July 15 Peace Love Activism

July 15 Peace Love Activism

Religion and Public Education

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
July 15, 1925: Judge Raulston overruled the defense's motion to have the Butler law declared unconstitutional. Raulston says in his ruling that the law "gives no preference to any particular religion or mode of worship. Our public schools are not maintained as places of worship, but, on the contrary, were designed, instituted, and are maintained for the purpose of mental and moral development and discipline."

In an afternoon session that day, a not guilty plea is entered on Scopes' behalf. Each side presents its opening statements. The prosecution questioned the superintendent of schools and two of Scopes' students, who testify that Scopes taught his class about evolution. The defense questioned zoologist Maynard Metcalf, who testified that evolution was a widely embraced theory in the scientific community. (see July 17)

BLACK HISTORY

Lynch law for blacks only
July 15, 1930: Senator Coleman L Blease advocated a lynch law for Blacks (only) who were guilty (more often not) of assaulting white women. “Whenever the Constitution comes between me and the virtue of the white women of South Carolina, I say ‘To hell with the Constitution.’ “ "Assaulting" could have a much broader interpretation and might simply mean "speaking to a white woman." (see Aug 7)
Croppers’ and Farm Workers Union
July 15, 1931: after leading fierce battles on behalf of sharecroppers and tenant farmers in Alabama, Ralph Gray, a leader of the Croppers' and Farm Workers Union in Tallapoosa County, was brutally murdered July 15, 1931, by a heavily armed white mob, organized by the county's sheriff. (Labor, see March 7, 1932; BH, see June 3, 1933) 
see  Scottsboro travesty for more
July 15 1937: Clarence Norris convicted of rape and sentenced to death. (see July 22)
Birmingham, Alabama
July 15, 1963: firefighters turn their hoses full force on civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama. (see July 25)
Church Burning
July 15, 2015: authorities responded to an early morning fire at Houston's Fifth Ward Missionary Baptist Church, the latest in a rash of burnings at predominantly black religious institutions. Nobody was injured, but the Texas church was "significantly damaged," KHOU reported. It took firefighters about 30 minutes to extinguish the flames. (BH, see Sept 8; CB, see Oct 30)

The Red Scare, McCarthyism, and the Cold War

Dixiecrats defect

July 15 Peace Love Activism

July 15, 1948:  the Democratic Party Convention nominated President Truman to run again as its candidate for president. Northern liberals succeed in including a strong civil rights plank in the party platform, leading to the defection of conservative Southern Democrats to the segregationist States Rights (or Dixiecrat) Party. (see July 17, 1948)
Ethel Rosenberg
July 15, 2015: the conviction and eventual execution of  Ethel Rosenberg for joining in her husband Julius’s espionage conspiracy rested largely on trial testimony from her younger brother, but in private testimony to a grand jury seven months before the 1951 trial, Mrs. Rosenberg’s brother, David Greenglass, never mentioned involvement by his sister in Mr. Rosenberg’s delivery of atomic secrets to Soviet operatives, according to a grand jury transcript released on this day.

While not definitive proof that he lied at trial, Mr. Greenglass’s omission — and his assertion before the grand jury that he had never even discussed espionage with his sister — provided further evidence to Mrs. Rosenberg’s defenders who believe that she was unfairly convicted, and that her brother, under pressure from prosecutors, had doomed her with concocted testimony to spare his own wife from prosecution. (Cold War, see July 20; DP, see Aug 7; Nuclear, see Sept 2)

American Housing Act of 1949

July 15, 1949: the American Housing Act of 1949 expanded the federal government’s role in mortgage insurance and issuance and the construction of public housing. It was part of President Harry Truman's program of domestic legislation, the Fair Deal. Truman stated at the signing: This far-reaching measure is of great significance to the welfare of the American people. It opens up the prospect of decent homes in wholesome surroundings for low-income families now living in the squalor of the slums. It equips the Federal Government, for the first time, with effective means for aiding cities in the vital task of clearing slums and rebuilding blighted areas. It authorizes a comprehensive program of housing research aimed at reducing housing costs and raising housing standards. It initiates a program to help farmers obtain better homes.
July 15 Peace Love Activism
In 1956: the St. Louis's Pruitt-Igoe public housing project completed. It was touted as a model of urban planning. (FH, see December 5, 1957; Pruitt, see March 16, 1972)

July 15 Music et al

Beatles Julia Lennon

July 15 Peace Love Activism

July 15,1958: John Lennon's mother, Julia was visiting her sister Mimi's house where her John was living. Shortly after leaving Mimi’s house, while crossing the road to get to a bus stop, she was struck by a car driven by an off-duty policeman, 24-year-old Eric Clague. Contrary to some reports, Clague was not drunk at the time and he was driving under the 30mph speed limit. He was, however, a learner driver who was unaccompanied. "Julia," "Mother," and "My Mummy's Dead." are Lennon songs dedicated to or inspired by Julia.
 
First Beat Boys
In 1959 Tony Sheridan joined Vince Taylor and the Playboys in Hamburg, Germany where they would play. The band would eventually morph into the Beat Brothers with a line-up consisting of Tony Sheridan (vocals/guitar), Ken Packwood (drums), Rick Richards (guitar), Colin Melander (bass), Ian Hines (keyboards) and Jimmy Doyle (drums). Over the years the band's line-up would continue to see many personnel changes. Some of the most notable inclusions were: Ringo Starr, Roy Young, Rikky Barnes, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Pete Best. (see August, 1959)
The Road to Bethel
July 15, 1969:   in a closed session at the town hall, the Wallkill Zoning Board of Appeals passed judgment on the status of Woodstock Venture’s application for a permit. The five-member board refused to allow the festival to build anything on the 200-acre site. (see July 16)
Steve Earle – “John Walker’s Blues” (2002)
July 15, 2002: John Walker Lindh pleaded guilty to aiding the enemy and possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

Shortly afterwards, Steve Earle released “John Walker’s Blues” 
I’m just an American boy raised on MTV

And I’ve seen all those kids in the soda pop ads

But none of ’em looked like me

So I started lookin’ around for a light out of the dim

And the first thing I heard that made sense was the word

Of Mohammed, peace be upon him

 

A shadu la ilaha illa Allah

There is no God but God

If my daddy could see me now – chains around my feet

He don’t understand that sometimes a man

Has got to fight for what he believes

And I believe God is great, all praise due to him

And if I should die, I’ll rise up to the sky

Just like Jesus, peace be upon him

 

We came to fight the Jihad and our hearts were pure and strong

As death filled the air, we all offered up prayers

And prepared for our martyrdom

But Allah had some other plan, some secret not revealed

Now they’re draggin’ me back with my head in a sack

To the land of the infidel

A shadu la ilaha illa Allah

A shadu la ilaha illa Allah

(see Oct 4)

End of the Space Race

July 15 – 24, 1975: the last Apollo mission carried Donald K. "Deke" Slayton, Tom Stafford, and Vance Brand. Slayton was one of the original Mercury astronauts, but had not previously flown in space due to a heart fibrillation. In orbit, they docked with a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The mission proved the compatibility of the two space programs and paved the way for future collaborations and rescue missions.
July 15 Peace Love Activism
July 15, 1976: Jimmy Carter nominated for U.S. President at the Democratic National Convention in New York City.

Native Americans

“The Longest Walk”
July 15, 1978: "The Longest Walk" entered Washington, D.C., with several thousand Indians and a number of non-Indian supporters. The traditional elders led them to the Washington Monument, where the Pipe carried across the country was smoked. Over the following week, they held rallies at various sites to address issues: the 11 pieces of legislation, American Indian political prisoners, forced relocation at Big Mountain, the Navajo Nation, etc. Non-Indian supporters included the American boxer Muhammad Ali, US Senator Ted Kennedy and the actor Marlon Brando. The US Congress voted against a proposed bill to abrogate treaties with Indian Nations. During the week after the activists arrived, Congress passed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, which allowed them the use of peyote in worship. President Jimmy Carter refused to meet with representatives of The Longest Walk. (see Aug 11)
The Longest Walk 4
July 15, 2013: th return to Alcatraz begin in Washington D.C. to travel to Alcatraz by December 22, 2013. The stated purpose of this Walk was to reaffirm the heart of Traditional Tribal Sovereignty rooted in Ceremony and land based spiritual relationships. (see July 17)

IRAQ War I

July 15, 1990: Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing oil from the Rumaylah, Iraq's oil field near the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border and warns of military action. (see July 22)

US Labor History

July 15, 2004: the National Labor Relations Board reversed itself and ruled that students who worked as research and teaching assistants did not have the right to unionize. In a case involving Brown University, the labor board ruled 3 to 2 that graduate teaching and research assistants were essentially students, not workers, and thus should not have the right to unionize to negotiate over wages, benefits and other conditions of employment. (see Sept 15)

Sexual Abuse of Children

July 15, 2007: the Los Angeles Archdiocese settled 508 cases of alleged sexual abuse by priests for a record-breaking pay-out of $660m. The deal is reached just before the scheduled start of a series of trials into abuse claims dating back to the 1940s. (see Sept 7)

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

July 15, 2010: BP test cuts off all oil pouring into the Gulf (see Aug 2)

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July 14 Peace Love Activism

July 14 Peace Love Activism

FREE SPEECH

July 14, 1798: Congress passed the Sedition Act, making it a federal crime to publish false, scandalous or malicious writing about the U.S. government. (see February 23, 1915)

US Labor History

The Great Uprising

July 14 Peace Love Activism

July 14, 1877: The Great Uprising nationwide railway strike begins in Martinsburg, W.Va., after railroad workers are hit with their second pay cut in a year. In the following days, strike riots spread through 17 states. The next week, federal troops were called out to force an end to the strike (see July 23)
MLB umpire strike
July 14, 1999: major league baseball umpires voted to resign and not work the final month of the season. (see October 3, 2001)

Feminism

Voting Rights
July 14, 1917: the National Women's Party picketed in front of the White House to raise awareness about the suffrage movement. Police arrest protesters and some, including Lucy Burns, to go on hunger strikes while in jail. This level of militancy yields sympathy from some quarters but disdain from others. (see July 17)
Jean Westwood

July 14 Peace Love Activism

July 14, 1972:  Jean Westwood is elected the leader of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first woman to chair a major political party. (see Feminism Sept 5, 1972)
Women’s Health
July 14, 2015: the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 10th District ruled that Little Sisters of the Poor cannot receive a full exemption from the law’s contraception rules because they “do not substantially burden plaintiffs’ religious exercise or violate the plaintiffs’ First Amendment rights.”

Under the contraception mandate, nonprofit religious groups such as Little Sisters of the Poor were permitted to opt out of the requirement if they report their concerns to their insurance companies or the federal government. But that group and others had objected to any extra steps to obtain the exemption. Instead, they were seeking the same treatment as houses of worship, which were not required to fill out additional paperwork in order to avoid fines under the law. (see Aug 10)

Religion and Public Education

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
July 14, 1925: the third day of the Scopes trial, attorney Clarence Darrow objected to the practice of opening the trial with a prayer. Judge Raulston overruled the objection, noting that he had instructed the ministers who offer the prayer to "make no reference to the issues involved in this case." (see July 15)

Vietnam

July 14, 1941: Japan demanded and received approval from the Vichy French government to establish military bases in southern Vietnam in addition to bases in northern Vietnam. (see July 25)

BLACK HISTORY

Anti-lynching law platform
July 14, 1948: President Harry Truman and the Democratic Party adopted a platform that called for a federal anti-lynching law, the abolition of poll taxes and the desegregation of armed forces. Three days later, Southern "Dixiecrats" held their own convention and nominated South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond for president. (see July 26)
Plainfield, NJ

July 14 Peace Love Activism

July 14 – 20, 1967: Plainfield, NJ race riot mirrored the Newark riot a few days before. (see July 17)
School Desegregation
July 14, 1999: race-based school busing in Boston ended after 25 years. (BH, see Aug 2; SD, see July 17, 2001)
Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner
July 14, 2006: Mississippi Circuit Court judge Marcus D. Gordon refused to let Edgar Ray Killen out of prison while he appealed his conviction in the killing of three civil rights workers in 1964. It was the second time that Mr. Killen, 81, had asked to be freed on bond because of poor health. (BH, see July 25; Murders, see April 13, 2007)

July 14 Music et al

Bobby Vinton
July 14 – August 10, 1962: “Roses Are Red (My Love)” by Bobby Vinton #1 Billboard Hot 100.
 
see Easy Rider for more
July 14, 1969: the movie Easy Rider premiered.
 
The bumpy road to Bethel
July 14, 1969:  THE meeting. Woodstock Ventures presented its application for the festival’s approval based on the new ordinance. The meeting lasted until 1 AM. (see July 15)

Space Race

July 14 Peace Love Activism

July 14, 1965: American space probe Mariner 4 passed within 6,200 miles of Mars, capturing the first close-up images of the Martian surface. (see Dec 4 – 18)
July 14 Peace Love Activism

LGBTQ

July 14, 2004: the US Senate voted 50-48 against a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage. (see Nov 2)

Terry Jones

July 14, 2010: the Web site EuroIslam.Info posted Jones's announcement under the "Islamaphobia Observatory" section of its site. (see July 30)

Westboro Baptist Church

July 14, 2013: the Satanic Temple, a New York-based organization that seeks to foster "benevolence and empathy among all people" through Satan, performed a ritual called a "pink mass" at the Mississippi gravesite of Catherine Idalette Johnston, mother of WBC founder Fred Phelps Jr. "Upon completion of the pink mass ceremony, Catherine Johnston is now gay in the afterlife," notes the Satanic Temple website. "Fred Phelps is obligated to believe that his mother is now gay ... [and] if beliefs are inviolable rights, nobody has the right to challenge our right to believe that Fred Phelps believes that his mother is now gay." The latter assertion appears to be a play on the WBC's own stance that their beliefs are totally infallible. (see July 29)

Nuclear/Chemical News

July 14, 2015: Iran and a group of six nations led by the United States agreed to an historic accord to significantly limit Tehran’s nuclear ability for more than a decade in return for lifting international oil and financial sanctions against Iran. (see July 15)

ADA

July 14, 2015: the U.S. Department of Justice charged Georgia with illegally segregating thousands of students with behavioral disorders in schools that often were dirty, in poor repair and, in some cases, once served as blacks-only facilities before court-ordered integration.

In a strongly worded letter to Gov. Nathan Deal and Attorney General Sam Olens, the DOJ said the state was “unnecessarily segregating students with disabilities from their peers.” Further, the letter said, those students were receiving inferior instruction and had few if any opportunities to participate in extracurricular activities.

Students with disabilities who have been inappropriately segregated from their peers without disabilities also face tremendous ongoing harms: they may become victims of unwanted stigma and may be deprived of essential opportunities to learn and to develop skills enabling them to effectively engage with their peers in ways that teach them to participate in mainstream society as they mature into adulthood,” the DOJ said.

The department said the Georgia Network for Educational and Therapeutic Support, which operated in 24 locations around the state, was violating the Americans with Disabilities Act. If Georgia did not make substantial changes, the department would take the state to court to force improvements. (see February 22, 2017)

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July 13 Peace Love Activism

July 13 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

NYC draft riots

July 13 Peace Love Activism

July 13 to July 16, 1863: The New York City draft riots were violent disturbances that arose from the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.

President Abraham Lincoln diverted several regiments of militia and volunteer troops from following up after the Battle of Gettysburg to control the city. The rioters were overwhelmingly working-class men, primarily ethnic Irish, resenting particularly that wealthier men, who could afford to pay a $300 commutation fee to hire a substitute, were spared the draft.

Initially intended to express anger at the draft, the protests turned into an ugly race riot, with the white rioters attacking blacks wherever they could be found. At least 100 black people were estimated to have been killed. (see January 31, 1865)
Leonidas Dyer

July 13 Peace Love Activism

July 13 1923: US House representative Leonidas Dyer of St Louis stated taht he was not surprised at the acquittal of a George Barkwell at Columbia, Missouri on the charge of murder in connection with the lynching of James Scott, a Black. Dyer referred to statistics which, he said, showed that 3,824 lynchings had been recorded during the last thirty-five years and that in all those cases there had scarcely been a conviction. (see Aug 24)
Henry Dee

July 13 Peace Love Activism

July 13, 1964: the disarticulated lower torso of Henry Dee was found in the river in the same area as Moore the day before.( BH, see July 16; Workers, see Aug 4; Moore/Dee see Nov 6)
Trayvon Martin Shooting
July 13, 2013:  the jury found George Zimmerman not guilty of second-degree murder. He was also acquitted of manslaughter, a lesser charge. (BH, see July 18; Trayvon, see July 19)

Religion and Public Education

July 13, 1935: in an effort to have the Butler law declared unconstitutional, defense attorney Clarence Darrow delivered a long, fiery speech arguing that the law violates freedom of religion. Darrow argues that "we find today as brazen and as bold an attempt to destroy learning as was ever made in the Middle Ages." (see July 14)

John F. Kennedy

July 13 Peace Love Activism

July 13, 1960: Democrats nominated John F. Kennedy for President at the Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles.

Feminism

July 13 Peace Love Activism

July 13 – 16, 1964: at the Republican National Convention in San Francisco, Senator Margaret Chase Smith of Maine became the first woman whose to be nominated, but Barry Goldwater was eventual nominiee. During his acceptance speech, Goldwater  stated that, “Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice.” (see February 26, 1965)

Road to Bethel and the Woodstock festival

July 13, 1969: Ulster County assemblyman Clark Bell, a Republican from Woodstock, released a statement to the press about a letter he’d just sent to Governor Rockefeller requesting the appointment of a coodinator to oversee the festival. He also recommended that the National Guard be alerted. (see July 14)

see Live Aid for more

July 13, 1985 – Live Aid concerts in Philadelphia and London held for famine relief in Ethiopia. (see May 26, 1986)
July 13 Peace Love Activism

Irish Troubles

July 13 Peace Love Activism

July 13, 1981:  Martin Hurson (29) died after 46 days on hunger strike. (see Aug 1)

AIDS

July 13, 1984: the CDC stated that avoiding injection drug use and reducing needle-sharing “should also be effective in preventing transmission of the virus.” (see Dec 17)

Cold war

July 13 Peace Love Activism

July 13, 1997, the remains of Che Guevara were returned to Cuba for burial, alongside some of his comrades. (see October 17)

Sexual Abuse of Children

July 13, 1998: Dallas diocese forced to pay more than $31m to victims of Rudolph Kos. 

In 1999,  former Massachusetts priest John Geoghan was indicted on child rape charges and Bishop J. Keith Symons of Palm Beach, Fla., becames the first U.S. bishop to resign after admitting molestation. That scandal was greatly compounded in 2002 when Bishop Anthony O'Connell, the successor Rome appointed to clean house, resigned for the identical reason. (see January 8, 2002)

Hurricane Katrina

July 13, 2010: Katrina shootings and cover-up:: a federal grand jury indicted Kenneth Bowen, Robert Gisevius, Robert Faulcon, and Anthony Villavaso in connection with the shooting and subsequent cover-up. Additionally, Arthur "Archie" Kaufman (lead investigator on the case) and Gerard Dugue (another investigator) were charged with falsifying reports and false prosecution in the conspiracy to cover-up the shooting. (see August 5, 2011)

Occupy Wall Street

July 13, 2011: Adbusters, a pro-consumer magazine, proposed a peaceful demonstration on Wall Street. (see Aug 23) Image from Adbusters: 

LGBTQ

Fair Housing
July 13, 2015: the Department of Housing and Urban Development issued new guidance on rules to ensure that gay people were protected from discrimination in federally subsidized housing, particularly in programs designed for older Americans.

HUD’s announcement is a strong step toward ending discrimination against LGBTQ people in federally supported senior housing,” Michael Adams, executive director of Services and Advocacy for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Elders (SAGE), said in a written statement. “With a recent report showing that housing discrimination against LGBTQ elders is rampant, this is just the kind of leadership we need from the federal government. Now we need to make sure that these anti discrimination protections are effectively implemented.” (LGBTQ, see July 13; FH, see Aug 19)
Kentucky
July 13, 2015: U.S. District Judge David L. Bunning heard arguments about Rowan County Clerk Kim Davis, who refused to issue marriage licenses after the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling legalizing same-sex marriage.

Davis was one of a handful of local officials across the country who had refused to comply with the court's order. Davis and others said it violated their religious beliefs.

The American Civil Liberties Union sued Davis on behalf of two gay couples and two straight couples who were denied licenses. Davis told the Louisville Courier-Journal said that her "deep religious convictions" prevent her from complying with the Supreme Court's decision, and so she has decided to issue no more marriage licenses to any couple -- gay or straight. (see July 16)

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