlement to relief.” (see Feb 27)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


February 22, 2017: at the Austins Bar and Grill in Olathe, Kan, Adam W. Purinton shot Srinivas Kuchibhotla and Alok Madasani, two immigrants from India, as well as Ian Grillot who had tried to come to their aid.

Purinton had earlier said racial slurs to the two Indians, was escorted out of the bar, but returned with a gun. Kuchibhotla died. Madasani and Grillot  were wounded. [NYT story] (see Mar 3)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism


February 22, 2021: months after voters approved legalization and months of wrangling over legislative language, New Jersey finally became the 13th state to legalize marijuana.

It wasn’t just the state’s social justice activists, entrepreneurs and the state’s most ardent weed enthusiasts waiting with bated breath. Legal weed advocates nationwide had kept a close eye on New Jersey, seen as a vital domino that could soon send the entire East Coast cascading toward marijuana legalization.

And, eventually, the rest of the country.

“New Jersey could be the game changer for the Northeast and for the Mid-Atlantic. It is a huge state, there will be a large market there and it will undoubtedly put pressure on surrounding states to rethink their positions and create momentum for cannabis reform,” said Steve Hawkins, executive director of the Marijuana Policy Project, a national advocacy group for marijuana legalization. (next Cannabis, see , or see Cannabis Dominoes for expanded chronology) (next Cannabis, see Mar 31, or see CAC for expanded chronology)

February 22 Peace Love Art Activism