Category Archives: Peace Love and Activism

May 25 Peace Love Activism

May 25 Peace Love Activism

Religion and Public Education

Jon Scopes

May 25 Peace Love Activism

May 25, 1925:  a grand jury indicted Jon Scopes for violating Tennessee's anti-evolution law. (see July 10)

US Labor History

Auto-Lite strike, day 3
May 25, 1934 (Friday): Auto-Lite officials agreed to keep the plant closed in an attempt to forestall further violence and Auto-Lite President Clement Miniger was arrested after local residents swore out complaints that he had created a public nuisance by allowing his security guards to bomb the neighborhood with tear gas. Strike leader Louis Budenz, too, was arrested—again on contempt of court charges.

Meanwhile, rioting continued throughout the area surrounding the Auto-Lite plant. Furious local citizens accosted National Guard troops, demanding that they stop gassing the city. Twice during the day, troops fired volleys into the air to drive rioters away from the plant. A trooper was shot in the thigh, and several picketers were severely injured by flying gas bombs and during bayonet charges. In the early evening, when the National Guard ran out of tear gas bombs, they began throwing bricks, stones and bottles back at the crowd to keep it away.

The AFL's Committee of 23 announced that 51 of the city's 103 unions had voted to support a general strike.

That evening, local union members voted down a proposal to submit all grievances to the Automobile Labor Board for mediation. The plan had been offered by Auto-Lite officials the day before and endorsed by Taft. But the plan would have deprived the union of its most potent weapon (the closed plant and thousands of picketing supporters) and forced the union to accept proportional representation. Union members refused to accept either outcome. Taft suggested submitting all grievances to the National Labor Board instead, but union members rejected that proposal as well. (see May 26)
Foxconn
May 25, 2010: nine employee deaths at Chinese electronics manufacturer, Foxconn, Apple's main supplier of iPhones, has cast a spotlight on some of the harsher aspects of blue-collar life on the Chinese factory floor. (see January 20, 2011)

BLACK HISTORY

Promotion riot

May 25 Peace Love Activism

May 25, 1943: a riot broke out at the Alabama Dry Dock Shipping Company (ADDSCO) after 12 African Americans were promoted to “highly powered” positions.

The Alabama Dry Dock and Shipping Company built and maintained U.S. Navy Ships during World War I and World War II. During World War II, the company was the largest employer in Mobile. In 1941, the company began hiring African-American men in unskilled positions. By 1943, Mobile shipyards employed 50,000 workers and African-American men and women held 7000 of those jobs. This increase in black employees did not please white workers.

In the spring of 1943, in response to President Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee issuing directives to elevate African Americans to skilled positions, as well as years of pressure from local black leaders and the NAACP, the Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company reluctantly agreed to promote twelve black workers to the role of welder. Shortly after the new welders finished their first shift, an estimated 4000 white shipyard workers and community members attacked any black employee they could find with pipes, clubs, and other dangerous weapons. Two black men were thrown into the Mobile River while others jumped in to escape serious injury. The National Guard was called to restore order. Although no one was killed, more than fifty people were seriously injured, and several weeks passed before African-American workers could safely return to work.

Many white employees refused to return to work unless they received a guarantee that African Americans would no longer be hired. However, the federal government intervened and the company created four segregated shipways where African Americans could hold any position with the exception of foreman. African Americans working on the rest of the shipyard were regulated to the low-paying, unskilled tasks they had historically performed. (see May 31)
Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County
May 25, 1964: the US Supreme Court held that the County School Board of Prince Edward County, Virginia's decision to close all local, public schools and provide vouchers to attend private schools was constitutionally impermissible as a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. (BH, see May 31; SD, see Sept 9)
Muhammad Ali

May 25 Peace Love Activism

May 25, 1965:  the second Ali-Liston fight.  Ali knocked out Liston midway through first round in a controversial knockout (see September 15)

Space Race

May 25, 1961: before a special joint session of Congress President Kennedy announced his goal to put a man on the Moon before the end of the decade.

May 25 Music et al

Bookends

May 25 Peace Love Activism

May 25 – June 14, 1968: Simon and Garfunkel’s Bookends the Billboard #1 album.(see June 29)
May 25 Peace Love Activism

Cultural Milestone

May 25 Peace Love Activism

May 25, 1977:  20th Century Fox released Star Wars, the first Star Wars movie. The movie was later re-titled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope. (see March 6, 1981)

FREE SPEECH

Frank Collin

May 25 Peace Love Activism

May 25, 1978: the Village of Skokie issues a permit allowing Frank Collin and his band of Nazi sympathizers to demonstrate in front of Skokie's Village Hall on Sunday 25 June 1978. (see June 2)

Falklands War

May 25, 1982,: Argentine aircraft sank HMS Coventry (killing 19) and British Merchant Navy vessel Atlantic Conveyor (killing 12). (see May 28 – 29)

Hands Across America

May 25 Peace Love Activism

May 25, 1986, Hands Across America: At least 5,000,000 people form a human chain from New York City to Long Beach, California, to raise money to fight hunger and homelessness.

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May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24 Peace Love Activism

Technological Milestone

Samuel F. B. Morse

May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24, 1844: Samuel F. B. Morse dispatched the first telegraphic message over an experimental line from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore. The message, taken from the Bible, Numbers 23:23 and recorded on a paper tape, had been suggested to Morse by Annie Ellsworth, the young daughter of a friend. (see March 30, 1858)

US Labor History

Toledo Auto-Lite strike day 2

May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24, 1934 (Thursday): Ohio National Guardsmen, most of them teenagers, arrived in a light rain. The troops included eight rifle companies, three machine-gun companies and a medical unit. The troops cleared a path through the picket line, and the sheriff's deputies, private security guards and replacement workers were able to leave the plant.

                Later that morning, Judge Stuart issued a new injunction banning all picketing in front of the Auto-Lite plant, but the picketers ignored the order.

                During the afternoon, President Roosevelt sent Charles Phelps Taft II, son of the former president, to Toledo by to act as a special mediator in the dispute. AFL president William Green sent an AFL organizer to the city as well to help the local union leadership bring the situation under control.

                During the late afternoon and early evening of May 24, a huge crowd of about 6,000 people gathered again in front of the Auto-Lite plant. Around 10 p.m., the crowd began taunting the soldiers and tossing bottles at them. The militia retaliated by launching a particularly strong form of tear gas into the crowd. The mob picked up the gas bombs and threw them back. For two hours, the gas barrage continued. Finally, the rioters surged back toward the plant gates. The National Guardsmen charged with bayonets, forcing the crowd back. Again the mob advanced. The soldiers fired into the air with no effect, then fired into the crowd—killing 27-year-old Frank Hubay (shot four times) and 20-year-old Steve Cyigon. Neither was an Auto-Lite worker, but had joined the crowd out of sympathy for the strikers. At least 15 others also received bullet wounds, while 10 Guardsmen were treated after being hit by bricks.

                A running battle occurred throughout the night between National Guard troops and picketers in a six-block area surrounding the plant.[1][25] A smaller crowd rushed the troops again a short time after Hubay and Cyigon's deaths, and two more picketers were injured by gunfire. A company of troops was sent to guard the Bingham Tool and Die plant, a squad of sheriff's deputies dispatched to protect the Logan Gear factory, and another 400 National Guardsmen ordered to the area. Nearly two dozen picketers and troopers were injured by hurled missiles during the night. The total number of troops now in Toledo was 1,350, the largest peace-time military build-up in Ohio history. (see May 25)

BLACK HISTORY

Freedom Riders

May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24, 1961: the Riders boarded buses from Montgomery to Jackson, MS under National Guard escort. They were jailed upon arrival under the formal charges of incitement to riot, breach of the peace, and failure to obey a police officer. (BH, see May 31; FR, see June 12)

Vietnam

Senator Barry Goldwater & nuclear weapons
May 24, 1964: Senator Barry Goldwater (R-Arizona), running for the Republican Party nomination in the upcoming presidential election, gave an interview in which he discussed the use of low-yield atomic bombs in North Vietnam to defoliate forests and destroy bridges, roads, and railroad lines bringing supplies from communist China. During the storm of criticism that followed, Goldwater tried to back away from these drastic actions, claiming that he did not mean to advocate the use of atomic bombs but was "repeating a suggestion made by competent military people." Democrats painted Goldwater as a warmonger who was overly eager to use nuclear weapons in Vietnam. Though he won his party's nomination, Goldwater was never able to shake his image as an extremist in Vietnam policies. This image was a key factor in his crushing defeat by opponent Lyndon B. Johnson, who took about 61 percent of the vote to Goldwater's 39 percent. (Vietnam, see June 9; Goldwater & NN, see Sept 7)

FREE SPEECH

Lamont v. Postmaster General
May 24, 1965: the Supreme Court struck down a federal law that allowed the Post Office to deliver foreign “communist political propaganda” only upon the request of the recipient. The Court unanimously held the law to be an unconstitutional violation of the First Amendment.

                Corliss Lamont, who had challenged the Post Office restrictions, was a longtime civil libertarian and served for many years on the ACLU Board of Directors. (see June 7)
Virginia State Pharmacy Board v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council
May 24, 1976: the US Supreme Court held that a state could not limit pharmacists’ right to provide information about prescription drug prices. This was an important case in determining the application of the First Amendment to commercial speech. (see Oct 4, 1976)

The Beatles after live performances

May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24 – June 27, 1969: “Get Back” #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. (see May 26)
May 24 Peace Love Activism

Falklands War

May 24, 1982: frigate HMS Antelope abandoned after bomb detonates while being defused by disposal officer. (see May 25)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24, 1993: Eritrea independent from Ethiopia. (see July 4)

TERRORISM

World Trade Center
May 24, 1994: Judge Kevin T. Duffy sentenced Mohammed A. Salameh, Nidal A. Ayyad, Mahmud Abouhalima and Ahmad M. Ajaj, the four men convicted of bombing New York's World Trade Center  to 240 years each in prison. Duffy said they would have no possibility of parole.  NYT article (see Dec 30)

Native Americans

Executive Order 13007

May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24, 1996: President Clinton issued Executive Order 13007. It directed federal agencies, to the extent practicable and allowed by law, to allow Native Americans to worship at sacred sites located on federal property and to avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of such sites. (Native Americans, see Sept 20, 1998)

Immigration History

Equal Nationality Treaty

May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24, 1934: the Senate ratified the Equal Nationality Treaty and President signed it thus granting American women the right to transfer their nationality to their children. (Feminism, see December 7, 1936; IH, see December 17, 1943)
Fourth Amendment
May 24, 2013: Judge G. Murray Snow of the United States District Court for the District of Arizona ruled that the Maricopa County, Arizona, Sheriff’s Office (MCSO), led by Sheriff Joe Arpaio, violated the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution by conducting raids and traffic stops that targeted Latinos based on race.

                Statistical studies indicated that MCSO officers were between four and nine times more likely to stop a Latino driver than a similar non-Latino driver. In addition, though the MCSO’s authority to enforce federal immigration law was revoked in 2009, the office continued to conduct immigration-related raids and traffic stops for four years afterward, in violation of federal law and the Constitution. A law enforcement expert at the Department of Justice described the MCSO’s actions as the worst example of racial profiling that he had encountered. (4th, see Aug 12; Immigration, see Oct 17)

STAND YOUR GROUND LAW

Dana Mulhall

May 24 Peace Love Activism

May 24, 2013: a Flagler County jury  convicted Paul Miller, 66 of murder in the shooting death of his neighbor Dana Mulhall after an ongoing dispute prosecutors say was over a barking dog and rude remarks. The jury was told Miller went inside his house to retrieve his loaded hand gun off the top of a curio, concealed it by putting it in his back waistband before going outside and shooting Mulhall five times. "Miller’s actions prove he intended to kill Mr. Mulhall. He was combative in his language, gesture and actions," said Assistant State Attorney Jaquelyn Roys. "If indeed the defendant feared his neighbor, as he claimed, he had an opportunity to call the police when he went inside the house. Instead, Miller chose to confront his neighbor with gunfire."  Miller had claimed self-defense, saying he lived in fear of his neighbor. The jury deliberated 90 minutes before finding Miller guilty. (see June 18)

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May 23 Peace Love Activism

May 23 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

May 23 Peace Love Activism

May 23, 1922; the Senate Committee on the Judiciary concluded that the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill was unconstitutional and for that reason could not submit it to the Senate.(see June 14)
George Lincoln Rockwell

May 23 Peace Love Activism

May 23, 1961: George Lincoln Rockwell, center, self-styled leader of the American Nazi Party, and his "hate bus" with several young men wearing swastika arm bands, stops for gas in Montgomery, Alabama, en route to Mobile, Alabama. (see May 24)
137 SHOTS

May 23 Peace Love Activism

May 23, 2015: Judge John P. O'Donnell acquitted  Michael Brelo. O’Donnell stated, ““The state did not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant, Michael Brelo, knowingly caused the deaths of Timothy Russell and Malissa Williams.”

US Labor History

Toledo Auto-Lite strike

May 23 Peace Love Activism

May 23, 1934 (Wednesday): at the Toledo Auto-Lite strike,  the sheriff of Lucas County (Ohio) decided to take action against the picketers. In front of a crowd which numbered nearly 10,000, sheriff's deputies arrested five picketers. As the five were taken to jail, a deputy began beating an elderly man. Infuriated, the crowd began hurling stones, bricks and bottles at the sheriff's deputies. A fire hose was turned on the crowd, but the mob seized it and turned the hose back on the deputies. Many deputies fled inside the plant gates, and Auto-Lite managers barricaded the plant doors and turned off the lights. The deputies gathered on the roof and began shooting tear gas bombs into the crowd. So much tear and vomit gas was used that not even the police could enter the riot zone. The mob retaliated by hurling bricks and stones through the plant's windows for seven hours. The strikers overturned cars in the parking lot and set them ablaze. The inner tubes of car tires were turned into improvised slingshots, and bricks and stones launched at the building. Burning refuse was thrown into the open door of the plant's shipping department, setting it on fire. In the early evening, the rioters attempted to break into the plant and seize the replacement workers, security personnel and sheriff's deputies. Police fired shots at the legs of rioters to try to stop them. The gunfire was ineffective, and only one person was (slightly) wounded. Hand-to-hand fighting broke out as the rioters broke into the plant. The mob was repelled, but tried twice more to break into the facility before they gave up late in the evening. More than 20 people were reported injured during the melee. Auto-Lite president Clement O. Miniger was so alarmed by the violence that he ringed his home with a cordon of armed guards. (see May 24)

Judicial Milestone

Johnson v. Zerbst
May 23, 1938: the US Supreme Court held that the federal court had infringed upon Johnson’s life and liberty by not giving him counsel to defend him during trial. Johnson, had been convicted in federal court of feloniously possessing, uttering, and passing counterfeit money in a trial where he had not been represented by an attorney but instead by himself. Johnson filed for habeas corpus relief, claiming that his Sixth Amendment right to counsel had been violated, but he was denied by both a federal district court and the court of appeals.

This decision set the precedent that defendants [in federal court] have the right to be represented by an attorney unless they waive their right to counsel knowing full well the potential consequences. (see May 20, 1940)

Fourth Amendment

May 23 Peace Love Activism

May 23, 1957: three police officers arrived at a house in Cleveland and demanded to enter. They wanted to question a man about a recent bombing and believed he was hiding inside. A woman who lived there, Dollree Mapp, refused to admit them.

Mapp told the officers that she wanted to see a search warrant. They did not produce one. A few hours later, more officers arrived and forced their way into the house. Ms. Mapp called her lawyer and again asked to see a warrant. When one officer held up a piece of paper that he said was a warrant, Ms. Mapp snatched it and stuffed it into her blouse. The officer reached inside her clothing and snatched it back.

The officers handcuffed Ms. Mapp — they called her “belligerent” — and then searched her bedroom, where they paged through a photo album and personal papers. They also searched her young daughter’s room, the kitchen, a dining area and the basement.

They did not find the man they were looking for, but they did find what they said were sexually explicit materials — books and drawings that Ms. Mapp said had belonged to a previous boarder — and they arrested Ms. Mapp. (see June 19, 1961)

see May 23 Music et al for more

Theme from a Summer Place album
May 23 – 29, 1960: Theme from a Summer Place album again Billboard #1.
“Cathy’s Clown”
May 23 – June 26, 1960: “Cathy’s Clown” by the Everly Brothers #1 Billboard Hot 100.
Our Man In Paris
May 23, 1963,  Dexter Gordon released Our Man In Paris album
1969 Festivals…
see Aquarian Family Festival for more
May 23 – 24, 1969, Aquarian Family Festival, San Jose, CA. (on the San Jose State University football practice field)
see Northern California Folk-Rock Festival for more
May 23 – 25, 1969: Northern California Folk-Rock Festival (Santa Clara County Fairgrounds, San Jose, CA)
see Big Rock Pow Wow for more
May 23 – 25, 1969: Big Rock Pow Wow (Seminole Indian Village, Hollywood, FL).
May 23 Peace Love Activism

Feminism

see Deborah Sampson for more
May 23, 1983: Governor Michael J. Dukakis signed a proclamation which declared that Deborah Sampson was the Official Heroine of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.  Two news services stated this was the first time in US history that any state had proclaimed anyone as the official hero or heroine. (see June 18)

LGBTQ

BSA
May 23, 2013: the Boy Scouts of America ended its longstanding policy of forbidding openly gay youths to participate in its activities, a step its chief executive called “compassionate, caring and kind.” (LGBTQ see June 20; BSA, see Sept 7)

Vietnam

May 23 Peace Love Activism

May 23, 2016: President Obama announced at a news conference in Hanoi that the US had rescinded a ban on sales of lethal military equipment to Vietnam, ending one of the last legal vestiges of the Vietnam War.

Mr. Obama portrayed the decision as part of the long process of normalizing relations between the two countries after the Vietnam War. (see Dec 3)

 

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