July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

Black History

National Association of Colored Women Clubs

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

July 31, 1896: The National Association of Colored Women Clubs (NACWC) was established in Washington, D.C. by the merger of the National Federation of African-American Women, the Women’s Era Club of Boston, and the National League of Colored Women of Washington, DC, as well as smaller organizations that had arisen from the African-American women’s club movement.

Founders of the NACWC included Harriet Tubman, Margaret Murray Washington, Frances E.W. Harper, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell. Its two leading members were Josephine Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell. Their original intention was “to furnish evidence of the moral, mental and material progress made by people of color through the efforts of our women“. They organized to refute a letter written by James Jacks, the president of the Missouri Press Association, challenging the respectability of African-American women, and referring to them as thieves and prostitutes. (NACWC site) (next BH, see Dec 7; next Wells, see February 12, 1909)

Red Summer

July 31, 1919:  before noon on, angry white mobs had started more than thirty fires in the African American residential area of Chicago. Far from an isolated incident, these instances of arson were part of an extended barrage of violence perpetrated against Chicago’s black community in the summer of 1919 – a season that came to be known as “Red Summer” for the extensive racial violence that erupted in major cities throughout the country during that season. The five days of riots and attacks that upended Chicago are widely considered the worst of the Red Summer race Revolts.

When the riots ended on August 3rd, after intervention by the state militia, five days of gunfire, beatings, and burnings had left 15 whites and 23 African Americans killed, 537 people injured, and 1000 African American families homeless. (PBS article on Red Summer) (BH, see Aug 25; RR, see Oct 1)

Elijah Muhammad

July 31, 1960: Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam, called for an all-black state. Membership in Nation of Islam estimated at 100,000. (see August)

Black & Chased dead

July 31, 1989: a New York State appeals court upheld the manslaughter and assault convictions of Jon Lester, Scott Kern and Jason Ladone in the Howard Beach attack and refused a defense request to reduce the prison sentences imposed on them.

In a unanimous decision, the five-judge panel characterized as ”vicious and wanton” the defendants’ conduct in the December 1986 incident that resulted in the ”senseless” death of one black man and the ”savage beating” of another. Such conduct ”cannot, and will not, be condoned nor trivialized,” it said.

”A message loud and clear must go forth that racial violence by any person or group, whatever their race, will not be tolerated by a just and civilized society, and that, when it does occur, it must be appropriately punished,” the Appellate Division of State Supreme Court in Brooklyn said. The decision was written by Presiding Justice Milton Mollen.

Jason Ladone was released from prison after serving 10 years in April 2000 at age 29 and later became a NYC employee. In May 2001, Jon Lester was released and deported to his native England. Scott Kern was released from prison 2002.  (2000 NYT follow up report) (see  Nov 7)

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism & Voting Rights

July 31, 1913:  after collecting suffrage petitions nationwide, automobile tours convene in Hyattsville, Maryland, and proceed to Washington, D.C. to present petitions to Congress. (see Nov 15)

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism


July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

July 31, 1925: William Jennings Bryan is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. . (1990 NYT Beliefs article on Bryan) (see Scopes for expanded story)

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

July 31, Music et al

Stars of a Summer Night

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

July 31 – August 27, 1961, Stars of a Summer Night by various artists is the Billboard #1 album.

Roots of Rock

July 31, 1966: WOR-FM  [NYC] began running a freeform-based progressive rock format for most of its broadcast day. Management was unable to come to an agreement with  AFTRA (the union that represents on air talent). As a result, the DJ’s did not start until October 8. (see WOR for expanded story)

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

Japanese Internment Camps

July 31, 1980: President Carter signs the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians Act which created a group of people appointed by the U.S. Congress to conduct an official governmental study of Executive Order 9066, related wartime orders and their impact on Japanese Americans in the West and Alaska Natives in the Pribilof Islands. (see Internment for expanded story)

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism


July 31 – August 3, 2000: The Republican National Convention in Philadelphia nominated George W. Bush for President and Dick Cheney for Vice President.

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism


July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

July 31, 2012: in Connecticut, U.S. District Court Judge Vanessa Bryant found the Defense of Marriage Act unconstitutional in Pedersen v. Office of Personnel Management. (LGBTQ, see Sept 4; DOMA, see June 26, 2013 or see or see December 13, 2022 re DoMA)

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

July 31, 2013, Native Americans: as promised, three Native American organizations filed a federal civil rights complaint on behalf of a three-year-old Cherokee child at the heart of a protracted custody battle.

The National Congress of American Indians, National Indian Child Welfare Association and the Native American Rights Fund filed the lawsuit on Veronica Brown’s behalf in South Carolina’s federal district court after the state’s Supreme Court refused to allow a best interest hearing and ordered the lower family court to finalize the child’s adoption by a non-Native couple from James Island, S.C.

As a matter of law, the actions of the state courts of South Carolina have deprived the plaintiff (Veronica) of a meaningful opportunity to be heard on the matter of her current best interests before being transferred from her father to an adoptive couple,” according to the filing.

More than 40 tribes, attorneys general, scholars and organizations signed a letter in support of the lawsuit, including the Inter-tribal Council of the Five Civilized Tribes, of which Veronica and Dusten Brown’s tribe, the Cherokee Nation, is a member. Through a spokeswoman, the council released the following statement Wednesday afternoon: “A severe injustice has been committed to an innocent Cherokee child and her loving family in Oklahoma. The Brown family, including Veronica, deserves their due process. They do not deserve to have their lives forever transformed by the South Carolina judicial system without cause or consideration. Indian children being removed from their families and homes is not a new story in Indian Country. Those dark days have reared their head again sadly in South Carolina. We will stand with Veronica, the Browns, and national tribal organizations fighting for fairness and justice.” (see  Veronica for expanded story)

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism


July 31, 2018: Manhattan, NY District Attorney Cyrus Vance announced a new policy that ended the prosecution of marijuana possession and smoking in the borough, except in cases where the drug was being sold or if it posed a significant threat to public safety.

According to a statement from Vance’s office, it was projected that the policy could reduce marijuana prosecutions by as much as 96 per cent, which would account for a drop from 5,000 cases a year to 200 a year. (next Cannabis, see Aug 2 or see CCc for expanded chronology)

July 31 Peace Love Art Activism

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Black History

New Orleans Massacre

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism

July 30, 1866: Radical Republicans in Louisiana reconvened the Louisiana Constitutional Convention in an attempt to seize control of the state government. The new convention had many black supporters, including 200 Union Army veterans, who had attended speeches by abolitionists and Radical Republicans a few days earlier. The speakers encouraged blacks to march upon the grounds of the Mechanics Institute in New Orleans to show solidarity with the convention.

After recessing at mid-day, convention members leaving the meeting were greeted by black marchers. Across the street from the Mechanics Institute, a group of armed white men gathered to confront both marchers and convention delegates. The white mob, which included many Confederate war veterans, was convinced that the Radical Republicans sought to disenfranchise whites while enfranchising blacks. The mob attacked marchers and Radical Republicans, who were unprepared to fight and were chased into the Mechanics Institute. In the ensuing violence, 35 black marchers and three white Radical Republicans were killed and about 100 black marchers were injured. (Black Past dot org article) (see In September)


July 30, 1964:  COINTELPRO [Counter Intelligence Program] was a secret FBI operation that included illegal actions, such as burglaries and the theft of documents, wiretapping, the forgery of documents, and other efforts to disrupt political targets. Its principal target was the Communist Party, along with some other left-wing groups. Under pressure from President Lyndon Johnson to act on civil rights (mainly because of the murder of three civil rights workers in Mississippi on June 21, 1964), the FBI on this day extended its COINTELPRO program to the Ku Klux.  [NoI article] (see Aug 4)

Clarence Triggs

July 30, 1966: Clarence Triggs, a bricklayer who had attended civil rights meetings sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality, was found dead on a roadside in Bogalusa, La., shot through the head.  (Encyclopedia dot biz article) (see Aug 5)

Milwaukee revolt

July 30, 1967: Milwaukee race revolts lasting through August 2 and leading to a ten-day shutdown of the city. (Journal Sentinel article)(see Aug 1)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism


July 30 Peace Love Art ActivismJuly 30, 1942: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill creating a women’s auxiliary agency in the Navy known as Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service, or WAVES. (Women of WWII site article) (June 26 – 28, 1944)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism


July 30, 1964: South Vietnamese commandos attacked two small North Vietnamese islands in the Gulf of Tonkin. The U.S. destroyer Maddox, an electronic spy ship, was 123 miles south with orders to electronically simulate an air attack to draw North Vietnamese boats away from the commandos. (see Gulf for expanded story) (see Aug 2)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism


July 30 Peace Love Art ActivismJuly 30, 1965: President Johnson signed Medicare into law. The bill-signing ceremony took place at the Truman Library in Independence, Missouri and former President Harry S. Truman was enrolled as Medicare’s first beneficiary and received the first Medicare card. (Medicare site article)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism

July 30 Music et al

Bob Dylan

July 30,1962: “Blowin’ In the Wind” was copyrighted to M Witmark & Sons. Albert Grossman signed a deal the same day with Witmark giving Grossman 50% of of Witmark’s share of the publishing income generated by any songwriter he brought to the company. This agreement gave Grossman an even larger slice of Dylan’s profits besides his management slice. (see Aug 2)

Yesterday and Today

July 30 Peace Love Art ActivismJuly 30 – Sept 2, 1966: Yesterday and Today the Billboard #1 album.

Road to Bethel

July 30, 1969: Max Yasgur gave permission to Woodstock Ventures to drill on festival site for water.

Lang, Kornfeld, Roberts, and Rosenman met to discuss how to publicize the festival’s new location.  Arnold Skolnick drawing. (see Chronology for expanded story)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism

United Farm Workers

Lettuce strike

July 30 1970: Lettuce pickers strike begins, conflict with Teamsters begins as Teamsters sign sweetheart contracts with growers. (Harvard Crimson article) (see August 26, 1970)

Gallo boycott

July 30, 1973: Gallo boycott and strike (September 1973 NYT article) (see August 14, 1973)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism


July 30, 1974: Nixon released subpoenaed White House recordings–suspected to prove his guilt in the Watergate cover-up–to special prosecutor Leon Jaworski.

The same day, the House Judiciary Committee voted a third article of impeachment against the president: contempt of Congress in hindering the impeachment process. The previous two impeachment articles voted against Nixon by the committee were obstruction of justice and abuse of presidential powers. (see Watergate for expanded story)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Independence Day

July 30, 1980: Vanuatu independent of the United Kingdom. (see September 21, 1981)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism

Clinton Impeachment

July 30, 1998: sources say that as part of her immunity agreement, Lewinsky has handed over to prosecutors a dark blue dress that she alleges may contain physical evidence of a sexual relationship with President Bill Clinton. The dress is turned over to the FBI lab for testing. (see Clinton for expanded story)

Terry Jones

July 30, 2010, Terry Jones: The National Association of Evangelicals, one of the largest collections of such churches, denounced Jones’s planned Koran burning event and urged Jones to call it off. (see Aug 26)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism


July 30, 2020: after about nine years of preparation and planning,  the United States Olympic & Paralympic Museum (USOPM) in Colorado Springs opened. It is a  60,000-square-foot museum—the first ever to highlight both Olympic and Paralympic athletes in the United States.

“We’re one of the few major countries that participates in the Olympics and Paralympics that didn’t have a national museum honoring its Olympic and Paralympic athletes,” said Chris Liedel, CEO of the museum. “The ethos was really about the ability to celebrate those athletes. Sports speaks every language, and it has the ability to unite people in a very powerful way.”

The museum tells the story of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 12 galleries—one rotating gallery and the remainder permanent.

In the build up to its opening, the USOPM has been praised in Architectural Digest for being design-forward” and quite possibly “the most accessible museum in the world.”   (next ADA, see December 27, 2021)

July 30 Peace Love Art Activism

July 29 Music et al

July 29 Music et al

Suze Rotolos

July 29 Music et al

July 29, 1961: after seeing him play at a folk musc day at the Riverside Church. Suze Rotolos became an enthusiastic fan. The Rotolos family lived above the Cafe Society Downtown, a little theatre in Greenwich Village. She lived with her mother, Mary, a widow, and her sister Carla, Above the Rotolos, on the fourth floor, lived Miki Isaacson, whose living room was a permanent crash pad for folk singers, including Dylan, who was pleased to be staying near Suze. The two soon became an item.

                At about the time she met Dylan, Rotolo began working full time as a political activist in the office of the Congress of Racial Equality and the anti-nuclear group SANE. It was not until they met that Dylan’s writing began to address issues such as the civil rights movement and the threat of nuclear war.

                Unfortunately the love affair was doomed. Their breakup in 1964 yielded some of his greatest early love songs – Tomorrow Is A Long Time, Don’t Think Twice, It’s All Right and subsequent family squabbles with the Rotolos were documented in Ballad In Plain D, on Another Side Of Bob Dylan. (see Sept 14)

July 29 Music et al

July 29 Music et al

July 29, 1965: The Beatles’ second film Help! had its royal première at the London Pavilion, Piccadilly Circus, London. Ten thousand fans gathered outside to see the group arrive in a black Rolls-Royce. Inside the Pavilion they met Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon, who had delayed their summer holiday for the event. (see Aug 6)

July 29 Music et al
Dylan’s motorcycle accident

July 29, 1966: Dylan was involved in a motorcycle accident. The seriousness of the accident is still unknown. Dylan’s biographers have written that the crash offered him the much-needed chance to escape from the pressures that had built up around him. Dylan confirmed this interpretation of the crash when he stated in his autobiography, “I had been in a motorcycle accident and I’d been hurt, but I recovered. Truth was that I wanted to get out of the rat race.” In the wake of his accident, Dylan withdrew from the public and, apart from a few select appearances, did not tour again for almost eight years.

Dylan stayed at the house of Dr Ed Thaler in Middletown, NY for 6 weeks following the accident as insurance for even more isolation. (2016 Toronto Star article) (see February – December 1967)

July 29 Music et al

Beatles v Jesus

July 29, 1966: John Lennon’s March 4 interview with Maureen Cleave in which he says “We’re more popular than Jesus” appeared in American teen magazine, “Datebook.” Within days of publication, anti-Beatle sentiment builds up and American disc jockeys in the southern States encourages the destruction of Beatle records and memorabilia at bonfire rallies. Also enforced was a radio ban on Beatle records that was started by a Birmingham, Alabama D.J. The ban picked up momentum by other radio stations in the southern Bible belt. By August 6, thirty US radio stations have banned all Beatles records from airplay.

World reaction to John’s remarks:

  • South Africa: Piet Myer of the South African Broadcasting Corporation temporarily banned Beatles records from being played and noted that “The Beatles arrogance has passed the ultimate limit of decency. It is clowning no longer.”
  • Spain: three radio stations immediately bans the airing Beatle records.
  • Holland: one radio station banned the airing of Beatle records. (Beatles, see July 3- – Sept 2; see Lennon for expanded story )
July 29 Music et al

Light My Fire

July 29 – August 18, 1967: “Light My Fire” by the Doors #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

July 29 Music et al

The Road to Bethel

July 29, 1969: Woodstock Ventures served with papers to appear in court regarding impact of festival on local summer youth camps and local homeowners. An out-of-court settlement agreed to with camps. Judge George Cobb stated that he’d hand down his decision on August 14—the day before the festival was to begin.

The abandoned Diamond Horseshoe hotel ready for workers to move in.  (see Chronology for expanded story)

July 29 Music et al
Cherry Garcia

July 29, 1987: Ben and Jerry’s Ice Cream introduced their signature flavor, and first celebrity-themed flavor, “Cherry Garcia.” (Ben & Jerry story) (GD, see August 9, 1995; CM, see December 17, 1989)

July 29 Music et al