Category Archives: Peace Love Art and Activism

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Black History

Nat Turner

October 2, 1800: Nat Turner born  in Southampton County, Virginia, the week before Gabriel  Prosser (see Aug 30) was hanged. While still a young child, Nat was overheard describing events that had happened before he was born. This, along with his keen intelligence, and other signs marked him in the eyes of his people as a prophet “intended for some great purpose.”   (next BH, see January 1805;  see Turner for full chronology)

”SCOTTSBORO BOYS”

October 2, 1932: American Legion members helped Los Angeles police break up a rally of 1,000 people at the Long Beach Free Speech Zone, who were supporting defendants in the famous Scottsboro case. Two people were arrested in the incident on this day, which was one of 11 political meetings reportedly broken up by LA police in 1932, often with assistance of the American Legion. (see Scottsboro Travesty)

Isaac Woodard Jr

U.S. Army Sergeant Isaac Woodard Jr

On February 12, 1946 former U.S. Army Sergeant Isaac Woodard Jr. was on a Greyhound Lines bus traveling from Camp Gordon in Augusta, Georgia, where he had been discharged, en route to rejoin his family in North Carolina. When the bus reached a rest stop just outside of Augusta, Woodard asked the bus driver if there was time for him to use a restroom.

The bus stopped in Batesburg (now Batesburg-Leesville, South Carolina), near Aiken. Though Woodard had caused no disruption, the driver contacted the local police (including Chief of Police Linwood Shull), who forcibly removed Woodard from the bus. After demanding to see his discharge papers, a number of policemen, including Shull, took Woodard to a nearby alleyway, where they beat him repeatedly with nightsticks. They then took Woodard to the town jail and arrested him for disorderly conduct, accusing him of drinking beer in the back of the bus with other soldiers.

On October 2, 1946, Chief of Police Linwood Shull and several of his officers were indicted in U.S. District Court in Columbia, South Carolina. It was within federal jurisdiction because the beating had occurred at a bus stop on federal property and at the time Woodard was in uniform of the armed services. The case was presided over by Judge Julius Waties Waring. (next BH, see Oct 22; see Woodward for expanded story)

Savannah, Ga

October 2, 1963: Savannah, Ga., desegregated its lunch counters, theaters and restaurants. The decision followed months of marches and boycotts. [Savannah Now article] (see Oct 7)

SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID

October 2, 1986: the US Senate overrode President Reagan’s veto of the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act and the bill became a law.  [NYT article] (see June 13, 1988)

George Whitmore, Jr

October 2, 1988: The New York Times published an article by Selwyn Raab, who interviewed Richard Robles in light of a forthcoming pardon hearing. Raab quoted Robles as saying that he broke into the Wylie-Hoffert apartment believing no one was home. He was looking for money to support his $15-a-day heroin habit, but when he encountered Wylie he raped her. Then he bound her and was preparing to leave when Hoffert came home. He took $30 from her purse and bound her as well. As he again prepared to leave, Hoffert said, “I”m going to remember you for the police. You”re going to jail.” When she said that, Robles continued, “I just went bananas. My head just exploded. I got to kill. You”re mind just races and races. It’s almost like you”re not you.” He said he clubbed both women unconscious with pop bottles, then slashed and stabbed them with knives he found in their kitchen. (see George Whitmore for expanded story)

Amadou Diallo

October 2, 2012: more than 13 years after the police shooting of Amadou Diallo, Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly agreed to restore a service weapon to Kenneth Boss, one of the four New York City officers involved, a decision that Mr. Diallo’s mother characterized as a betrayal.   [NYT article] (see Oct 8)

Botham Shem Jean

October 2, 2019: a jury sentenced a former Dallas police officer Amber Guyger to 10 years in prison for the shooting death of Botham Jean, her unarmed neighbor in his home. Guyger was convicted of murder the day before by the same jury in the death of Jean.

The sentence was met with boos and jeers by a crowd gathered outside the courtroom. But Jean’s younger brother, Brandt Jean, in a victim impact statement after the sentence, told Guyger he forgave her and loved her as he would any other person. He asked the judge if he could hug Guyger, and the two embraced as Guyger sobbed (next B & S, see Oct 9, next BSJ, see Dec 23)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Marijuana

Samuel R. Caldwell


October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

October 2, 1937: the Marijuana Tax Stamp Act had gone into effect on October 1, 1937 and this date, the FBI and Denver, Colorado police raided the Lexington Hotel and arrested Samuel R. Caldwell, 58, an unemployed laborer and Moses Baca, 26.

On Oct. 5, Caldwell went into the history trivia books as the first marijuana seller convicted under U.S. federal law. His customer, Baca, was found guilty of possession.

Caldwell was sentenced to four years of hard labor in Leavenworth Penitentiary, plus a $1,000 fine. Baca received 18 months incarceration. Both men served every day of their sentence.

A year after Caldwell was released from prison, he died. [Trend article]

LaGuardia Report

In 1944:  In 1938, New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia had requested that the New York Academy of Medicine conduct an investigation of marijuana.

The 1944 report, titled “The Marihuana Problem in the City of New York,” but commonly referred to as the “LaGuardia Report,” concludes that many claims about the dangers of marijuana are exaggerated or untrue. It read in part: “The practice of smoking marihuana does not lead to addiction in the medical sense of the word… The use of marihuana does not lead to morphine or heroin or cocaine addiction and no effort is made to create a market for these narcotics by stimulating the practice of marihuana smoking… Marihuana is not the determining factor in the commission of major crimes… The publicity concerning the catastrophic effects of marihuana smoking in New York City is unfounded.” (next marijuana, see August 31, 1948)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

 Coal miners strike

October 2, 1949: joining with 400,000 coal miners already on strike, 500,000 CIO steel workers close down the nation’s foundries, steel and iron mills, demanding pensions and better wages and working conditions. (see “in November”)

Starbucks Workers Union
October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

October 2, 2007: Starbucks Workers Union baristas at an outlet in East Grand Rapids, Mich., organized by the Wobblies, win their grievances after the National Labor Relations Board cites the company for labor law violations, including threats against union activists. (see Nov 5)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAY

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

October 2, 1958:  Guinea independent from France. [Global World article] (see 1960s independence days for list)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

1960s World Series

LA v NY
October 2 Peace Love Activism

October 2 – 6, 1963: the 1963 World Series matched the two-time defending champion N Y Yankees against the L A Dodgers, with the Dodgers sweeping the Series in four games to capture their second title in five years. The World Series Most Valuable Player Award went to Sandy Koufax, who started two of the four games and had two complete game victories. [Bleacher Report article]

St Louis v Detroit

October 2 – 10, 1968: St. Louis Cardinals against the Detroit Tigers, with the Tigers winning in seven games. [Wikipedia article]

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

October 2 Music et al

Cultural Milestone & Roots of RockOctober 2 Peace Love Art Activism

October 2, 1967,:  DJ Rosko of WOR-FM, the first NYC FM station to play rock music, resigned over corporate interference with his choices of music. (”When are we going to learn that controlling something does not take it out of the minds of people?” and declaring, ”In no way can I feel that I can continue my radio career by being dishonest with you.”

He added that he would rather return to being a men’s-room attendant. (CM, see Oct 3; RR, see Oct 7)

Grateful Dead

October 2, 1967: all six members of The Grateful Dead were busted by California narcotics agents for possession of marijuana at the groups’ 710 Ashbury Street House in San Francisco. (see January 31, 1970)

 Don Cornelius

October 2, 1971: Don Cornelius began Soul Train. He will host the show until 1993 and introduce to mainstream TV many Black artists who otherwise would not have had a TV forum. (BH, see Nov 2; DC, see March 25, 2006)

October 2 Peace Love Activism

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

AIDS & Ryan White

October 2, 1985: school principal upholds decision to prohibit White. (see Ryan White)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Clinton Impeachment

Clinton announces

October 2, 1991: Bill Clinton announced he would seek the 1992 Democratic nomination for President.

Starr investigation

October 2, 1998: the House Judiciary Committee releases another 4,610 pages of supporting material from Ken Starr’s investigation, including transcripts of grand jury testimony and transcripts of the Linda Tripp-Monica Lewinsky tapes. (see Clinton for expanded story)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Operation Gothic Serpent

October 2, 1993: U.S. Army conducted Operation Gothic Serpent in the city of Mogadishu, Somalia using Task Force Ranger.

Two UH-60 Blackhawks were shot down and the operation left over 1000 Somalians dead and over 73 Americans WIA, 19 KIA, and 1 captured. [World Atlas article]

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

IRAQ II

October 2, 2002: the US Congress passed a joint resolution, which authorized the President to use the Armed Forces as he deems necessary and appropriate, against Iraq. [Text of resolution](see Oct 16)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Women’s Health

October 2, 2014: a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, in New Orleans sided with Texas in its yearlong legal battle over its sweeping abortion law and allowed the state to enforce one of the law’s toughest provisions while the case was being appealed.Thirteen abortion clinics in Texas were forced to close immediately.

The ruling gave Texas permission to require all abortion clinics in the state to meet the same building, equipment and staffing standards as hospital-style surgical centers, standards that abortion providers said were unnecessary and costly, but that the state argued improved patient safety.

Thirteen clinics whose facilities did not meet the new standards were to be closed overnight, leaving Texas — a state with 5.4 million women of reproductive age, ranking second in the country — with eight abortion providers, all in Houston, Austin and two other metropolitan regions. No abortion facilities wouldl be open west or south of San Antonio. [NYT article] (BC, see Oct 14; Texas, see June 27, 2016)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Vatican

October 2, 2015: the Vatican said that Pope Francis’s encounter with Kim Davis, which was interpreted by many as a subtle intervention in the United States’ same-sex marriage debate, was part of a series of meetings with dozens of guests and did not amount to an endorsement of her view. Ms. Davis was among the guests ushered into the Vatican’s embassy for a brief meeting with him, the Vatican said.

The pope did not enter into the details of the situation of Mrs. Davis, and his meeting with her should not be considered a form of support of her position in all of its particular and complex aspects,” the Rev. Federico Lombardi, the Vatican spokesman, said in a statement. [Rolling Stone article] (see Nov 2)

Same-sex/diplomats

October 2, 2018: US State Department officials said that the Trump administration would no longer issue family visas to same-sex domestic partners of foreign diplomats or employees of international organizations who work in the United States.

It also applied to people working in the US for the United Nations, the World Bank, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and other groups. [NYT article] (see Oct 21)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism

Pledge of Allegiance & Student Rights

October 2, 2017: the principal of Windfern High School (Cy-Fair ISD, TX) suspended India Landry for her refusal to stand during the pledge of allegiance. It was something she’d done before. (next SR, Dec 21; Pledge & Landry, see July 19, 2018)

Immigration History

October 2, 2018: according to a report issued by the Office of Inspector General, the watchdog agency for the Dept of Homeland Security, the DHS was not prepared to implement the policy which directed the government to criminally prosecute immigrant parents—and separate them from their children—once they crossed the United States-Mexico border, nor was the agency ready to deal with the program’s fallout.

And not only did Customs and Border Protection (CBP) hold immigrant children for extended periods of time in cells intended for short-term detention, but the DHS struggled to identify, track and reunite separated families, according to the report. [Colorlines article] (see Oct 15)

October 2 Peace Love Art Activism
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October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Slave Revolts

October 1, 1851: citizens of Syracuse, N.Y., broke into the city’s police station and freed William Henry (known as Jerry), a runaway slave who had been working as a barrel-maker. A group of black and white men created a diversion and managed to free Jerry, but he was later rearrested.

At his second hearing, a group of men, their skin color disguised with burnt cork, forcibly overpowered the guards with clubs and axes, and freed Jerry a second time. He was then secretly taken over the border to Canada. [Syracuse dot com article] (Slave Revolts, see Oct 16 – 17, 1959; BH, see March 20, 1852)

Elaine, Arkansas

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1919: a race riot broke out in Elaine, Arkansas. Black sharecroppers were meeting in the local chapter of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America. Planters opposed their efforts to organize for better terms and the sharecroppers had been warned of trouble. A white man intent on arresting a black bootlegger approached the lookouts defending the meeting, and was shot. The planters formed a militia to attack the African-American farmers. In the ensuing riot they killed between 100 and 200 blacks, and five whites also died. [Black Past article]  (next BH, see Oct 11; next RR, see May 31 and June 1, 1921;  next Lynching, see Dec 27; Elaine continued, see February 19, 1923; for for expanded chronology, see American Lynching 2)

Perez v. Sharp

October 1, 1948: by a 4–3 vote, the California Supreme Court, in Perez v. Sharp, struck down an 1850 state law banning interracial marriage. The case involved Andrea Perez, who was a Mexican-American but classified as “white” by the state at that time, and Sylvester Davis, who was African-American. Reportedly, this was the first time any court in the U.S. had ruled on the issue of racial intermarriage.

The U.S. Supreme Court declared interracial marriage bans unconstitutional in the famous case of Loving v. Virginia on June 12, 1967.

The Court: “In summary, we hold that sections 60 and 69 are not only too vague and uncertain to be enforceable regulations of a fundamental right, but that they violate the equal protection of the laws clause of the United States Constitution by impairing the right of individuals to marry on the basis of race . . . alone and by arbitrarily and unreasonably discriminating against certain racial groups.”  [Atlantic article] (see Dec 10)

James H Meredith

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

October 1, 1962: in the fall of 1962, the University of Mississippi was the scene of violent riots in protest of James Meredith’s attempts to enroll as the segregated school’s first black student. In June 1962, after more than a year of litigation, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ordered the university to admit Meredith. In response, Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett gave a televised speech on September 13, 1962, vowing to resist integration.

Meredith, a 29-year-old Air Force veteran born in Mississippi, sought to enroll at Ole Miss in September 1962. Governor Barnett, a member of the pro-segregation White Citizen’s Council, personally blocked him the first two times he tried, and sent Lt. Governor Paul Johnson to prevent Meredith’s enrollment a third time. On September 28, 1962, the Fifth Circuit unanimously held Barnett in contempt of court for violating his duty to maintain order and allow Meredith to lawfully enroll.

On September 30, 1962, the next date set for Meredith’s enrollment, mobs had formed on campus and riots raged, killing two people and injuring many others. The following day, October 1, 1962, federal marshals sent by President John F. Kennedy successfully escorted Meredith to enroll as the University of Mississippi’s first black student and accompanied him to his first day of classes.

Mississippi Attorney General Joe Patterson soon instructed university students it was their constitutional right to refuse “to socialize or fraternize with an undesirable student” and unrest continued. Meredith suffered ongoing isolation, harassment, and violence. In October, students rioted and broke university cafeteria windows as Meredith ate there; in December, Meredith’s home was struck by shotgun blasts that nearly injured his teenaged sister and a dead raccoon was left on his car. Nevertheless, Meredith remained and on August 18, 1963, he graduated from the University of Mississippi with a degree in political science. (BH, see Oct 16; Meredith, see January 20, 1963)

Muhammad Ali

October 1, 1975: Ali defeated Joe Frazier in the “Thrilla in Manila.” It is their third fight, each winning once before. Ali had expected an easy bout, but Frazier takes it to the champ. Ali wins the bout in one of the greatest battles in the history of boxing. [Guardian article] (BH, see January 22, 1976; Ali, see September 28, 1976)

Medgar Evers

October 1, 1989: sealed documents from the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission revealed that at the same time that the state of Mississippi prosecuted Byron De La Beckwith in 1964 for the murder of NAACP leader Medgar Evers, another arm of the state, the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission, secretly assisted Beckwith’s defense, trying to get him acquitted.

The revelation led the district attorney’s office to reopen and re-prosecute the case against Beckwith. It was the first of a series of prosecutions of unpunished killings from the civil rights era. (see ME for expanded chronology)

137 SHOTS

October 1, 2018: East Cleveland Judge William L. Dawson denied a request by five Cleveland police supervisors to dismiss misdemeanor charges related to the 2012 chase that ended in a deadly shooting.

Defense attorneys for the five supervisors had argued during a July 9 hearing that dereliction-of-duty charges should be dismissed due to a series of procedural issues. They contended the supervisors’ right to speedy trials had been violated; more than five-and-a-half years had passed since the Nov. 29, 2012 chase that ended in the deaths of the unarmed Timothy Russell and Malissa Williams.

Judge Dawson noted in a Sept. 20 ruling that statutory requirements for speedy trials do not apply because the case was previously appealed to the Ohio Supreme Court, which ruled last year the trial could be held in East Cleveland. (see 137 for expanded chronology)

Botham Shem Jean

October 1, 2019:  a jury found former officer Amber R. Guyger who shot Botham Shem Jean, her unarmed black neighbor in his own apartment, guilty of murder.

Guyger, who is white, was charged in the death of her 26-year-old neighbor after she said she accidentally went to the wrong floor of their apartment complex, entered the unit directly above hers and fatally shot him last year. Guyger claimed she thought she was entering her own apartment and acting in self-defense against an intruder. [NYT article] (B & S and BSJ, see Oct 2)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

October 1, 1910: LA Times Bombing: an ink storage room in the L.A. Times building was dynamited during a citywide fight over labor rights and organizing.  The explosion was relatively minor, but it set off a fire in the unsafe, difficult-to-evacuate building, ultimately killing 21.

A union member eventually confessed to the bombing, which he said was supposed to have occurred early in the morning when the building would have been largely unoccupied. [2017 LAT article] (Labor, see Nov 26; LA Times, see December 5, 1911)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights

October 1, 1918:  U.S. Senate defeated federal woman suffrage amendment by vote of 34 nays to 62 yeas, two votes shy of required two-thirds majority. Amendment’s supporters quickly add it to Senate calendar for reconsideration. (see Oct 7)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

The Red Scare

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

October 1, 1949: Chairman Mao Zedong declared victory in the Chinese Civil War, creating the Communist People’s Republic of China. (see Oct 7)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

October 1, 1960

1) Cyprus independent from United Kingdom

2) Nigeria independent from United Kingdom (see ID for complete listing of the decades Independence days)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

STUDENT ACTIVISM

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

October 1, 1964: the Free Speech Movement was launched at the University of California at Berkeley. Students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students’ right to free speech and academic freedom. (see Student Free Speech for expanded story)

Colin Kaepernick

October 1, 2016: in college football, before East Carolina took on the University of Central Florida, a few members of ECU’s band took a knee during the national anthem. People in the crowd noticed, and the response was split between students and alum.

When it came time for the band to perform at halftime, there were many boos directed at them.

ECU chancellor Cecil Staton issued a statement shortly after, saying that the school “respects the rights of our students, staff and faculty to express their personal views.” (see FS & CK, see Oct 4)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

October 1 Music et al

Jimi Hendrix

October 1, 1966: Cream was playing a show at London Polytechnic. Hendrix asked Eric Clapton if he could jam with them and did playing “Killing Floor” amazing the audience as well as the members of Cream. (see Dec 26)

Abbey Road

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1969: US release of Abbey Road. (see Oct 12)

Side One

Side 2

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers

October 1, 1969: Daniel Ellseberg, with his Rand Corporation colleague Anthony Russo, began copying the secret Pentagon Papers in Los Angeles on this day. The Papers, which they had obtained while working at the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, California, had been commissioned by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in 1967 because of his growing doubts about the Vietnam War. (see DE/PP for expanded story)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

October 1, 1979: The Progressive Magazine on this day published an article by Howard Morland on the hydrogen bomb, which the government claimed revealed the “secret” of how to make the bomb. The government enjoined the publication of that issue (March 9, 1979), but after lengthy legal proceedings finally gave up. Morland maintained that the article only discussed the conceptual aspects of the H-Bomb, with no technical engineering details necessary to make one. And no authority has since claimed that the article contains the “secret” to the H-bomb.

The affair echoed an incredible incident nearly 30 years earlier when government officials, on March 31, 1950, seized and burned all 3,000 copies of the respected magazine Scientific American, because they alleged that an article on atomic energy revealed the “secret” to the atomic bomb. Coming at the height of the Cold War, the incident passed with only very limited news coverage and public protest. [Progressive article]  (see January 2, 1980)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger

October 1, 1986: the following excerpt from a letter was delivered by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Prefect [the future Pope Benedictus XVI] and approved and ordered published by Pope John Paul II: “Although the particular inclination of the homosexual person is not a sin, it is a more or less strong tendency ordered toward an intrinsic moral evil; and thus the inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder.

Therefore special concern and pastoral attention should be directed toward those who have this condition; lest they be led to believe that the living out of this orientation in homosexual activity is a morally acceptable option. It is not.” (see March 10, 1987)

Registered Partnership Act

October 1, 1989: the Registered Partnership Act went into effect in Denmark. It was the first law in the world that allowed civil unions between homosexual couples. (see February 26, 1990)

Connecticut

October 1, 2005: Connecticut’s civil union state law goes into effect. (see Nov 8)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

October 1, 2001: the Supreme Court suspended former President Bill Clinton from practicing before the high court.

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

STAND YOUR GROUND LAW

October 1, 2005: Florida’s “Stand Your Ground” law went into effect. (see February 26, 2012)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Occupy Wall Street

October 1, 2011, Occupy Wall Street protesters set out to march across the Brooklyn Bridge. The NY Times reported that more than 700 arrests were made. (see Oct 5)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Voting Rights

October 1, 2014:  a federal appeals court ordered a lower court to block two new voting restrictions in North Carolina, saying there was “no doubt” the measures would disenfranchise minorities. North Carolina would be required to reinstate same-day voter registration, as well as allow voters to cast ballots even if they show up to vote in the wrong precinct.

In a two-to-one ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit ruled that “whether the number is thirty or thirty-thousand, surely some North Carolina minority voters will be disproportionately adversely affected in the upcoming election” and that it was important to act now, since “there could be no do-over and no redress” once the election was over. (VR, see Oct 9; North Carolina, see April 6, 2015)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

October 1, 2015: the Obama administration unveiled a major new regulation on smog-causing emissions that spew from smokestacks and tailpipes, significantly tightening the current Bush-era standards but falling short of more stringent regulations that public health advocates and environmentalists had urged.

The Environmental Protection Agency set the new national standard for ozone, a smog-causing gas that often forms on hot, sunny days when chemical emissions from power plants, factories and vehicles mix in the air, at 70 parts per billion, tightening the current standard of 75 parts per billion set in 2008. Smog has been linked to asthma, heart and lung disease, and premature death. [NYT article] (see Nov 6)

October 1 Peace Love Art Activism
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September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

Homestead, PA

September 30, 1892: authorities charged 29 strike leaders  with treason—plotting “to incite insurrection, rebellion & war against the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania”—for daring to strike the Carnegie Steel Co. in Homestead, Pa. Jurors will refuse to convict them. (see March 25, 1893)

Mother Jones

September 30, 1899: seventy-year-old Mother Jones organized the wives of striking miners in Arnot, Pa. to descend on the mine with brooms, mops, and clanging pots and pans.  They frighten away the mules and their scab drivers.  The miners eventually won their strike. (see May 19, 1902)

National Farm Workers Association

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

September 30, 1962: The first convention of the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) met with hundreds of delegates assembled in an abandoned movie theater in Fresno. CA. The group’s distinctive flag, a black eagle symbol on a white circle in a red field, was unveiled. (see NFWA for more)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

FEMINISM & Voting Rights

September 30, 1918:  President Wilson addressed the Senate asking for passage of federal woman suffrage amendment. Wilson’s words on failed to drum up the necessary votes to pass the amendment. (see Oct 1)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Black History

Elaine, Ark

September 30, 1919: Black farmers meet in Elaine, Ark., to establish the Progressive Farmers and Householders Union to fight for better pay and higher cotton prices.

White mobs descended on the black town destroying homes and businesses and attacking anyone in their path. Terrified black residents, including women, children, and the elderly, fled their homes and hid for their lives in nearby woods and fields. A responding federal troop regiment claimed only two black people were killed but many reports challenged the white soldiers’ credibility and accused them of participating in the massacre. Today, historians estimate hundreds of black people were killed in the massacre. .

When the violence was quelled, sixty-seven black people were arrested and charged with inciting violence, while dozens more faced other charges. No white attackers were prosecuted, but twelve black union members convicted of riot-related charges were sentenced to death. The NAACP represented the men on appeal and successfully obtained reversals of all of their death sentences.  (next BH & Lynching, see Oct 1; for for expanded chronology, see American Lynching 2)

Gary, Indiana school integration

September 30, 1927: an agreement was reached: three of the original six black students at Emerson would be transferred, while the remaining three seniors would be allowed to graduate. The 18 black students transferred into Emerson would again be transferred out to other schools. The sum of $15,000 was also allocated for temporary facilities until a new black high school could be constructed. (BH, see Nov 18; SD, see Nov 21)

Emmett Till

September 30, 1955:  Milam and Bryant were released on bond. Kidnapping charges were pending. (BH, see Oct 10; see Emmett Till for expanded story)

James H Meredith/Paul Guihard/Ray Gunter

September 30, 1962: hundreds of federal marshals and thousands of Army and National Guard troops met a violent mob of segregationists from all over the South and the University of Mississippi campus became a battleground.

Paul Guihard was a French journalist who covered the Civil Rights struggle during the 60’s for Agence France-Press. He had arrived in Oxford on September 29 on his day off. Guihard compared the atmosphere on the 30th to that of a carnival, and wrote of spirited singing and speeches of Southern pride and tradition. As the day wore on, protesters became restless. Marshals arrested several students and protesters responded by shouting and throwing debris. Guihard waded into the crowd, shrugging off warnings of physical danger. Debris rained down on the marshals and they responded with tear gas. The mob fired back with guns and the marshals responded with gunfire of their own. Guihard was found several hundred yards away lying face-up next to some bushes less than an hour later, dying from a gunshot to the back. Help was called but nothing could be done to save him.

Another man, Ray Gunter, a 23-year-old white jukebox repairman who came by out of curiosity, was also killed in what became known as the Battle for Ole Miss. Gunter’s death was ruled accidental and investigations concurred that the bullet that killed him was a stray.

A federal investigation was initiated re the Guihard death, but neither killer nor motive was ever found. the second victim was 23-year-old Ray Gunter, a white jukebox repairman who came by out of curiosity. (see October 1, 1962)

Huey Newton

September 30, 1978: Huey Newton convicted in Oakland, Ca. on weapons charges. (see November 3, 1979)

Medgar Evers assassination

September 30, 1991: Nashville, TN. The Tennessee State Supreme Court ruled that Byron de la Beckwith must be extradited to Mississippi to stand trial a third time. Mr. Beckwith’s lawyer then took the case to the Federal courts, asking for a temporary restraining order to block the extradition. Tennessee agreed to hold Mr. Beckwith until then. (Evers, see October 3)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH

September 30, 1942: until the early 1940s, the FBI had not taken much interest in pornography. That changed on this day, when it opened an “Obscene File” and began a decades-long crusade against sexually oriented materials. The federal laws justifying this effort involved use of the mails, interstate commerce and, by the 1970s, the federal RICO (Racketeer influenced and Corrupt Organizations) law. (see June 14, 1943)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

September 30, 1964: University of California at Berkeley students and faculty opposed to the war staged the first large-scale antiwar demonstration in the US. Polls showed that a majority of Americans supported President Lyndon Johnson’s war policy. (see Nov 1)

News Music

September 30, 1965: Donovan appeared on Shindig! and plays Buffy Sainte-Marie’s “Universal Soldier”. (V, see Oct 15; NM, see Jan 15, 1966)

Video of Donovan (may or may not be from Shindig!)

Buffy Saint-Marie

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

LSD

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

September 30 – October 2, 1966:  Acid Test. San Francisco State College. Whatever It Is Festival.  A  disguised Ken Kesey (just back from fugitive adventures in Mexico), the Grateful Dead, Hugh Romney, and others are there. [MJK article] (see Oct 6)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAY

September 30, 1966: Botswana independent from United Kingdom. (see ID for full list of 1960s’ new countries)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Oliver W. Sipple

September 30, 1975: Oliver W. Sipple filed a $15-million lawsuit against the press for reporting that he was homosexual. (next LGBTQ, see Oct 22; assassination attempt, see Nov 26)

In 1984 the California Supreme Court dismissed Sipple’s suit, which upheld a lower court’s finding that the sexual orientation of Oliver W. Sipple (the former marine who thwarted an assassination attempt on President Gerald R. Ford) had been known to ”hundreds of people” before the news accounts, but Mr. Sipple’s protest spurred a debate among news organizations about the individual’s right to privacy versus freedom of the press. (next LGBTQ, see November 14, 1985; see Sipple for more)

Roy S. Moore

September 30, 2016: Alabama’s Court of the Judiciary, a nine-member body made up of selected judges, lawyers and others suspended chief justice of the Alabama Supreme Court, Roy S. Moore for the remainder of his term in office for ordering the state’s probate judges to defy federal court orders on same-sex marriage. While the court did not remove Chief Justice Moore from the bench entirely, as it did in 2003 after he defied orders to remove a giant monument of the Ten Commandments from the state judicial building, it effectively ended his career as a Supreme Court justice. His term would end in 2019, and Chief Justice Moore, 69, will be barred by law from running again at that time because of his age.  [NYT article] (see Dec 22)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

The Cold War

September 30, 1978: the Belmont Report, issued on this day, was the official report of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Commission had been established by Congress with the National Research Act on July 12, 1974, following revelations of abuse of people in biomedical research. The most notorious case was the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, which involved grotesque abuses of African-Americans in a research study that began in the 1930s. That experiment was exposed on July 26, 1972, and President Bill Clinton issued an official apology to the survivors on May 16, 1997.

The exposé of the Tuskegee Experiment played a major role in forcing Congress to act on human subjects’ protection. The Belmont Report helped establish the current standards for the protection of human subjects.Universities, for example, are required to maintain an Institutional Review Board (IRB) to review and approve research on human subjects.

Another of the  notorious experiments on human subjects without informed consent involved the CIA’s MKULTRA project, which it began on April 13, 1953. [text] (see Dec 15)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

September 30, 1999: five people died in an accident at the Mihama power plant (Japan) in the Fukui province. Seven people are also injured when hot water and steam leaks from a broken pipe. Officials insist that no radiation leaked from the plant, and there is no danger to the surrounding area. (see December 13, 2001)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

September 30, 2017: the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Florida struck down the Brevard County, Fla., Board of County Commissioners’ exclusion of nontheists from giving pre-meeting invocations. In its ruling, the court said a local governing body cannot limit invocation officiants exclusively to those from monotheistic traditions.

“The great promise of the Establishment Clause is that religion will not operate as an instrument of division in our nation,” the court stated in its concluding section. “Regrettably, religion has become such an instrument in Brevard County. The county defines rights and opportunities of its citizens to participate in the ceremonial pre-meeting invocation during the county board’s regular meetings based on the citizens’ religious beliefs. As explained above, the county’s policy and practice violate the First and 14th Amendments to the United States Constitution and Article I, Sections 2 and 3 of the Florida Constitution.”  [ACLU-Florida article] (see Oct 18)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Student Rights

September 30, 2019:  Gov. Gavin Newsom of California signed into law a plan to allow college athletes to strike endorsement deals, intensifying the legal and political clashes that could ultimately transform the economics of college sports.

The governor’s signature opened a new front of legal pressure against the amateurism model that had been foundational to college sports but had restricted generations of students from earning money while on athletic rosters. [NYT article] (next SR, see Oct 24; NCAA, see Oct 29)

September 30 Peace Love Art Activism
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