June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

June 26, 1894: the American Railway Union, led by Eugene Debs, called a general strike in sympathy with Pullman workers. (see June 28)

Feminism

Republicans endorse ERA

June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26 - 28, 1944: at its convention, the Republican Party endorsed the Equal Rights Amendment. (see Feminism  July 19 – 21, 1944)
United States v. Virginia
June 26, 1996: the Supreme Court ruled that the all-male Virginia Military School had to admit women in order to continue to receive public funding. It held that creating a separate, all-female school would not suffice. (see Aug 29)

Cold War

Berlin airlift
June 26, 1948: US General Lucius Clay gave the order for the Berlin Airlift (only afterwards receiving authorization from President Truman). This act of defiance against the Soviets was an incredible feat of logistics (at one point cargo planes landed at Tempelhof every four minutes, twenty four hours a day), a defining moment of the Cold War, and a demonstration of American support for the citizens of Berlin. (Red Scare, see July 2, 1948; Berlin Airlift, see May 12, 1949)
Congress for Cultural Freedom
June 26, 1950: The Congress for Cultural Freedom was a liberal anti-Communist group that was secretly funded by the CIA. The Congress was designed to offset the impact of international conferences and events sponsored by the Soviet Union. While some leaders of the Congress were “witting” (the term then used for those knowledgeable about the secret practices), many people who participated in its events were not, and were embarrassed when the secret role of the CIA was exposed in the 1960s. (Red Scare, etc, see June 29; CCF, see February 15, 1967)
Cole v. Young
June 26, 1956: Senators Joe McCarthy and James O. Eastland of Mississippi attacked the Supreme Court (“One pro-Communist decision after another”) for a series of pro-civil liberties decisions.  Specifically, they were incensed by the Court’s decision in Cole v. Young just two weeks earlier, on June 11, 1956. (see July 23)
Ich bin ein Berliner
June 26, 1963: President Kennedy spoke in Berlin, West Germany. He reaffirmed American solidarity declaring, "Ich bin ein Berliner" (see Aug 30)

BLACK HISTORY

School Desegregation
June 26, 1959: Prince Edward County closed its schools to avoid the desegregation ordered by the Virginia Supreme Court. Five years later (see May 25, 1964), the U.S. Supreme Court ordered the public school system reopened. (BH, see Aug 16: SD, see January 11, 1960)
Medgar Evers murder trial
June 26, 1963: the federal government dropped its civil rights charges against De La Beckwith in view of Mississippi’s plans to prosecute him for the murder of Medgar Evers. (BH, see “in July”; Evers, see July 2)
James Meredith

June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26, 1966: Meredith, along with nearly 15,000 marchers, ended the civil rights march in Jackson, MS. (see January, 1967).
James C. Anderson murdered

June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26, 2011: Anderson was standing near his car at a Jackson, Mississippi  motel about 5 a.m. Two carloads of teenagers pulled off the Interstate and into the motel parking lot. Several jumped from the vehicles and beat Mr. Anderson. A white sport utility vehicle drove away. As Mr. Anderson stumbled along the edge of the parking lot, the police said, the driver of a green Ford F250 pickup truck, Deryl Dedmon, accelerated and drove over him. Mr. Anderson was pronounced dead at a local hospital. (see Aug 7)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26, 1960:  Madagasar independent from France. (see June 30)

June 26 Music et al

Quarter to Three
June 26 – July 9, 1961, “Quarter to Three” by Gary U.S. Bonds #1 Billboard Hot 100.
 
A Hard Day’s Night
June 26, 1964: US release of A Hard Day’s Night album by United Artists Records in both mono and stereo, the fourth Beatles album in the US. The album went to number one on the Billboard album chart, spending 14 weeks there, the longest run of any album that year.

All seven songs from the film were featured along with "I'll Cry Instead", which, although written for the film, was cut at the last minute. The American version also included four easy listening-styled instrumental versions of Lennon and McCartney songs arranged by George Martin conducting an orchestra of studio musicians: "I Should Have Known Better," "And I Love Her," "Ringo's Theme," and "A Hard Day's Night." (see June 27 – July 3)
 
Mr. Tambourine Man
June 26 – July 2, 1965:  “Mr. Tambourine Man” by the Byrds #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. Helped introduce many to Bob Dylan. (see July 25)
 
The [bumpy] Road to Bethel on June  26, 1969
Woodstock Ventures held a media meeting at the Village Gate on Bleeker Street to cooperatively present, discuss, and formulate “ground rules for outdoor peace and music programs.” In the end it was agreed that the festival was to emphasize music and not politics. (see last week of June)

On that same day the Wallkill town attorney  presented Woodstock Ventures with a document outlining proposed ordinances regarding  assemblies of 5,000 people or more. Such proposals such as not light, sound, or odor seepage beyond the festival’s specific boundaries created seemingly insurmountable barriers to the event. Wallkill expected Woodstock Ventures to present the  application for the event covering all the details no later than July 2. (see June 27)

Vietnam

June 26, 1965: Gen. William Westmoreland, senior U.S. military commander in Vietnam, was given formal authority to commit American troops to battle when he decided they were necessary "to strengthen the relative position of the GVN [Government of Vietnam] forces." This authorization permitted Westmoreland to put his forces on the offensive. Heretofore, U.S. combat forces had been restricted to protecting U.S. airbases and other facilities. (see June 28)
June 26 Peace Love Activism

FREE SPEECH

June 26, 1972: Rosenfeld v New Jersey. At a school board meeting, David Rosenfeld  was arrested for calling  teachers, the school board, and others “motherfuckers.” The Supreme Court overruled the conviction. (see March 19, 1973)

Watergate scandal 

June 26, 1973: former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an "enemies list" kept by the Nixon White House. (see June 27)
 

Technological Milestone

June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26, 1974: the supermarket price scanner made its debut in Troy, Ohio, as a 10-pack of Wrigley's Juicy Fruit chewing gum costing 67 cents and bearing a Uniform Product Code (UPC) was scanned by Marsh Supermarket cashier Sharon Buchanan for customer Clyde Dawson. (The barcoded package of never-chewed gum is on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.) (see January 21, 1976)

ADA

June 26, 1975: in O’Connor v. Donaldson the Supreme Court ruled that a state cannot confine a mentally ill person who is not a danger to the community and who can survive in the community by themself or with the assistance of others. Kenneth Donaldson had been held for 15 years in a Florida State institution for the mentally ill. He was confined with dangerously mentally ill persons in an understaffed ward that had only one doctor (an obstetrician) for about 1,000 inmates.

The Court: “May the State fence in the harmless mentally ill solely to save its citizens from exposure to those whose ways are different? One might as well ask if the State, to avoid public unease, could incarcerate all who are physically unattractive or socially eccentric. Mere public intolerance or animosity cannot constitutionally justify the deprivation of a person’s physical liberty.” (see April 5, 1977)

Native Americans

Leonard Peltier

June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26, 1975: Special Agents Jack R. Coler and Ronald A. Williams, two FBI agents, entered Jumping Bull Ranch where a large number of AIM supporters, invited there for protection by the Jumping Bull elders, camp. A shootout ensued and the two agents were killed.

One of the AIM defenders, Leonard Peltier, was later captured in Canada, extradited and convicted for murder by an all-white jury. Activists continue to campaign for his exoneration and release while Peltier serves two consecutive life terms in federal prison. (Peltier, see June 24, 1987)
NAPT
In 1976, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting establishes Native American Public Telecommunications, Inc.  to promote, produce and distribute Native American television and radio programming.
 International Treaty Conference
In 1977 the American Indian Movement sponsored talks resulting in the International Treaty Conference with the U.N. in Geneva, Switzerland.
Indigenous People’s Day

June 26 Peace Love Activism

In 1977, the idea for an Indigenous People's Day (also known as Native American Day as a counter-celebration to Columbus Day began. The purpose of the day was to promote Native American culture and commemorate the history of Native American peoples. 

Indigenous People's Day is usually held on the second Monday of October, coinciding with federal observance of Columbus Day. 
Congressional intervention
During 1977 - 1978 Congress passed approximately 50 laws that helped redefine tribal issues regarding water rights, fishing rights and land acquisition. Some land was returned to the tribes, and issues of self-governance were further clarified. (see Native Americans, Feb 11 to July 1978)

LGBTQ

Anita Bryant protest

June 26 Peace Love Activism

June 26, 1977: some 200,000 protesters march through the streets of San Francisco, protesting Anita Bryant's anti-gay remarks and the murder of Robert Hillsborough. (see Oct 14)
Lawrence v. Texas
June 26, 2003:  the US Supreme Court, in a 6–3 ruling struck down the sodomy law in Texas and, by extension, invalidated sodomy laws in thirteen other states, making same-sex sexual activity legal in every U.S. state and territory. The Court overturned its previous ruling on the same issue in the 1986 case Bowers v. Hardwick, where it upheld a challenged Georgia statute and did not find a constitutional protection of sexual privacy. (see Aug 5)
Obergefell et al v Hodges, Director, Ohio Department of Health, et al
June 26, 2015:  the US Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution guarantees a nationwide right to same-sex marriage. Justice Anthony M. Kennedy wrote the majority opinion in the 5 to 4 decision. He was joined by the court’s four more liberal justices.

Justice Kennedy said gay and lesbian couples have a fundamental right to marry.

No union is more profound than marriage, for it embodies the highest ideals of love, fidelity, devotion, sacrifice, and family,” he wrote. “In forming a marital union, two people become something greater than once they were.”

It would misunderstand these men and women to say they disrespect the idea of marriage,” Justice Kennedy said of the couples challenging state bans on same-sex marriage. “Their plea is that they do respect it, respect it so deeply that they seek to find its fulfillment for themselves. Their hope is not to be condemned to live in loneliness, excluded from one of civilization’s oldest institutions. They ask for equal dignity in the eyes of the law. The Constitution grants them that right.”
Most States immediately comply
June 26, 2015: in Georgia, Gov. Nathan Deal (R) said the state "is subject to the laws of the United States" and a judge at a county court in Atlanta began performing the state's first gay marriages.

Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder (R) urged compliance with the ruling, asking the state to "treat everyone with the respect and dignity they deserve."

Alabama's attorney general, Luther Strange (R), issued a statement acknowledging that "the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling is now the law of the land" and pledged to enforce the ruling, though some counties in the state had stopped issuing all marriage licenses in an effort to avoid allowing gay marriages. (see June 28)

DEATH PENALTY

Ford v. Wainwright
June 26, 1986: the U.S. Supreme Court held in a 5-4 vote that the execution of an insane prisoner was an unconstitutional violation of the Eighth Amendment prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment.. (see Nov 4, 1986)
Penry v. Lynaugh
June 26, 1989: the Supreme court held that executing mentally retarded persons did not violate the Eighth Amendment. (DP, see September 13, 1994; 8th, see March 1, 2005)

IRAQ

June 26, 1993: President Clinton ordered a cruise missile attack on Iraqi intelligence headquarters in the Al-Mansur District of Baghdad, in response to an Iraqi plot to assassinate former. President George H. W. Bush during his visit to Kuwait in mid-April. (October 8, 1994)

Jack Kevorkian

“suicide clinic”
June 26, 1995: opened a "suicide clinic" in an office in Springfield Township, Michigan. Erika Garcellano, a 60-year-old Kansas City, Missouri, woman with ALS, is the first client. A few days later, the building's owner kicks out Kevorkian. (see Sept 14)
Washington v. Glucksberg
June 26, 1997:   the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously that state governments have the right to outlaw doctor-assisted suicide. The Court had been asked to decide whether state laws banning the practice in New York and Washington were unconstitutional. (see Oct 27)

Student Rights

Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton, 515 U.S. 646
June 26, 1995:  the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of random drug testing regimen implemented by the local public schools in Vernonia, Oregon. Under that regimen, student athletes were required to submit to random drug testing before being allowed to participate in sports. During the season, 10% of all athletes were selected at random for testing. The Supreme Court held that although the tests were searches under the Fourth Amendment, they were reasonable in light of the schools' interest in preventing teenage drug use. (see June 10, 1996; 4th, see June 27, 2002)

Crime and Punishment

June 26, 2015: the US Supreme court decided 8 – 1 in the Johnson v. United States case that a section of the Armed Career Criminal Act, which is used to extend prison sentences, was "unconstitutionally vague." The ruling may compel Congress to address the language of the law as thousands of prisoners would seek to have their sentences reduced.

Conservative Justice Antonin Scalia wrote the majority opinion for the court and ruled that the residual clause of the ACCA was a violation of due process: “Nine years’ experience trying to derive meaning from the residual clause convinces us that we have embarked upon a failed enterprise. Each of the uncertainties in the residual clause may be tolerable in isolation, but “their sum makes a task for us which at best could be only guesswork.” United States v. Evans [(1948). Invoking so shapeless a provision to condemn someone to prison for 15 years to life does not comport with the Constitution’s guarantee of due process.” (see Oct 6)

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