January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Dred Scott

January 12 Peace Love Activism


The US Supreme Court will eventually side against Dred Scott’s freedom, but on January 12, 1850, the St. Louis Circuit Court charged the jury that Scott’s residence in free jurisdictions would destroy his status as a slave, and if the jurors determined he had in fact lived in a free state or territory, they should find him free. The jury sided with Scott and his family.


The jury concluded that Scott’s residence in a free state and a free territory had made him free. This result was consistent with Missouri precedents dating from 1824. Irene Emerson, reluctant to lose her four slaves, appealed this decision to the Missouri Supreme Court.(see Dred Scott for more; next Black History, see April)

Patrick & Charlotte “Lottie” Morris murdered

January 12, 1896: a mob of twenty men gathered around the home of Patrick and Charlotte “Lottie” Morris in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, and set it ablaze. Mr. Morris, a white railroad hand, and his wife, a black woman, had garnered the ill will of the community “on account of their difference in color” as well as their operation of a gathering place and hotel for black people.


                The mob first attempted to burn down the Morris’ home at 11:00 that night, but Mr. Morris discovered the fire and extinguished it. By midnight, the mob set a fire that could not be controlled. When the couple attempted to escape the flames through the front door of their home they were met with a barrage of gunfire. Mrs. Morris was shot and killed at the doorstep while Mr. Morris was maimed by a shot to his leg.


                The Morris’ twelve-year-old son witnessed the events and escaped through the back door of the home. As the boy ran for safety, the mob shot into the darkness after him but missed. Patrick Morris Jr. spent the night hiding underneath a nearby home in the neighborhood.


                The next morning, community members found that much of the Morris’s home had been destroyed by the fire. Mr. and Mrs. Morris’s charred remains were found on their bed inside the home. A coroner’s examination revealed that one of the bodies had been decapitated, though it was unclear whether this act was carried out before or after death. Charlotte Morris was sixty-eight years old and Patrick Morris was fifty-eight years old. (see May 18)



Marcus Garvey

January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12, 1922: federal authorities arrest Marcus Garvey for fraudulent use of mails and held on a $2,500 bond pending presentation of his case to a federal grand jury. Garvey was  s proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements. (next BH, see Jan 26; see Garvey for more)

Sipuel v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma

January 12, 1948: the U.S. Supreme Court, in Sipuel v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma, ruled that state law schools could not discriminate against applicants on the basis of race. “The State must provide [such education] … in conformity with the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and provide it as soon as it does for applicants of any other group.” (see July 26)

Montgomery Bus Boycott

January 12, 1956: in response to the Montgomery’s rejection of its most recent offer to end the boycott, the MIA executive board decided to boycott the buses indefinitely. (next BH, see Jan 24; see Montgomery for more)

Berry Gordy, Jr

January 12 Peace Love Activism


January 12, 1959:  Berry Gordy Jr. founded Motown Records (originally Tamla Records) in Detroit. (see Motown Records Begins for full story) (next BH, see Apr 18)

Charlayne Hunter

January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12, 1961: Charlayne Hunter, 18, was whisked away from the University of Georgia campus in a state patrol car when students staged an uprising against the integration. She graduated in 1963. 

Charlayne Hunter-Gault became an American journalist and former foreign correspondent for National Public Radio, and the Public Broadcasting Service. (see Jan 21)

Albany Movement

January 12, 1962: police arrested Albany State College student Ola May Quarterman who refused to move from the front of a city bus. The Albany Movement organized a boycott of the city buses. (see Albany for much more)

Medgar Evers assassination

January 12, 1966: Byron De La Beckwith, twice tried for the murder of Medgar W. Evers, appeared before a Congressional committee and refused to answer charges that he had participated in Ku Klux Klan intimidation since his release from jail. (BH, see Jan 13; Evers, see September 27, 1973)

Feminism/Voting Rights

No to women’s suffrage

January 12, 1915: US House of Representatives voted for first time on federal woman suffrage amendment, defeating the measure. (see Oct 23)

Hattie W. Caraway

January 12, 1932: Hattie W. Caraway, a Democrat from Arkansas, became the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate. (see March 4, 1933)

US Labor History


January 12, 1942: President Franklin D. Roosevelt revived the National War Labor Board (NWLB) for World War II. In order to prevent wartime labor stoppages, the NWLB was set up to arbitrate labor disputes that arose during the war. The NWLB also managed wage controls over the airplane, automobile, shipping, mining, telegraph, and railway industries during the war.(see February 27, 1943)

January 12 Peace Love Activism

Technological Milestone

January 12 Peace Love Activism


January 12, 1950: the general public was introduced to color television for the very first time when CBS demonstrated its “field sequential” color system on eight television sets in the Walker Building, in Washington. By the end of 1950, 9% of American homes have a TV set. (see June 25, 1951)

Nuclear and Chemical Weapons/News

John Foster Dulles

January 12, 1954: Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announced a doctrine of massive retaliation which could entail the use of nuclear weapons against communist aggression. . (Red Scare, see Mar 4; NN, see Jan 21)

Iran’s nuclear program

January 12, 2014: American and Iranian officials said that Iran and six world powers had agreed on how to put in place an accord that would temporarily freeze much of Iran’s nuclear program. That accord would go into effect on Jan. 20. (see in Feb)

FREE SPEECH

January 12 Peace Love Activism


January 12, 1956: in the District Court for the Southern District of New York, a jury found Samuel Roth guilty of 4 counts of a 26-count indictment charging him with mailing obscene circulars and advertising, and an obscene book, in violation of the federal obscenity statute.” The judge sentenced Roth to five years for each count (to run concurrently) in the Lewisburg Penitentiary and fined $5,000.(FS, see June 17, 1957; Roth, see June 24, 1957)

January 12 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

Operation Ranch Hand

January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12, 1962: helicopters flown by U.S. Army pilots ferry 1,000 South Vietnamese soldiers to sweep a NLF stronghold near Saigon. It marks America’s first combat missions against the Vietcong. During the early part of 1962 Operation Ranchhand begins. The goal of Ranchhand is to clear vegetation alongside highways, making it more difficult for the Vietcong to conceal themselves for ambushes. As the war continued, the scope of Ranchhand increases. Vast tracts of forest are sprayed with “Agent Orange,” an herbicide containing the deadly chemical Dioxin. Guerrilla trails and base areas are exposed, and crops that might feed Vietcong units are destroyed. (see Jan 15)

Rev. Philip Berrigan January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12, 1971: a federal grand jury indicted Rev. Philip Berrigan and 5 others, including a nun and two priests, on charges of plotting to kidnap Henry Kissinger. Because the charges were filed in Harrisburg, Pa, the group became known as the “Harrisburg Six.” On 5 September 1972 the Justice Department dropped all charges.  (see Jan 14)

January 12 Music et al

Go Away Little Girl

January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12 – 25, 1963: written by written by Gerry Goffin and Carole King “Go Away Little Girl” by Steve Lawrence #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. It was Goffin/King’s third #1 hit (Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow in 1960 and Take Good Care of My Baby in 1962)

Teenage Culture

January 12, 1966: ABC-TV’s replacement for Shindig broadcast: Batman. (see August 29)

Beatle summit

January 12, 1969: in an attempt to sort out the problems within The Beatles following George Harrison’s sudden departure two days earlier, all four met at Brookfield House, Ringo Starr’s Tudor mansion in Elstead, Surrey. The meeting was not a success. The feud between Harrison and John Lennon remained unresolved, and Harrison left early without agreeing to rejoin The Beatles. (see Jan 13)

Consumer Protection

January 12, 1966: in his State of the Union address, President Johnson stated: Our people have a right to feel secure in their homes and on their streets–and that right just must be secured.Nor can we fail to arrest the destruction of life and property on our highways.I will propose a Highway Safety Act of 1966 to seek an end to this mounting tragedy. (see Feb 10)

January 12 Peace Love Activism
IRAQ War I

January 12, 1991: a deeply divided Congress gave President George H.W. Bush the authority to use force to expel Iraq from Kuwait. (The Senate vote was 52-47; the House followed suit 250-183.) (see Jan 15)

Iraq War II

January 12, 2005:  U.S. intelligence official told CNN that U.S. inspectors ended their search for weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. (see Jan 14)

January 12 Peace Love Activism

DEATH PENALTY

Sister Helen Prejean

January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12, 1996: the film, Dead Man Walking, released. In 1994, Sister Helen Prejean released her book titled Dead Man Walking about her role as spiritual advisor for two death row inmates. The popularity of the film led to increased levels of public discourse on the morality of the death penalty. (see Jan 25)

Hurst v. Florida

January 12, 2016: the US Supreme Court held in Hurst v. Florida that Florida’s capital sentencing scheme was unconstitutional because it does not require the jury to make the critical findings necessary to impose the death penalty. Because Alabama has the same sentencing scheme as Florida, the Court’s decision will apply to cases in Alabama as well. (see Mar 3)

January 12 Peace Love Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

January 12, 1998: Linda Tripp contacted the office of Whitewater Independent Counsel Ken Starr to talk about Lewinsky and the tapes she made of their conversations. The tapes allegedly have Lewinsky detailing an affair with Clinton and indicated that Clinton and Clinton friend Vernon Jordan told Lewinsky to lie about the alleged affair under oath. (see Clinton for much more)

January 12 Peace Love Activism

Haitian Earthquake

January 12 Peace Love Activism

January 12, 2010: 7.0 earthquake in Haiti. The Haitian government reported that an estimated 316,000 people had died, 300,000 had been injured and 1,000,000 made homeless. The government of Haiti also estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings had collapsed or were severely damaged.

Nuclear/Chemical News

January 12, 2014: American and Iranian officials said that Iran and six world powers have agreed on how to put in place an accord that would temporarily freeze much of Iran’s nuclear program. That accord would go into effect on Jan. 20. (see In February)

January 12 Peace Love Activism

Cold War

Cuba releases prisoners 

January 12, 2015: U.S. officials announced that Cuba had released all 53 prisoners it had promised to free, a major step toward détente with Washington.


The release of the remaining prisoners set a positive tone for historic talks aimed at normalizing relations after decades of hostility. Officials described the Cuban government’s release over the weekend of the last detainees on the list as a milestone but said they would keep pressing Havana to free more people the United States considers political prisoners.


The officials, speaking to Reuters on condition of anonymity, did not say how many prisoners were released over the weekend or identify them. But the White House will provide the names of all 53 to Congress and expects lawmakers to make them public, the officials added. (NYT article) (see Jan 15)

Cuban refugee status changes

January 12, 2017: President Obama announced that he was terminating the 22-year-old policy that allowed Cubans who arrived on United States soil without visas to remain in the country and gain legal residency.

Effective immediately, Cuban nationals who attempt to enter the United States illegally and do not qualify for humanitarian relief will be subject to removal, consistent with U.S. law and enforcement priorities,” Mr. Obama said in a statement. “By taking this step, we are treating Cuban migrants the same way we treat migrants from other countries.”  (NYT article) (see Nov 8)

January 12 Peace Love Activism

LGBTQ

Louisiana’s ban stays in place

January 12, 2015: the U.S. Supreme Court declined to take an early look at a challenge to Louisiana’s state ban.

In addition, the court took no action on four other pending cases concerning gay marriage bans in Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky and Tennessee,

The decision not to hear the Louisiana case was not unexpected as gay rights advocates had sought to skip the regular judicial process by seeking Supreme Court review before the case had been decided by an appeals court. Gay rights advocates representing the Louisiana plaintiffs said in court papers there is a “pressing need” to resolve the issue once and for all. (see Jan 12)

South Dakota’s ban overruled

January 12, 2015: U.S. District Judge Karen Schreier ruled against South Dakota’s constitutional amendment banning marriage equality.

South Dakota legislation passed in 1996 banned same-sex marriages in the state. In 2006, state voters passed a constitutional amendment stating only a marriage between a man and a woman.

Private attorneys and the National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR) sued the state on behalf of six same-sex couples who argue that South Dakota’s ban on marriage equality violated the U.S. Constitution.

Schreier stayed the decision pending appeal. (NYT article) (see Jan 15)

January 12 Peace Love Activism
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