April 2 Peace Love Activism

April 2 Peace Love Activism

April 2 Peace Love Activism

Women’s Health

Woman Rebel

 April 2 Peace Love Activism,

April 2, 1914: the Post Office on this day declared “unmailable” the first issue of birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger’s new monthly newsletter, Woman Rebel. In August, she was indicted on three counts of violating the Comstock Act and one count of inciting “murder and assassination.” Sanger promoted contraception using the slogan, “No Gods, No Masters,” and the Comstock Act (see March 3, 1873, for its passage) defined birth control information as obscene and prohibited from being sent through the mails. At her trial, Sanger rejected the advice of her attorney to negotiate a plea bargain and instead secretly fled to Canada and then England. Sanger remained in England until October 1915. (see Aug 25)


Voting Rights
April 2, 1917: Federal woman suffrage amendment reintroduced in House of Representatives. (see June 20)
Adkins v Children’s Hospital
April 2, 1923: in Adkins v. Children's Hospital, the Supreme Court ruled that a minimum wage law enacting in 1918 in Washington, DC, for women violated the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment because it abridged a citizen's right to freely contract labor. In 1918, the District of Columbia passed a law setting a minimum wage for women and children laborers. It set up a board to investigate current wages, solicit input on ideal wage levels, and ultimately set minimum wages. The law was designed to protect women and children "from conditions detrimental to their health and morals, resulting from wages which are inadequate to maintain decent standards of living." The board eventually set minimum wages for various industries, e.g., a minimum $16.50 per week "in a place where food is served" and $15 per week "in a laundry." (Feminism, see Nov 17; US Labor, see March 8, 1924)
US Labor History

 April 2 Peace Love Activism,

April 2, 1995: major league baseball players ended a 232-day strike. (see May 29, 1996)

April 2 Music et al

see Beatnik for much more

April 2, 1958: Herb Caen coined the term "beatnik" in the San Francisco chronicle. It became a term used to refer to people who were far off from mainstream society and therefore possibly pro-Communist. (see February 4, 1968)
Ken Kesey
April 2, 1965: Ken Kesey busted for marijuana first time. (see April 21)
2001: A Space Odyssey

 April 2 Peace Love Activism

April 2, 1968: t "2001: A Space Odyssey" had its world premiere in Washington, D.C. (see Apr 28)


Greensboro Four
April 2, 1960: both the F.W. Woolworth and Kress stores officially closed their lunch counters. (see April 3)
Virgina NAACP
April 2, 1963: on September 29, 1956, the state of Virginia passed five laws directed at the NAACP and other civil rights laws organizations. The laws regulated the practices of “barratry,” “champerty,” and “maintenance.” Barratry is the term for “stirring up” litigation by inducing individuals or organizations to sue when they otherwise would not have. In NAACP v. Button, decided this day, the Supreme Court declared the barratry law an unconstitutional violation of the First Amendment. (see Apr 3)
Viola Liuzzo
April 2, 1983: final arguments in the $2 million negligence suit against the FBI were made in Federal court by lawyers for the children of Viola Liuzzo, whose murder by Klansmen 18 years ago they attributed to a paid F.B.I. informer, Gary Rowe. (BH, see Apr 19; Selma, see June 2)
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act
April 2, 2004: The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act is reintroduced. It failed to advance in committee. (see May 26, 2005)

April 2, 2009:  Rep. John Conyers for a fifth time introduces the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act which has the support of President Obama. (Shepard, see October 28, 2009; LGBTQ see April 3)
Robert C. Bates
April 2, 2005:  Robert C. Bates, 73, a part-time reserve deputy with the Tulsa County Sheriff’s Department intended to subdue a suspect, Eric C. Harris, 44, with a Taser, which fires electric darts to incapacitate a suspect, but instead shot and killed him with his handgun. Before he was killed, Mr. Harris was fleeing on foot from deputies who had tried to arrest him, as part of an undercover operation buying illegal guns. Mr. Bates was one of several officers who took part in the chase. (see Apr 13)

April 2 Peace Love Activism


My Lai Massacre

 April 2 Peace Love Activism

April 2, 1969: a soldier named Ron Ridenhour, who had been gathering information on his own regarding the My Lai incident, wrote a letter presenting the evidence and send his letter to 30 prominent men in Washington, D.C., including President Nixon, antiwar Congressman Mo Udall, Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird, and Senators Edward Kennedy, Barry Goldwater, Eugene McCarthy, and William Fulbright. Mo Udall's office was the first to respond directly to Ridenhour, calling for an official investigation. A week later, Ridenhour's letter was forwarded to the Army's Chief of Staff, General William C. Westmoreland. (My Lai, see April 23; Vietnam, see April 6)
Anti-Vietnam War bill
April 2, 1970, Vietnam: Massachusetts  Governor Francis W. Sargent signed into law an anti-Vietnam War bill providing that no inhabitant of Massachusetts inducted into or serving in the armed forces "shall be required to serve" abroad in an armed hostility that had not been declared a war by Congress under Article I, Section 8, clause 11 of the United States Constitution.

                Supporters of the legislation hoped that the US Supreme Court would seize on the obvious conflict that the bill created between state and federal law and would rule on the constitutionality of the Vietnam War itself, but the Court refused to exercise original jurisdiction, forcing the case into the lower federal courts.
North Vietnam advances

 April 2 Peace Love Activism

April 2, 1975: as North Vietnamese tanks and infantry continue to push the remnants of South Vietnam’s 22nd Division and waves of civilian refugees from the Quang Ngai Province, the South Vietnamese Navy began to evacuate soldiers and civilians by sea from Qui Nhon. Shortly thereafter, the South Vietnamese abandoned Tuy Hoa and Nha Trang, leaving the North Vietnamese in control of more than half of South Vietnam’s territory. (see Apr 4)

Falklands War

 April 2 Peace Love Activism

April 2, 1982, Argentine forces invaded Falkland Islands, entered the capital Port Stanley, and forced Governor Rex Hunt to surrender. (see April 2)

Environmental Issues

Carbon dioxide
April 2, 2007: the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are air pollutants under the Clean Air Act. (see March 29, 2013)

Nuclear/Chemical News


 April 2 Peace Love Activism

April 2, 2015: officials announced that Iran and six world powers had agreed to a framework for a final deal on Iran's controversial nuclear program. The understanding paved the way for the start of a final phase of talks that aimed to reach a comprehensive agreement by the end of June. The agreement concludeds weeks of intense negotiations and cane two days beyond the initial March 31 deadline for an outline deal.

                "We have reached solutions on key parameters on a joint comprehensive plan of action," EU foreign affairs chief Federica Mogherini said at a joint press conference with Iran's Foreign Minister Javad Zarif in Lausanne, Switzerland. Reading a statement on behalf of negotiators, Mogherini specified that Europe would end all nuclear-related economic and financial sanctions on Iran under the future deal. The United States would end similar sanctions upon verification of the agreement by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Iran would retain only one enrichment facility, Natanz, while the Fordo fortified site will be converted into a scientific center, according to the statement. (Nuclear, see May 8; Iran, see July 14)

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