July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

Stand Watie

July 12, 1861: Albert Pike, the Confederacy’s special commissioner, completed treaties with the members of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes, giving the new Confederate States of America several allies in Indian Territory. By signing these treaties, the tribes severed their relationships with the federal government, much in the way the southern states did by seceding from the Union. They were accepted into the Confederates States of America, and they sent representatives to the Confederate Congress. The Confederate government promised to protect the Native American’s land holdings and to fulfill the obligations such as annuity payments made by the federal government.

One Cherokee, Stand Watie, rose to the rank of brigadier general.  [American Battlefield site article] (Waite, see, June 23, 1865; NA, see August 4, 1862)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism


Marcus Garvey

July 12, 1919: The Bureau of Investigation (the predecessor to the FBI) requested that its New York office forward all information on Garvey to headquarters in Washington, and instructed its Chicago division to monitor Garvey and other black radicals. (BH, see July 19; MG, see Garvey for expanded story)

Albany Movement

July 12, 1962: Martin Luther King, Jr’s and Ralph Abernathy’s fines were anonymously paid and the two men were reluctantly freed. Years later it was revealed that the fines were paid by Albany Mayor Asa Kelley as a ploy to divide the movement and diffuse media attention on King’s imprisonment. (see Albany for expanded story)

Dee/Moore Murders

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

July 12, 1964: while looking for the bodies of  the three missing civil rights workers [Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney] searchers discover the disarticulated lower torso of Charles Moore in the river south of Tallulah, Louisiana. Moore’s body was identified by the draft card he had in his possession at the time of his death.  (see Dee/Moore for expanded story; see Murders for expanded story)

George Whitmore, Jr

July 12, 1966: Justice Hyman Barshay set bail at $5,000 for George Whitmore, Jr. pending appeal of his conviction in the Elba Borrero case. (see Whitmore for expanded story)

Newark, NJ

July 12 > 18, 1967: Newark, NJ race riot. The six days of rioting, looting, and destruction left 26 dead and hundreds injured. (see July 14)

Barbara Jordan

July 12, 1976: at the Democratic National Convention, Barbara Jordan, the first woman elected to congress from the deep south, became the first woman and first African American to deliver the keynote address, making her “Who Then Will Speak for the Common Good?” speech in New York, New York.

“Now I began this speech by commenting to you on the uniqueness of a Barbara Jordan making a keynote address. Well I am going to close my speech by quoting a Republican President and I ask you that as you listen to these words of Abraham Lincoln, relate them to the concept of a national community in which every last one of us participates:  “As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master.” This — This — “This expresses my idea of Democracy. Whatever differs from this, to the extent of the difference, is no Democracy.” (text of entire speech(BH, see Sept 7; Feminism, see Oct 15)

Trayvon Martin Shooting

July 12, 2013:  the trial closed and went to the jury. (see July 13)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

Cultural Milestone

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

July 12, 1960: the Etch A Sketch toy went on sale, using electrostatic charge and aluminum powder. [toy’s site] (see April 19, 1961)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

July 12 Music et al

Jimmie Nicol

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

July 12, 1964: The Beatles landed in Adelaide, Australia, minus Ringo. Ringo had been in the hospital and a friend of theirs, Jimmie Nicol took his place playing drums.

Over 250,000 people were on the road the band took from the airport to their hotel. It was a 10 mile trip and it was the biggest “welcome” the Beatles ever received.

For Jimmie Nicol, it had to be the trip of a lifetime. But it didn’t last. When Ringo returned, The Beatles threw a party that lasted till 4 am. Jimmie was not invited. In the morning, Brian Epstein drove him to the airport and gave the drummer 500 pounds and a gold watch. He didn’t say goodbye to The Beatles as they were all sleeping when he left. (see July 20)

see 1969 Forest Hills Music Festival for more

Beginning on July 12 and running on Saturdays during July and August, the 1969 Forest Hills Music Festival (Queens, NYC) featured a variety of performers including Janis Joplin, Richie Havens, Blood, Sweat and Tears,  and Johnny Winter.

Zager and Evans

July 12 – August 22, 1969: “In the Year 2525” by Zager and Evans #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

July 12, 1974: the National Research Act, signed into law on this day, created the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Revelations about the abuse of human research subjects, including the notorious Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (exposed by The New York Times on July 26, 1972), led to a movement to provide formal procedures to ensure that people were not subject to research that might endanger them in some way without their informed consent. The Commission led to the Belmont Report (see September 30, 1978) which recommended steps necessary to ensure informed consent. These efforts led to the creation of Institutional Review Board (IRB) at universities and other research institutions to ensure the protection of human subjects. [Centers for Disease Control article] (see February 20, 1976)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism


July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

July 12, 1975: São Tomé and Principe independent of Portugal. (see Sept 16)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism


July 12, 1979:  Disco Demolition Night took place at Comiskey Park in Chicago. A crate filled with disco records was blown up on the field. During the climax of the event, rowdy fans surged onto the field, and a near riot ensued. The event has been characterized as “a mass exercise in racism and homophobia, reminiscent of Nazi book-burnings.” [NPR article] (see October 14, 1979)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

UK riots

July 12, 1981: the “Bradford 12” — a group of Asian youths, members of the “United Black Youth League” —  arrested for manufacturing petrol bombs, allegedly to protect their community from a threatened attack. At the subsequent trial, they were acquitted by a jury, on the grounds of self defense. [Bradford 12 site article] (see July 29)


July 12, 2005: Roderick Jackson, a high school basketball coach, claimed he was fired for complaining that the girls’ basketball team he coached was denied equal treatment by the school. Jackson sued the Birmingham Board of Education in federal court, claiming his firing violated Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. In Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruleD that Title IX, which prohibits discrimination based on sex, also inherently prohibits disciplining someone for complaining about sex-based discrimination. It further held that this is the case even when the person complaining is not among those being discriminated against. [Oyez article] (see June 18, 2005)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Luis Ramirez

July 12, 2008: a group of high school football players beat Luis Ramirez in Shenandoah, Pa. He died shortly after from head injuries. (see Ramirez for expanded story)

Trump’s Wall

July 12, 2017: Trump added a new component to the wall: it had to be see-through. And, for the first time, he proposed a “steel wall with openings.”

“One of the things with the wall is you need transparency. You have to be able to see through it,” Trump told reporters on Air Force One. “So it could be a steel wall with openings, but you have to have openings because you have to see what’s on the other side of the wall.

“When they throw the large sacks of drugs over, and if you have people on the other side of the wall, you don’t see them – they hit you on the head with 60 pounds of stuff? It’s over.”  (IH, see July 14; TW, see January 11, 2018)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

Terry Jones

July 12, 2010: Florida pastor Terry Jones tweeted: “9/11/2010 Int Burn a Koran Day.” He then started an associated “International Burn a Koran Day” Facebook group. (see July 14)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism

Voting Rights

Felon disenfranchisement laws prohibit otherwise eligible citizens from voting because they have been convicted of a felony. Forty-eight states and the District of Columbia disenfranchise people while they are in prison, on probation, or on parole, and eleven states continue to disenfranchise people even after they have completed their sentences.

On July 12, 2012, The Sentencing Project reported that felon disenfranchisement laws significantly restrict participation in the democratic process and, exacerbated by racial disparities in the criminal justice system, significantly reduce the voting power of communities of color. As of December 31, 2010, an estimated 5.85 million Americans were ineligible to vote because of state laws disenfranchising felons. Only about 25 percent of that population was incarcerated in jail or prison; the remaining 75 percent had returned home having successfully completed their sentences or were supervised in their communities by probation or parole. As a result of felon disenfranchisement laws, more than four million Americans live, work, and pay taxes while unable to vote.

Disenfranchisement laws disproportionately restrict communities of color from participating in the political process. One out of every thirteen African Americans of voting age is disenfranchised – more than four times the rate for non-African Americans. In Florida, Kentucky, and Virginia, more than 20 percent of the voting-age African American population is barred from voting. Nationwide, nearly one million African Americans remain disenfranchised despite having served their sentences and returned to their communities.

Despite these staggering numbers, felon disenfranchisement has remained almost immune to judicial challenge because courts have ruled that section two of the Fourteenth Amendment, which permits abridging the right to vote “for participation in rebellion or other crime,” explicitly authorizes barring people with felony convictions from voting. (see June 17, 2013)

July 12 Peace Love Art Activism
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July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism


White Citizens Council

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

July 11, 1954: the White Citizens Council, an American white supremacist organization formed. The group was well known for its opposition to racial integration during the 1950s and 1960s, when it retaliated with economic boycotts and other strong intimidation against black activists, including depriving them of jobs. Unlike the Ku Klux Klan, the WCC met openly and was seen as “pursuing the agenda of the Klan with the demeanor of the Rotary Club.” [PBS article](Aug 23)

Mildred and Richard Loving

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

July 11, 1958: early in the morning, while they were still in bed, the county sheriff and two deputies in the small town of Central Point, Virginia awoke Mildred and Richard Loving. The officers demandedof Richard, “Who is this woman you’re sleeping with?” Mildred answered, “I’m his wife.” Their wedding certificate hung on the wall. Mildred was African-American and Richard was white, and they were arrested and convicted of violating the Virginia miscegenation law, barring interracial marriage. They had married in Washington, DC, where interracial marriage was legal, and then moved back to Virginia. [WGBH article] (BH, see July 19; Loving, see January 6, 1959)

To Kill a Mockingbird

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

July 11, 1960: To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee published. Though the story takes place during the American Great Depression, it’s theme of racial injustice reflected the times it was published. The book is often listed as one of the greatest novels of all time. [NYT obiturary] (BH, see July 31; Harper Lee, see May 1, 1961)

African National Congress

July 11, 1963: police raided a farm in Rivonia, outside Johannesburg, where the African National Congress had set up its headquarters. They find documents outlining the group’s plan for guerrilla warfare. Using the evidence found on the farm, the government charges Mandela and eight co-defendants with sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government. The ensuing trial, which became known as the Rivonia trial, established Mandela’s central role in the struggle against apartheid. [ANC site] (see April 20, 1964)


July 11, 2014: Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Judge John O’Donnell refused to place a gag order on Cuyahoga County Prosecutor Timothy McGinty in the case of an indicted Cleveland police officer Patrolman Michael Brelo who is accused of shooting unarmed suspects Timothy Russell and Malissa Williams.

O’Donnell said that Brelo’s attempt at the gag order “falls short of demonstrating a substantial probability that his right to a fair trial will be prejudiced by McGinty’s public statements.” Brelo was accused of two counts of voluntary manslaughter and has pled not guilty to the charges. [Cleveland dot com article]  (see July 14)

Emmett Till

July 11, 2018: AP announced that the U.S. Department of Justice reopened its investigation into the 1955 death of Emmett Till. A report, sent to Congress in March, said it was reopening the probe after receiving “new information” on the slaying. The case had been closed in 2007.  (see Till for his expanded story)

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

July 11 Music et al

Alley Oop

July 11 – 17, 1960: “Alley Oop” by The Hollywood Argyles #1 Billboard Hot 100.

The [bumpy] Road to Bethel

July 11, 1969:  Acting State Supreme Court Justice Edwin M O’Gorman, after hearing remarks from both sides of the dispute, reserved his decision for an injunction against Woodstock Ventures since no festival application had been applied for (based on the new ordinance of July 2) and therefore no permit given. (see Chronology for expanded story)

see Laurel Pop Festival for more

July 11 – 12, 1969: Laurel Pop Festival (Laurel Race Course, Laurel, MD) From the Baltimore Sun: Lost in the smoky haze of 1960s history is The Laurel Pop Festival held in July 1969, which was attended by 15,000 fans and offered an incredible lineup of some of the biggest pop performers of the year. Held just one month before Woodstock, The Laurel Pop Festival ended in controversy as rain-soaked fans built bonfires with wooden folding chairs and refused to leave as the concert dragged on into the early morning.

July 12

  • Jeff Beck
  • Ten Years After
  • Sly and the Family Stone
  • Mothers of Invention
  • Savoy Brown
  • Guess Who

July 11

  • Al Kooper
  • Jethro Tull
  • Johnny Winter
  • Edwin Hawkins Singers
  • Led Zeppelin
  • Buddy Guy

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism


Operation Popeye

July 11, 1967: the Operation’s operational area was increased northward to around the area of the 20th parallel and included portions of far western North Vietnam. (V, see July 13; see Popeye for expanded story)

Dr. Benjamin Spock et al

July 11, 1969: the First Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the convictions of Dr. Benjamin Spock, Rev. William Sloan Coffin, Michael Ferber and Mitch Goodman for conspiracy to aid and abet resistance to the draft during the Vietnam War  on legal technicalities by . The decision did not address First Amendment issues, and at the trial the defendants had been unable to raise the issue of war crimes by the U.S. in the Vietnam War. [NYT article] (see July 15)

Diplomatic relations

July 11, 1995: two decades after the fall of Saigon, President Bill Clinton established full diplomatic relations with Vietnam, citing Vietnamese cooperation in accounting for the 2,238 Americans still listed as missing in the Vietnam War. (NYT article) (see November 16, 2000)

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

American Indian Movement

July 11, 1968: Dennis Banks founded the  American Indian Movement (AIM) in Minneapolis to protect the city’s Native community from police abuse and to create job training and housing and education programs. [2017 NYT obit]  (see Dec 18)

Longest Walkers

July 11, 2008: the Longest Walkers (2) arrived in Washington, D.C. and walk down Pennsylvania Avenue from the White House to the Capitol. [NLM article] (see November  15, 2008)

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

Crime and Punishment

July 11, 1985: Dethorne Graham brought a civil action in district court against the City of Charlotte and the five individual police officers present on November 12, 1984. In addition to alleging the infliction of constitutionally excessive force by the officers, Graham charged that the city had failed to train its police officers to respond appropriately to a medical emergency. He also alleged the officers’ conduct amounted to discrimination on the basis of handicap in violation of Sec. 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 704. Finally, Graham asserted pendent state claims of assault, false imprisonment and intentional infliction of emotional distress under North Carolina common law. (C & P and Graham, see September 16 – 17, 1986)

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

July 11, 1992: an Alaska appeals court threw out the misdemeanor conviction of Joseph J. Hazelwood of the Exxon Valdez, saying that a Federal statute gave him immunity from prosecution for the worst oil spill in the nation’s history.

The statute, part of the Clean Water Act of 1972, grants immunity to those who report oil spills to the authorities. In the past, it had generally been applied to operators of small vessels that spill oil out at sea that might not be discovered if they did not report it.

But on a 3-to-0 vote, the Alaska Court of Appeals ruled that the provision also applied to the Exxon Valdez skipper, Joseph J. Hazelwood, because he reported his tanker aground 20 minutes after it had hit a reef in Prince William Sound in March 1989. The accident spilled nearly 11 million gallons of oil, causing untold damage to one of the world’s richest marine environments. [NYT article] (see June 13, 1994)

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

Dissolution of Yugoslavia

July 11 – 22, 1995: Bosnian Serbs marched into Srebrenica while UN Dutch peacekeepers leave. More than 8,300 Bosniak men and boys are killed in the Srebrenica massacre. [BBC article] (see Nov 21)

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism & Malala Yousafzai

July 11, 2013: in a speech at the United Nations on her 16th birthday, Malala Yousafzai, who was shot in the head by the Taliban for promoting education for girls in Pakistan, called on world leaders to provide “free, compulsory education” for every child. “Let us pick up our books and our pens,” Ms. Yousafzai told young leaders from 100 countries at the United Nations Youth Assembly in New York. “They are our most powerful weapons. One child, one teacher, one book, and one pen can change the world. Education is the only solution.” (see Sept 16)

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History & Census

July 11, 2019:  President Trump abandoned his attempt to place a question about citizenship on the 2020 census, and instructed the government to compile citizenship data instead from existing federal records.

Trump announced in the Rose Garden that he was giving up on modifying the census two weeks after the Supreme Court rebuked the Trump administration over its effort to do so. Just last week, Mr. Trump had insisted that his administration “must” pursue that goal.

“We are not backing down on our effort to determine the citizenship status of the United States population,” Mr. Trump said. But rather than carry on the fight over the census, he said he was issuing an executive order instructing federal departments and agencies to provide the Census Bureau with citizenship data from their “vast” databases immediately.

Even that order appears merely to accelerate plans the Census Bureau had announced last year, making it less a new policy than a means of covering Mr. Trump’s retreat from the composition of the 2020 census form. [NYT article] (next IH, see July 15; next Census, see )

July 11 Peace Love Art Activism

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July 10 Music et al

July 10 Music et al


July 10, 1960: Sidney Cohen’s survey of 5,000 individuals who had taken LSD 25,000 times concludes it is safe. (see June 1961)

July 10 Music et al

Bobby Lewis

July 10 – August 27, 1961: “Tossin’ and Turnin’” by Bobby Lewis #1 Billboard Hot 100.

July 10 Music et al

A Hard Day’s Night

July 10 Music et al

July 10, 1964: recorded 29 Jan, 25 – 27 Feb, 1 Mar and 1 – 4 June 1964 at EMI Studios, London and Pathé Marconi Studios, Paris, Parlophone released A Hard Day’s Night, the Beatles’ third studio album. Side one contained songs from the soundtrack to their film A Hard Day’s Night. United Artists Records had released the American version  two weeks earlier on 26 June 1964 with a different track listing. This was the first Beatles album recorded entirely on four-track tape, allowing for good stereo mixes.

In contrast to their first two albums, John Lennon and Paul McCartney wrote all 13 tracks, showcasing the development of the band’s songwriting talents. (see July 12)

July 10 Music et al

see Rolling Stones for more

July 10 – August 6, 1965: “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction by the Rolling Stones #1 on the Billboard Hot 100, the first of five #1 Billboard Hot 100 songs in the 1960s.

July 10 Music et al

Beatles VI

July 10 Music et al

July 10 – August 20, 1965: Beatles VI  is the Billboard #1 album. (see July 29)

July 10 Music et al

Third Big Sur Folk Festival

July 10 Music et al

July 10, 1966: The Third Big Sur Folk Festival. (see June 28 – 29, 1967)


  • Joan Baez
  • Judy Collins
  • Mark Spoelstra
  • Malvina Reynolds
  • Nancy Carlen
  • Al Kooper
  • Mimi Fariña
  • Panel Discussion with Ralph Gleason: “What’s Happening Baby
July 10 Music et al

The [bumpy] Road to Bethel: July 10, 1969

  • Peter Goodrich and John Roberts meet in Peter Marshall’s office with Charles Baxter, Jeffrey Joerger, and Lee Howard of Food for Love to discuss providing food at the festival. Because of the lack of any other companies offering their services and the late date, Roberts approved Food for Love’s application. (see July 10)
  • the entire production staff met to go over all progress that had been made since they began. Most were pleased with the many tasks accomplished and plans in place. (see Chronology for expanded story)
July 10 Music et al

Grateful Dead

July 10, 1986: Jerry Garcia went into a five day diabetic coma, resulting in the band withdrawing from their current tour. (LA Times article) (see July 29, 1987)

July 10 Music et al
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