Category Archives: Today in history

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

US Labor History

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1886: a small group of Black farmers organize the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and Cooperative Union in Houston County, Texas. They had been barred from membership in the all-White Southern Farmers’ Alliance. Through intensive organizing, along with merging with another Black farmers group, the renamed Colored Alliance by 1891 claimed a membership of 1.2 million (see November 1, 1887) 
Houston Revolt of 1917

December 11 Peace Love Activism

On August 23, 1917 the Houston Revolt of 1917, or Camp Logan Riot, occurred. It was a mutiny by 156 African American soldiers of the Third Battalion of the all-black Twenty-fourth United States Infantry Regiment.

Two Houston police officers stormed into the home of an African American woman, allegedly looking for someone in the neighborhood, after firing a warning shot outside. They physically assaulted her, then dragged her partially clad into the street, all in view of her five small children. The woman began screaming, demanding to know why she was being arrested, and a crowd began to gather. A soldier from the 24th stepped forward to ask what was going on. The police officers promptly beat him to the ground and arrested him as well.

Their official reports and later news reports stated the soldier was charged with interfering with the arrest of a publicly drunk female. Later that afternoon, Corporal Charles Baltimore went to the Houston police station to investigate the arrest, as well as beating of another black soldier, and also to attempt to gain the release of the soldier. An argument began which led to violence, and Corporal Baltimore was beaten, shot at, and himself arrested by the police.

That evening 156 angry soldiers, stole weapons from the camp depot and marched on the city of Houston. They were met outside the city by the police and a crowd of armed citizens, frightened by the reports of a mutiny. A virtual race riot began, which left 20 people dead - four soldiers, four policemen, and 12 civilians. Order was restored the next day, and the War Department disarmed the soldiers. The Third Battalion was sent by rail back to New Mexico.

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1917: thirteen Black soldiers hanged for alleged participation in the Houston riot. (BH, see April; RR, see July 26, 1918)
Albany Movement

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1961: over four hundred people marched to city hall in downtown Albany, protesting the arrest of the Freedom Riders. The city gave the marchers permission to circle the block twice, but when the marchers refused to stop after the allotted distance, Chief Pritchett ordered the protesters arrested. Herding the protesters into the alley between police headquarters, Pritchett arrested 267 protesters. Pritchett informed the press that “We can’t  tolerate the NAACP or the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee or any other ‘nigger’ organization to take over this town with mass demonstrations.” 

That same day, in Garner v. Louisiana, the Supreme Court reversed the convictions of 16 black college students who had been arrested in a civil rights demonstration in Louisiana. “In the circumstances of these cases, merely sitting peacefully in places where custom decreed that petitioners should not sit was not evidence of any crime, and it cannot be so considered either by the police or by the courts.” (see Dec 13)
Muhammad Ali

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1981:  at age 39 and attempting another comeback, Ali fought the top heavyweight title contender, Trevor Berbick and lost a ten-round decision. Ali retired for good after the fight, finishing his career with an overall record of 56-5.(Black History, see Nov 2, 1983; Ali, see September 1984)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1931: South Africa independent from United Kingdom.(see October 3, 1932)
December 11 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1961: American helicopters arrived in South Vietnam along with 400 U.S. personnel, who will fly and maintain the aircraft. (see Dec 18)

December 11 Music et al

Please Mr. Postman
December 11 – December 17, 1961: “Please Mr. Postman” by the Marvelettes #1 Billboard Hot 100. Released on August 28, the song is notable as the first Motown song to reach the number-one position on the Billboard Hot 100.

Sam Cooke
December 11, 1964: Sam Cooke was killed under mysterious circumstances in Los Angeles. (Performing Songwriter site article) (see Dec 14)

Muir Beach Acid Test

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1965: the first one for famed acid chemist, Owsley Stanley. In his book, Dark Star Robert Greenfield quoted Stanley:  "In December '65, I really heard the Grateful Dead for the first time. It was at the Fillmore  the night before the Muir Beach Acid Test. I was standing in the hall and they were playing and they scared me to death. Jerry's guitar terrified me. I had never before heard that much power. That much thought. That much emotion. I thought to myself, 'These guys could be bigger than the Beatles.'" (see Dec 18)
John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band
December 11, 1970: John Lennon’s John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band album released. It was the first solo album by John Lennon. ( Lennon had issued three experimental albums with Yoko Ono and Live Peace in Toronto 1969, a live performance in Toronto credited to the Plastic Ono Band.) The album was recorded between 26 September – 23 October 1970, simultaneously with Ono's debut avant garde solo album, Yoko Ono/Plastic Ono Band, at Ascot Sound Studios and Abbey Road Studios using the same musicians and production team, and featured nearly identical cover artwork. John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band is generally considered one of Lennon's finest solo albums, documenting with honesty and artistic integrity his emotional and mental state at that point in his career. In 1987, as part of its 20th anniversary, Rolling Stone magazine ranked it fourth on "The 100 Best Albums of the Last Twenty Years". In 2012, the magazine ranked it number 23 on its list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. (see Dec 31)

pre-Iran hostage crisis

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1978:  massive demonstrations took place in Teheran against the Shah. In Isfahan, Iran, 40 people were killed and 60 wounded during riots against the Shah.  (see January 16, 1979)

Environmental Issues

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1980:  President Jimmy Carter signed into law legislation creating $1.6 billion environmental "superfund" that would be used to pay for cleaning up chemical spills and toxic waste dumps. (see February 3, 1984) 
Climate change

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 1997: negotiators from around the world (more than 150 countries) agreed on a package of measures that for the first time would legally obligate industrial countries to cut emissions of waste industrial (greenhouse) gases that scientists say are warming the Earth’s atmosphere.(see October 11, 2000)

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

Monica Lewinsky
December 11, 1997: Monica Lewinsky met with Vernon Jordan and he referred her to several job leads.
Articles of impeachment
December 11, 1998: the House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment, alleging that President Clinton committed perjury and obstruction of justice. The action came despite another apology from Clinton. (see Clinton for full story)

TERRORISM

Zacarias Moussaoui

December 11 Peace Love Activism

December 11, 2001: the US government indicted Zacarias Moussaoui for involvement in the September 11 attacks. (see Dec 13)
Intelligence agencies
December 11, 2002: a congressional report found that intelligence agencies before September 11, 2001, were poorly organized, poorly equipped and slow to pursue clues that might have prevented that day's terrorist attacks. (see January 30, 2003)

Bernard Madoff

December 11, 2008,  U.S. federal authorities arrested Bernard Madoff on charges of running a massive decades-long Ponzi scheme swindling thousands of investors - the largest financial fraud in history. (NYT article) (see Dec 14)

Fourth Amendment

December 11, 2014: United States v. Chad Daniel Camou: US Court of Appleals, 9th Circuit Judge Harry Pregerson reversed the district court’s denial of Camoe’s motion to suppress images of child pornography found on his cell phone during a warrantless search. The panel held that the warrantless search of the cell phone at a Border Patrol checkpoint’s security offices was not roughly contemporaneous with the defendant’s arrest and, therefore, not a search incident to arrest, given both the passage of one hour and twenty minutes between arrest and search, and the seven intervening acts between arrest and search that signaled the arrest was over. In the new decision, the Ninth Circuit suppressed evidence from a 2009 search of a cell phone taken from a car incident to arrest at the border. The new ruling might not be the final word in the case.

But the court did decide an important question along the way: The Ninth Circuit ruled that if the police have probable cause to search a car under the automobile exception, they can’t search cell phones found in the car. (see Dec 12)

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December 10 Music et al

December 10 Music et al

Roots of Rock

Fats Domino

December 10 Music et al

They call, they call me the fat man
‘Cause I weight two hundred pounds
All the girls they love me
‘Cause I know my way around

I was standin’, I was standin’ on the corner
Of Rampart and Canal
I was watchin’, watchin’
Watchin’ all these creole gals

December 10, 1949: Fats Domino recorded his first sides for Imperial Records. He recorded The Fat Man, one of the earliest rock and roll records. The title also turned into Domino’s nickname and stayed with him through his years of success.

Domino sang and played piano, along with Earl Palmer on drums, Frank Fields on string bass, Ernest McLean on guitar, and sax players Herbert Hardesty, Clarence Hall, Joe Harris, and Alvin "Red" Tyler.

On February 18, 1950 it reached number two on the R&B Singles chart. It was Domino's debut single, the B-Side being "Detroit City Blues". Imperial advertising claimed it sold 10,000 copies in New Orleans in 10 days, and the record became a national hit in late January 1950. It sold one million copies by 1953

Beatles

John Lennon leaves Hamburg
December 10, 1960: John Lennon traveled back to England by train and boat. Stuart Sutcliffe continued stay in Hamburg which effectively ended of his time in The Beatles. (see February 9, 1961)
CBS/Beatles
December 10, 1963: CBS aired the four-minute segment on The Beatles on Walter Cronkite's CBS Evening News. The Kennedy assassination had been pre-empted the segment's original air date. 
Grateful Dead & Rock Venues

December 10 Music et al

December 10, 1965: the San Francisco Fillmore auditorium held its first rock 'n' roll concert (thanks to promoter Bill Graham), a benefit for the San Francisco Mime Troupe. Unbilled but also playing that night: the Grateful Dead, having just changed its name from the Warlocks. (RV, see January 8, 1966; GD, see January 22, 1966)
see Good Vibrationsfor more
December 10 – 16, 1966: “Good Vibrations” by the Beach Boys #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
The John Sinclair Freedom Rally

December 10 Music et al

Exactly 8 years later, on December 10, 1971 John Lennon, now a solo artist after the Beatle breakup, headlined The John Sinclair Freedom Rally, a protest and concert in response the imprisonment of John Sinclair whom the courts gave ten years in prison for the possession of two marijuana cigarettes. The concert was held in Crisler Arena at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Two days after the event, Sinclair was released.

It ain’t fair, John Sinclair

In the stir for breathing air

Won’t you care for John Sinclair?

In the stir for breathing air

Let him be, set him free

Let him be like you and me

They gave him ten for two

What else can the judges do?

December 10 Music et al
Bob Dylan
December 10, 2016: Bob Dylan did not attend the Nobel Banquet in the Stockholm City Hall. Azita Raji, the United States Ambassador to Sweden, gave an acceptance speech in his place. (NYT article)(see June 4, 2017)

 December 10 Music et al,  December 10 Music et al,  December 10 Music et al,  December 10 Music et al,  December 10 Music et al,  December 10 Music et al,  

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December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10 Peace Love Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1869:  motivated more by interest in free publicity than a commitment to gender equality, Wyoming territorial legislators passed a bill that is signed into law granting women the right to vote. Western states led the nation in approving women's suffrage, but some of them had other motives. Though some men recognized the important role women played in frontier settlement, others voted for women's suffrage only to bolster the strength of conservative voting blocks. In Wyoming, some men were also motivated by sheer loneliness--in 1869, the territory had over 6,000 adult males and only 1,000 females, and area men hoped women would be more likely to settle in the rugged and isolated country if they were granted the right to vote. (Voting Rights, see February 3, 1870)
Matilda Josyln Gage
In 1870  Gage researched and published “Woman as Inventor.” In it, Gage credited the invention of the cotton gin to a woman, Catherine Littlefield Greene. Gage claimed that Greene suggested to Whitney the use of a brush-like component instrumental in separating out the seeds and cotton. [Gage provided no source for this claim and to date there has been no independent verification of Greene's role in the invention of the gin. However, many believe that Eli Whitney received the patent for the gin and the sole credit in history textbooks for its invention only because social norms inhibited women from registering for patents.] 

During this same time Gage wrote a series of articles speaking out against United States’ unjust treatment of American Indians and describing superior position of native women. “The division of power between the sexes in this Indian republic was nearly equal,” Gage wrote of the Iroquois. In matters of government, “…its women exercised controlling power in peace and war … no sale of lands was valid without consent” of the women, while “the family relation among the Iroquois demonstrated woman’s superiority in power … in the home, the wife was absolute … if the Iroquois husband and wife separated, the wife took with her all the property she had brought … the children also accompanied the mother, whose right to them was recognized as supreme.” “Never was justice more perfect, never civilization higher,” Gage concluded. (Feminism, see February 3, 1870; Native Americans, see June 18; Gage, see May 10, 1876)
Equal Rights Amendment

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1923: The Equal Rights Amendment, drafted by Alice Paul, introduced in the Senate. It read, "Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction."  Although the amendment will be introduced in every session of Congress, it will not reach the floor of the House of Representatives for a vote until 1971.(see January 14, 1927)
Jane Addams

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1931: Jane Addams became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; the co-recipient was Nicholas Murray Butler. (January 12, 1932)
Janice R. Lachance
December 10, 1997: with the swearing in of Janice R. Lachance as Director of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management on this day, the total number of women appointed to President Clinton's Cabinet reaches 13, the highest number in any presidential cabinet in US history. (see March 4, 1998)

December 10

December 10, 2003: Iranian democracy activist Shirin Ebadi, the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, accepted the award in Oslo, Norway. (see January 26, 2005)

US Labor History

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1906: first sit-down strike in U.S. called by International Workers of the World at General Electric in Schenectady, N.Y.(see April 4, 1907)

LGBTQ

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1924: Henry Gerber founded The Society for Human Rights in Chicago. The society was the first gay rights organization as well as the oldest documented in America. After receiving a charter from the state of Illinois, the society published the first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Soon after its founding, the society disbanded due to political pressure.(see June 23, 1945)
FREE SPEECH

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1948: Chicago authorities banned The Respectful Prostitute, a play by Jean-Paul Sartre. Chicago theater and film censor Harry Fulmer argued that the play would offend African-Americans. The play involves an incident that occurred on a train where an African-American man was falsely accused of attacking a white woman, when in fact a white man perpetrated the attack. National NAACP Director Walter White gave the play his “unqualified endorsement” but was unsuccessful in preventing the ban. (FS, see following; Black History, see August 27, 1949)
Book burning

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1948: most of the 500 students at St. Patrick’s School in Binghamton, NY, on this day stood and watched as the school burned 10,000 comic books as part of a “purity” crusade. The Bishop of the Catholic Diocese, as part of the crusade, urged parish members to “boycott” stores that sold magazines with “indecent pictures and sensational details of crime.” The comic books were burned in a courtyard behind the school. The event was part of a national panic over comic books in the 1950s regarding their alleged impact on juvenile delinquency.(see March 8, 1949)

BLACK HISTORY

Ralph Bunche

 December 10, 2003: Iranian democracy activist Shirin Ebadi, the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, accepted the award in Oslo, Norway.

December 10, 1950: for his peace mediation during the first Arab-Israeli war, American diplomat Ralph Joseph Bunche received the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway. Bunche was the first African American to win the prestigious award.(see January 20, 1951)
Freedom RidersDecember 10 Peace Love Activism
December 10, 1961: nine Freedom Riders from Atlanta arrived at the Albany Trailways bus terminal and were met by a crowd of approximately three hundred black onlookers and a squad of Albany policemen. Albany Police Chief Laurie Pritchett arrested the riders without incident, telling the press that white Albany would “not stand for these troublemakers coming into our city for the sole purpose of disturbing the peace and quiet in the city of Albany.” (BH, AM, & FR, see December 11)
Martin Luther King, Jr
December 10, 1964: Martin Luther King, Jr received Nobel Peace Prize. In his acceptance speech, King said, “I refuse to accept the view that mankind is so tragically bound to the starless midnight of racism and war that the bright daybreak of peace and brotherhood can never become a reality.” (BH, see Dec 12; MLK, see Dec 28 
Frank Morris burned to death

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1964: the Ku Klux Klan set fire to the business of Frank Morris, a 51-year-old African-American in Ferriday, Louisiana. Morris died four days. He had been asleep in the back of his shoe shop when he heard glass breaking shortly after midnight. Out front he saw two men, one pouring gasoline on the outside of the building, the other holding a shotgun. Morris yelled, “Hey, stop that!” Suddenly, the building was ignited, and Morris was in a sea of flame and smoke. The man with the shotgun blocked his escape through the front door as he pointed the barrel at Morris while shouting, “Get back in there, nigger!”

Two police officers arrived just seconds after Morris’s attackers fled. They watched Morris emerge from the back of the building completely in flames—naked, bleeding, exhausted—leaving behind a trail of bloody footprints. Skin peeled and fell from his body. Morris’s hair was ablaze, the waistband of his boxer shorts and the shoulder straps of his undershirt smoldering. Morris said he didn’t know his attackers.

The FBI agent who rushed to the hospital within hours of the arson said, “If Frank would have told me who they [his attackers] were, we would have gone after the sons of bitches.” Morris’s friends believed he knew his attackers but was afraid to identify them. No one was prosecuted. (see Dec 14)
March to Montgomery

December 10

On March 11, 1965 James J. Reeb had died in a hospital in Birmingham, Alabama after White supremacists had beat him in Selma, AL following the second march from Selma.

On December 10, 1965, Elmer Cook, O’Neal Hoggle, and his brother Willam Hoggle were acquitted of the murder of Rev James J Reeb. The all-white jury deliberated 90 minutes. (BH, see January 3, 1966; March, see January 15, 1966)
Toni Morrison

December 10

December 10, 1993: Toni Morrison received the Nobel Prize for Literature at the award ceremony in Oslo, Norway. She was the first African American woman to win. (Feminism, see January 24, 1994; BH, see January 26, 1974)
 
Nelson Mandela
December 10, 1996: Mandela signed into law a new democratic constitution, completing the country's transition from white-minority rule to a non-racial democracy.  (SA/A, see January 28, 1997; NM, see June 16, 1999)

Cold War

December 10, 1949: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek, longtime American ally and leader of the anticommunist Chinese Nationalists, fled mainland China to organize the Republic of China on the island of Taiwan. (NYT article) (see January 21, 1950)

Technological Milestone

December 10 Peace Love Activism

December 10, 1959: a National Airlines Boeing 707 with 111 passengers flew from New York to Miami. It was the first domestic passenger jet flight. (see February 7, 1960)

see December 10 Music et al for more

Roots of Rock: Fats Domino
December 10, 1949: Fats Domino recorded his first sides for Imperial Records. He recorded The Fat Man, one of the earliest rock and roll records. The title also turned into Domino’s nickname and stayed with him through his years of success. (see January 3, 1950)
John Lennon leaves Hamburg
December 10, 1960: John Lennon traveled back to England by train and boat. Stuart Sutcliffe continued stay in Hamburg, , effectively signified the end of his time in The Beatles. (see February 9, 1961)
CBS/Beatles
December 10, 1963: CBS-TV aired a four-minute segment on The Beatles that had been pre-empted by the JFK tragedy. (see Dec 17)
Grateful Dead & Rock Venues
December 10, 1965: the San Francisco Fillmore auditorium held its first rock 'n' roll concert (thanks to promoter Bill Graham), a benefit for the San Francisco Mime Troupe. Unbilled but also playing that night: the Grateful Dead, having just changed its name from the Warlocks. (RV, see January 8, 1966; GD, see January 22, 1966)
see Good Vibrationsfor more
December 10 – 16, 1966: “Good Vibrations” by the Beach Boys #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
John Lennon/John Sinclair
December 10, 1971: John Lennon headlined The John Sinclair Freedom Rally, a protest and concert in response the imprisonment of John Sinclair who was given ten years in prison for the possession of two marijuana cigarettes. The concert was held in Crisler Arena at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Two days after the event, Sinclair was released. (see January 1972)
Bob Dylan
December 10, 2016: Bob Dylan did not attend the Nobel Banquet in the Stockholm City Hall. Azita Raji, the United States Ambassador to Sweden, gave an acceptance speech in his place. (see June 4, 2017)

Vietnam

My Lai Massacre
December 10, 1970: the defense opened its case in the murder trial of Lt. William Calley. Citing "superior's orders," Defense Attorney George Lattimer contended that Capt. Ernest Medina, Calley's company commander, told his men that they were finally going to fight the enemy. He reportedly ordered "every living thing" killed. Lattimer also cited poor training of the platoon, the rage of the men who had seen their buddies killed, and the expectation of fierce resistance as additional factors contributing to the incident. The lawyer also charged that higher commanders on the ground and in the air observed the episode but did nothing. (Vietnam; see Jan 12; My Lai, see January 14, 1971)
 Peace Accord
December 10, 1972: technical experts on both sides began work on the language of a proposed peace accord, giving rise to hope that a final agreement is near. (see Dec 13)
December 10 Peace Love Activism

AIDS

December 10, 1982: CDC reported a case of AIDS in an infant who received blood transfusions. The following week, the MMWR reports 22 cases of unexplained immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in infants. (see January 7, 1983)

Immigration History

 December 10, 2003: Iranian democracy activist Shirin Ebadi, the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, accepted the award in Oslo, Norway.
(Right top to bottom) Derrick M. Donchak, Brandon J. Piekarsky and Colin Walsh. Luis Ramirez hours before his death.
On July 12, 2008 six white teenagers beat Mexican immigrant Luis Ramirez to death in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, while taunting him with racial slurs and threats including: “Spic,” “fucking Mexican,” and “This is Shenandoah. This is America. Go back to Mexico.” After leaving Mr. Ramirez, a 25-year-old father of two, unconscious and convulsing on the pavement, one of the attackers yelled: “Tell your fucking Mexican friends to get the fuck out of Shenandoah or you're going to be fucking laying next to him.” Mr. Ramirez died of his injuries two days later.

On April 21, 2009 county charges were dropped against Colin Walsh, 17, one of three teenagers arrested in the beating death of Luis Ramirez because the Walsh entered a guilty plea to charges in federal court. 

On  May 2, 2009: Brandon Piekarsky and Derrick Donchak were acquitted of all serious charges against them stemming from the fatal beating of Luis Ramirez, a Mexican immigrant, on July 12, 2008 in Shenandoah. An all-white jury acquitted Brandon Piekarsky, 17, of third-degree murder and ethnic intimidation, and Derrick Donchak, 19, of aggravated assault and ethnic intimidation. Both were convicted of simple assault in an epithet-filled brawl that pitted popular football players against a 25-year-old Hispanic man. Prosecutors cast the man, Luis Ramirez, as the victim of a gang of drunken white teenagers motivated by their dislike of their small coal town’s burgeoning Hispanic population. Defense lawyers called Mr. Ramirez the aggressor and accused the district attorney’s office of twisting the facts. The two served roughly six months in jail before being released.

In response to that verdict and outcry from Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell, among others, federal prosecutors brought hate crime charges against Donchak and Piekarsky in December 2009. Witnesses testified that Donchak often wore a “Border Patrol” T-shirt and drove through town blasting from the speakers of his pickup truck “The White Man Marches On” – a racist song glorifying violence against minorities. The men were convicted of hate crimes and each sentenced to serve nine years in prison. A third participant in the beating pled guilty to the same charges and testified against his co-defendants, ultimately receiving a sentence of 55 months. 

On December 10, 2009 Shenandoah’s then-Chief of Police Matthew R. Nestor and then-Lt. William Moyer were federally indicted for attempting to cover up the crime of Luis Ramirez (see July 12, 2008). The policemen were ultimately convicted of obstruction of justice for filing a false police report and lying to the FBI about the investigation. The chief and lieutenant received sentences of 13 months and 3 months, respectively. (see Dec 18)

Marijuana

December 10, 2013: Uruguay's Senate gave final congressional approval to create the world's first national marketplace for legal marijuana. The government will oversee production, sales and consumption. (NYT article)(see February 6, 2014)

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