July 2 Peace Love Activism

July 2 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Vermont Constitution abolishes slavery 
July 2, 1777: after declaring independence from New York in January 1777, the citizens of Vermont developed their own constitution, which contained “A Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of the State of Vermont.” This declaration affirmed that all men were born free and that no male over age 21 or female over age 18 could serve another in the role of servant, slave, or apprentice whether “born in the country, or brought from over sea.” Thus, with the ratification of its constitution on July 2, 1777, Vermont became the first North American territory to abolish slavery. (see March 1, 1780)
Joseph Cinqué

July 2 Peace Love Activism

July 2, 1839: Joseph Cinqué led fifty-two fellow captive Africans, recently abducted from the British protectorate of Sierra Leone by Portuguese slave traders, in a revolt aboard the Spanish schooner Amistad. The ship's navigator, who was spared in order to direct the ship back to western Africa, managed, instead, to steer it northward. When the Amistad was discovered off the coast of Long Island, New York, it was hauled into New London, Connecticut by the U.S. Navy.

President Martin Van Buren, guided in part by his desire to woo pro-slavery votes in his upcoming bid for reelection, wanted the prisoners returned to Spanish authorities in Cuba to stand trial for mutiny. A Connecticut judge, however, issued a ruling recognizing the defendants' rights as free citizens and ordering the U.S. government to escort them back to Africa. (see Aug 26)
East St Louis riots

July 2 Peace Love Activism

July 2, 1917: the city exploded in the worst racial rioting the country had ever seen. Most of the violence -- drive-by shootings, beatings, and arson -- targeted the African American community. The riots raged for nearly a week, leaving nine whites and hundreds of African Americans dead, and property damage estimated at close to $400,000. More than six thousand black citizens, fearing for their lives, fled the city. (BH, see July 8; RR, see Aug 23)
Medgar Evers murder
July 2, 1963: in Jackson, Mississippi, the Hinds County grand jury indicted Byron de La Beckwith for the murder of Medgar W. Evers. (BH, see July 4; Evers, see July 6)

Feminism and ADA

July 2, 1964: the Civil Rights Act of 1964 signed by President Johnson. Title VII of the Act prohibits discrimination by covered employers on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin but it does not make any provision for people with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities still lacked opportunities to participate in and be contributing members of society, were denied access to employment, and were discriminated against based on disability. 

In 1965, ADA: Title XIX (19) of the Social Security Act created a cooperative federal/state entitlement program, known as Medicaid, that paid medical costs for certain individuals with disabilities and families with low incomes. 
July 2 Peace Love Activism

In 1962, Eunice Kennedy Shriver had founded the Camp Shriver to provide athletic training and competition for persons with intellectual disabilities. By 1968, the organization had grown into an international program enabling more than one million young people and adults to participate in 23 Olympic-type sports.
July 2 Peace Love Activism

Also in 1968, The Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 mandated the removal of what is perceived to be the most significant obstacle to employment for people with disabilities—the physical design of the buildings and facilities on the job. The act requires that all buildings designed, constructed, altered, or leased with federal funds to be made accessible. (BH, see July 9;  Feminism, see July 13 – 16, 1964; ADA, see June 19, 1970)

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
July 2, 1965: the EEOC was created by the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Under the terms of the law, the EEOC was established one year later, on this day. (see July 18)

Native Americans

Lieutenant Colonel George Custer
July 2, 1874: Lieutenant Colonel George Custer departed from Fort Abraham Lincoln with some 1,000 soldiers and 70 Indian scouts on a 1200 mile expedition to chart the Black Hills of eastern Wyoming western South Dakota, land which belonged to the Sioux. (see Aug 2, 1874)
United States v. Washington
July 2, 1979: in United States v. Washington the US Supreme Court reaffirmed an earlier decision by US District Judge George Hugo Boldt that most Washington tribes may act as "co-managers", alongside the state, of salmon and continue to harvest it. Justice John Paul Stevens delivered the opinion of the court, writing that "Both sides have a right, secured by treaty, to take a fair share of the available fish." (see July 25)

US Labor History

July 2, 1890: Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Intended to block business monopolies, it will be used effectively by employers against unions. (follow-up, see October 15, 1914; LH, see September 3, 1891)

Cold War

July 2, 1948: the Soviet Union rejected participation in the Marshall Plan [the American program to aid Europe with monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II], with Stalin's Foreign Minister, V.M. Molotov, calling it an "imperialist" plot to enslave Eastern Europe. (see July 15, 1948)

July 2 Music et al

see Strangers in the Night for much more
July 2 – 8, 1966: “Strangers in the Night” by Frank Sinatra #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
The [Bumpy] Road to Bethel
July 2, 1969: town meeting in Wallkill with many voicing highly critical views of festival. After the public meeting the council passed an ordinance severely curtailing public events. Woodstock Ventures would have an opportunity at a later meeting to show compliance with the various parts of the ordinance. (see July 4 – 5)
Live 8
July 2, 2005 MTV and VH1 aired the eight hours of the Live 8 concerts. The performances, featuring artists U2, Coldplay, Paul McCartney, Elton John, Stevie Wonder, Brian Wilson, Green Day, Madonna, Dave Matthews Band, Jay-Z, Pink Floyd and Destiny's Child among many others, were held in eight cities to raise awareness of poverty in Africa.
 
July 2 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

July 2 Peace Love Activism

July 2, 1976: North Vietnam and South Vietnam united to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (see Jan 21, 1977)

Women’s Health

July 2, 1979:  the Supreme Court ruled, in Bellotti v. Baird, that teenagers were not required to obtain parental consent for an abortion. The decision, however, left questions about the extent of the rights of minors on decisions regarding abortion. In June 1990, in Minnesota v. Hodgson, the Court invalidated a Minnesota requirement that minors obtain the consent of both parents, but approved the constitutionality of a judicial “by-pass” by which a minor, in certain circumstances, could obtain judicial approval for an abortion rather than parental consent. (see March 23, 1981)

DEATH PENALTY

July 2, 1982, The US Supreme Court (Endmund v. Florida) overturned [in a 5-4 vote] the death sentence of a man who was convicted of the robbery and murder of an elderly couple in Florida. Endmund had not directly participated in the murders himself, but had only drive the getaway car. This was enough, under Florida law, to make him a 'constructive aider and abettor' in the killings, and so liable to the death penalty. However, a majority of five of the Supreme Court justices ruled that this is not enough to subject him to the death penalty, since they find Endmund had no intent to kill. (see December 2, 1982)

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

July 2, 2015: BP and five Gulf states announced an $18.7 billion settlement that resolved years of legal fighting over the environmental and economic damage done by BP’s 2010 oil spill. The settlement money was used to resolve the Clean Water Act penalties; resolve natural resources damage claims; settle economic claims; and resolve economic damage claims of local governments, according to an outline filed in federal court. The settlement involved Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. (see July 16)

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