September 9 Peace Love Activism
September 9, 1739: early on the morning of the 9th, a Sunday, about twenty slaves gathered near the Stono River in St. Paul's Parish, less than twenty miles from Charlestown. SC. The slaves went to a shop that sold firearms and ammunition, armed themselves, then killed the two shopkeepers who were manning the shop. From there the band walked to the house of a Mr. Godfrey, where they burned the house and killed Godfrey and his son and daughter. They headed south. It was not yet dawn when they reached Wallace's Tavern. Because the innkeeper at the tavern was kind to his slaves, his life was spared. The white inhabitants of the next six or so houses they reach were not so lucky -- all were killed. The slaves belonging to Thomas Rose successfully hid their master, but they were forced to join the rebellion. (They would later be rewarded. See Report re. Stono Rebellion Slave-Catchers.) Other slaves willingly joined the rebellion. By eleven in the morning, the group was about 50 strong. The few whites whom they now encountered were chased and killed, though one individual, Lieutenant Governor Bull, eluded the rebels and rode to spread the alarm.
The slaves stopped in a large field late that afternoon, just before reaching the Edisto River. They had marched over ten miles and killed between twenty and twenty-five whites.
Around four in the afternoon, somewhere between twenty and 100 whites had set out in armed pursuit. When they approached the rebels, the slaves fired two shots. The whites returned fire, bringing down fourteen of the slaves. By dusk, about thirty slaves were dead and at least thirty had escaped. Most were captured over the next month, then executed; the rest were captured over the following six months -- all except one who remained a fugitive for three years. (BH, see May 10, 1740; SR, see March and April 1741)
Dr. Ossian Sweet
September 9, 1925: Dr. Ossian Sweet, an African-American, bought a house in an all-white neighborhood in Detroit and moved in with his family. On this day, a white mob attacked the house, throwing stones and breaking upstairs windows. Dr. Sweet had asked nine other men to be in the house for protection, and some of them brought guns. Guns were fired at the mob, killing one man and wounding another. Sweet and his friends were arrested and tried for murder. The first trial ended in a hung jury. When Henry Sweet, Ossian’s brother, was acquitted in the second trial, the prosecutor dismissed the charges against the other defendants.
The trial involved two famous or soon-to-be-famous individuals. The judge was Frank Murphy, who later became Governor of Michigan, U.S. Attorney General, and a Supreme Court Justice (January 18, 1940). The defense attorney was Clarence Darrow, who had just finished handling the famous Scopes “Monkey Trial” that had begun on July 10, 1925. (see February 7, 1926)
Civil Rights Act of 1957
September 9, 1957: the the Civil Rights Act of 1957 was enacted. It was a voting rights bill and the first civil rights legislation enacted by the US Congress since Reconstruction. The bill passed the House with a vote of 285 to 126 (Republicans 167 yea - 19 nay, Democrats 118 yea -107 nay) and the Senate 72 to 18 (Republicans 43-0 yea, Democrats 29 yea -18 nay)
Agricultural Workers Association
In 1960: Dolores Huerta co-founded the Agricultural Workers Association to set up voter registration drives and pressed local governments for housing improvements. (Chavez, see see March 31, 1962; Voting Rights, see May 6)
School Desegregation, Tennessee
September 9, 1957: in September 1957 the public schools of Nashville, Tennessee, implemented a "stairstep plan" that began with a select group of first-graders and added one grade a year until all twelve grades were desegregated. Nineteen black first-graders enrolled in eight previously all-white schools. Organized white protesters, led by NJ segregationist John Kasper, appeared at most of the schools, but there was no violence. On September 9, the night after desegregation began, a dynamite explosion destroyed a wing of Hattie Cotton Elementary School, where one black child had enrolled.. A local Klansman surrendered to the FBI a few days later and he told Nashville police that he and Kasper had hidden dynamite in an abandoned house the night before the Hattie Cotton attack and that the explosives had gone missing. There was not enough evidence to hold any suspects. (Black History, see Sept 17; SD, see Sept 23)
September 9, 1962: terrorists burned two African-American churches used by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee for voter registration meetings in Sasser, Ga. (BH, see Sept 12; CB, see Dec 14)
School desegregation, Alabama
September 9, 1963: segregationist Governor George Wallace of Alabama angrily defended the “rights of whites” on this day, arguing that the presence of African-American students in public schools would be “disruptive.” He issued an executive order barring African-American students from all-white public schools in Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile, Alabama. (see Sept 10)
School Desegregation, Virginia
September 9, 1964: public schools in Prince Edward County, Virginia, reopened after being closed for five years by officials attempting to prevent court-ordered racial desegregation. (BH, see Sept 11; SD, see May 13, 1966)
School desegregation, Michigan
September 9, 1971: police arrested Robert Miles and the four other Klansmen for the August 30, 1971 bus bombing. (SD, see March 14, 1972; Miles, see April, 1973)
Murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner
September 9, 2005: judge Marcus Gordon sent Edgar Ray Killen, the former Klansman convicted of the 1964 killing of three civil rights workers in Mississippi, back to prison saying Killen had deceived the court about his health when he asked to be released on bond. The hearing was called after Mr. Killen, who was granted bail after testifying that he was confined to a wheelchair, was seen up and walking by sheriff's deputies.
Attica Prison Riot
September 9, 1971: prisoners in the New York State Attica Correctional Facility began a rebellion with about 1,000 prisoners seizing 42 prison employees as hostages. The prisoners’ grievances included many items of basic human decency: an end to serious overcrowding (the prison was built to hold 1,200 inmates but then held 2,225); being allowed only one shower per week; one roll of toilet paper per person per month. After four days of negotiation, New York officials had agreed to 28 of the inmates’ 42 demands, but refused to grant amnesty to the rebelling prisoners. (see Sept 13)
Murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner
September 9, 2005: judge Marcus Gordon sent Edgar Ray Killen, the former Klansman convicted of the 1964 killing of three civil rights workers in Mississippi, back to prison saying Killen had deceived the court about his health when he asked to be released on bond. The hearing was called after Mr. Killen, who was granted bail after testifying that he was confined to a wheelchair, was seen up and walking by sheriff's deputies. (BH, see Sept 28; Murders, see July 14, 2006)
September 9, 2008: a panel of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the kidnapping conviction of James Seale. (BH, see Oct 7; D/M Murders, see June 5, 2009)
Trayvon Martin Shooting
September 9, 2013: police questioned George Zimmerman after his wife, Shellie, reported that he had punched her father and threatened them with a gun. Afterward, Shellie Zimmerman and her father declined to press charges and Ms. Zimmerman later said she had not seen a gun. The police said they still had not decided whether to press charges against Mr. Zimmerman. (see Oct 29)
Immigration History & US Labor History
September 9, 1885: U.S. troops escorted the surviving Chinese back into the town where many of them returned to work. Eventually the Union Pacific fired 45 of the white miners for their roles in the September 2 massacre, but no effective legal action was ever taken against any of the participants. (LH, see April 25, 1886; IH, see February 25, 1886)
September 9, 1948: Day of the Foundation of the Republic North Korea. (see December 24, 1951)
Dissolution of the USSR, Tajikistan
September 9, 1991: Tajikistan declared its independence from the Soviet Union. (see Sept 21)
September 9 Music et al
Roots of Rock & Fear of Rock
September 9, 1956: Elvis Presley made his first appearance on the The Ed Sullivan Show. Actor Charles Laughton hosted as Sullivan himself had recently been in a very serious car accident that left him in the hospital.
Elvis was not on location in New York for the broadcast since he was in Los Angeles for the filming of Love Me Tender. When it came time for Elvis' appearance, Laughton introduced him and then cut to the stage in Hollywood with Elvis.
Elvis appeared with large, artistic guitars as decoration. Wearing a plaid jacket and holding his guitar, Elvis thanked Mr. Laughton and then said, "This is probably the greatest honor that I've ever had in my life." Elvis then sang, "Don't Be Cruel" with his four back-up singers (the Jordanaires) followed by "Love Me Tender," which was the not-yet-released title track from his new movie.
Although the cameras stayed mostly from the waist up on Elvis' first set on the show, the second set he appeared the camera widened out and the TV audience was able to see Elvis' gyrations. Elvis sang "Ready Teddy" and then ended with a portion of "Hound Dog."
Elvis' appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show was a major success. Over 60 million people, both young and old, watched the show and many people believe it helped bridge the generation gap for Elvis' acceptance into the mainstream. (Elvis, see July 6, 1957; RoR, see February 5, 1957)
Fear of Rock
In 1958: the Mutual Broadcasting System (radio) dropped all rock from its network music programs, calling it “distorted, monotonous, noisy music.”
To coincide with the ban, the network changed the title of its 21 hours of music programming from “Top 50” to “Pop 50.” Songs removed from play included “Splish Splash” by Bobby Darin and Elvis Presley’s “Hard Headed Woman.” (Rock is Dead source) (see January 12, 1958)
The Road to Bethel
September 9, 1969: the New York Times ran article that described the likely breakup of the Woodstock Ventures partners. Michael Lang and Artie Kornfeld agree to a buyout of $31,750 each. (see January 7, 1970)
September 9, 1971: John Lennon's second solo album, Imagine, released. The follow-up to John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band was a critical and commercial success and was Lennon's peak as a solo artist. (see Dec 10)
September 9, 1965: President Johnson signed legislation establishing the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (see January 18, 1966) NYT article
September 9, 1966: President Lyndon Johnson signed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act into law. Immediately afterward, he signed the Highway Safety Act. The two bills made the federal government responsible for setting and enforcing safety standards for cars and roads. Unsafe highways, Johnson argued, were a menace to public health: "In this century," Johnson said before he signed the bills, "more than 1,500,000 of our fellow citizens have died on our streets and highways; nearly three times as many Americans as we have lost in all our wars." It was a genuine crisis, and one that the automakers had proven themselves unwilling or unable to resolve. "Safety is no luxury item," the President declared, "no optional extra; it must be a normal cost of doing business." (see May 29, 1968)
September 9, 1968: a Federal grand jury was impaneled to consider criminal charges against anyone who had organized the Chicago protests at the Democratic Convention. President Johnson's Attorney General, Ramsey Clark, discouraged an indictment, believing that the violence during the convention was primarily caused by actions of the Chicago police. (Vietnam, see Sept 29; Chi8, see March 20, 1969)
Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers
September 9, 1971: The White House "plumbers" unit - named for their orders to plug leaks in the administration - burglarized a psychiatrist's office to find files on Daniel Ellsberg, the former defense analyst who leaked the Pentagon Papers. (Watergate, see June 17, 1972; Vietnam, see Oct 29; see DE/PP)
September 9 Peace Love Activism
September 9, 1980: a Federal district judge, ruling that the military had confusing standards for dealing with homosexual service personnel, ordered the Air Force to reinstate Leonard Matlovich five years after he was dismissed from the service for admitting his homosexuality. The Air Force offered Matlovich a financial settlement instead. Matlovich accepted. (LGBTQ, see July 3, 1981; Matlovich, see June 22, 1988)
September 9, 1983: CDC identified all major routes of HIV transmission—and ruled out transmission by casual contact, food, water, air, or environmental surfaces. (see Dec 6)
September 9, 1993: hours after a judge ordered him to stand trial in Thomas Hyde's death, Kevorkian is present at the death of cancer patient Donald O'Keefe, 73, in Redford Township, Michigan. (see Nov 5 – 8)
September 9, 1997: Sinn Fein, the Irish Republican Army's political ally, formally renounced violence as it took its place in talks on Northern Ireland's future. (see Dec 11)
Sexual Abuse of Children
September 9, 2003: in the largest known payout by a U.S. diocese to settle molestation charges, the Boston Archdiocese agrees to pay $85 million to settle more than 500 lawsuits from people who claim priests abused them. Victims will receive awards ranging from $80,000 to $300,000. David Clohessy, national director of the Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests, says of the deal, "For many victims, some kind of official, public acknowledgment that 'We were harmed' can be a real step toward healing." (see Nov 21)
September 9, 2005: U.S. Army Lieutenant General Russel L. Honoré and New Orleans Director of Homeland Security Terry Ebbert announced a "zero access" policy with regards to the media, in order to prevent members of the media from reporting on the recovery of dead bodies in New Orleans. CNN filed a lawsuit, then obtained a temporary restraining order to prevent government agencies from interfering with news coverage of recovery efforts. (see Sept 12)
Iraq War II
September 9, 2008: President Bush announced that about 8,000 US troops will be withdrawn from Iraq by February – with 4,500 being sent to Afghanistan. (see Nov 27)
September 9, 2010: Jones said, "As of right now, we are not convinced that backing down is the right thing." That evening, President Obama calls Koran burning a "stunt," and urges Jones not to go through with his plans. In a press conference with Musri, Jones says he will cancel the Koran burning event. During the conference Jones claims an agreement has been reached with Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf to move the mosque near Ground Zero and that a meeting has been planned with Jones and Imam Rauf on Sept. 11. Later reports quote Jones as saying, "We felt that that would be a sign that God would want us to do it...The American people do not want the mosque there and, of course, Muslims do not want us to burn the Quran." Jones also states he is against any other groups burning Korans.
After Jones’s announcement, AP reported that Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf said no agreement had been reached to move the mosque and the plans to build the mosque near Ground Zero would go forward as planned. Musri also says there was no agreement to move the mosque and that the only agreement reached was for Jones to meet with the imam overseeing the mosque on Sept. 11. Jones insists Musri promised him the mosque would be moved and that he would be "very, very disappointed" if it was not. (see Sept 10)
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