March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1 Peace Love Activism

DEATH PENALTY

Feminism

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1692: in Salem Village in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne, and Tituba, an Indian slave from Barbados, were charged with the illegal practice of witchcraft. Later that day, Tituba, possibly under coercion, confessed to the crime, encouraging the authorities to seek out more Salem witches. (see June 10)
Roper v. Simmons
March 1, 2005: in Roper v. Simmons the Supreme Court overruled its 1989 Stanford v. Kentucky decision which allowed the execution of persons who were age 16 or 17 at the time they committed their crimes. In Roperthe Court held that the execution of a person under the age of 18 was disproportionate punishment under the Eighth Amendment and, therefore, was cruel and unusual punishment. (DP, see January 17, 2006; 8th , see May 17, 2010)

BLACK HISTORY

Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery
March 1, 1780: Pennsylvania enacted the Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery. It  guaranteed freedom to non-residents’ slaves  after living in Pennsylvania for six months. (see August 7, 1789)
Follow the Drinking Gourd

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1790: the first U.S. Census count included slaves (though each counted only three-fifths) and free African-Americans, but Indians were not included.  During American slavery, songs were an important part of slave culture. One of the best known (though not published until the 1920s) was “Follow the Drinking Gourd.” The song provides coded directions for slaves to escape north. Many artists have covered the song.

The Civil Rights Act of 1875

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1875: The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (sometimes called Enforcement Act or Force Act) enacted.  It declared: all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude. (BH, see Mar 23; CRA, see October 15, 1883)
Alabama State College
March 1, 1960: over 1000 people marched from the Alabama State College campus to the state capital and back. After this march, the president of the university expelled 9 students identified as leaders and suspended 20 other students, under pressure from the governor’s office. As a result of this, students at the college voted to boycott classes and exams. (BH, see Mar 7; ASC, see Mar 2)
Malcolm X & Muhammad Ali

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1964: Cassius Clay met with Malcolm X in NYC. (see Mar 3)

March 1, 2003: after just three hours of deliberations and a three-day trial, a jury of nine whites and three blacks found Ernest Avants, 72, a former Klansman guilty of murdering Ben Chesster White  as part of a beer-inspired plot to draw Dr. King down to them. Avants will die in prison on June 16, 2004. (see Mar 26)

Emma Goldman &  Birth Control

March 1, 1916: Goldman spoke at a birth control mass meeting held at Carnegie Hall in New York City. Other speakers include Margaret Sanger, Leonard Abbott, Gilbert E. Roe, Theodore Schroeder, Bolton Hall, John Reed, Anna Strunsky Walling, Dr. William J. Robinson and Dr. A. L. Goldwater. (Anarchism, see April 20, 1916; Birth Control, see October 16, 1916)
Family planning services
March 1, 1966,: in a Special Message to Congress on Domestic Health and Education, President Lyndon Johnson called for federal support for family planning services. The first federal support for family planning occurred on November 2, 1965, as part of Johnson’s Great Society program, and the War on Poverty in particular. Federal support became institutionalized in 1970 with the Family Planning Services Act, which President Richard Nixon signed into law on December 26, 1970. In the late 1960s and 1960s, most Republican Party leaders supported both birth control and federal aid for family planning services. That changed in the late 1970s when social conservatives captured control of the GOP and advanced and anti-abortion, anti-birth control, and anti-feminist agenda.

The fight for the legal availability of birth control and family planning services was a long one. On October 16, 1916 Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in America. She was arrested a week later for violating New York state law, and eventually served a month in jail. A major breakthrough was the Supreme Court’s decision in Griswold v. Connecticut on June 7, 1965, which struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting birth control services and which established a constitutional right of privacy. (see Sept 6)

US Labor History

U.S. Steel
March 1, 1937: CIO president John L. Lewis and U.S. Steel President Myron Taylor sign a landmark contract in which the bitterly anti-union company officially recognized the CIO as sole negotiator for the company's unionized workers. Included: the adoption of overtime pay, the 40-hour work week, and a big pay hike (see Mar 18)
Cold War & Nuclear/Chemical Weapons

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1950: German-British atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs was sentenced to 14 years in prison by a UK court for passing British and American nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union. (RS, see Mar 8; NN, see June 17)
Peace Corps

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1961: President Kennedy issued Executive Order #10924, establishing the Peace Corps as a new agency within the Department of State. The same day, he sent a message to Congress asking for permanent funding for the agency, which would send trained American men and women to foreign nations to assist in development efforts. The Peace Corps captured the imagination of the U.S. public, and during the week after its creation thousands of letters poured into Washington from young Americans hoping to volunteer. (see “Background to Bay of Pigs Invasion” after April 17)

TERRORISM

Puerto Rican nationalists
March 1, 1954: Puerto Rican nationalists opened fire from the gallery of the U.S. House of Representatives, wounding five congressmen. (see February 16, 1965)
Khalid Shaikh Mohammed

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 2003,: suspected Sept. 11 mastermind Khalid Shaikh Mohammed was captured by CIA and Pakistani agents near Islamabad. (see Nov 25)

Vietnam

3,500 U.S. Marines
March 1, 1965: US Ambassador Maxwell Taylor informed South Vietnamese Premier Phan Huy Quat that the United States was preparing to send 3,500 U.S. Marines to Vietnam to protect the U.S. airbase at Da Nang.  (see Mar 2)
Oh! What a Lovely War

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1969: the British black comedy film Oh! What a Lovely War released in Britain. While ostensibly a story about World War I, it paralleled and reflected many of the sentiments people felt toward the Vietnam conflict. (see March 18)
Weather Underground

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1971: the Weather Underground bombed the US Capitol building claiming it to be in protest of US involvement in Laos. The bomb exploded in a Capitol restroom 30 minutes after a telephone warning. Some $200,000 in damage was caused with no injuries. (see March 23)
March 1 Peace Love Activism
Religion and Public Education
March 1, 1984: the Hicksville, New York, Junior High School on this day announced that it was dropping its mandatory 30 second meditation or prayer period for students. The school’s written policy called for “silent prayer or meditation according to the beliefs or desires of individual students.”

                The Nassau County chapter of the ACLU had threatened to sue on behalf of several parents who complained that the policy created an establishment of religion in violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

                The Supreme Court declared an Alabama “moment of silence” unconstitutional as a violation of the Establishment Clause in Wallace v. Jaffree on June 4, 1985. (Religion, see Aug 11; Separation, see Mar 5)
Dissolution of Yugoslavia & INDEPENDENCE DAY

March 1 Peace Love Activism

March 1, 1992: Bosnia Y Herzegovina independent from Yugoslavia. (DY, see April 28; ID, see July 17)

LGBTQ

March 1, 2012: Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley signed the freedom to marry into law after it passed out of the state Senate and House. Almost immediately after its passage, anti-gay activists begin collecting signatures to place a measure on the November ballot that would overturn the freedom to marry.  (see March 21)

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