Category Archives: Today in history

September 10 Peace Love Activism

September 10 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

Lattimer Mine massacre
September 10, 1897: in Pennsylvania, Polish, Lithuanian and Slovak miners are gunned down by the Lattimer Mine’s sheriff deputies—19 dead, more than 50 wounded—during a peaceful march from Hazelton to Lattimer. Some 3,000 were marching for collective bargaining and civil liberty. The shooters were tried for murder but the jury failed to convict (see February 28, 1898)
Chicago teacher strike
September 10, 2012: the Chicago teachers union strike the nation’s third largest school system. (see Sept 18, 2012)

Emma Goldman

September 10 Peace Love Activism

September 10, 1901: a warrant was issued for Goldman’s arrest in connection with the (then) assassination attempt. Goldman gave herself up and was subjected to intensive interrogation. Though initially denied, bail was set at $20,000. She was never officially charged with a crime. (see Sept 14, 1901)

Women’s Health

September 10, 1915: William Sanger convicted re birth control literature. (from the NYT) Turbulent scenes followed the conviction…in Special Sessions of William Sanger, artist and architect, of having violated the Criminal Code in giving away a single copy of "Family Limitation," a pamphlet on birth control written by Margaret Sanger, his wife. He spent 30 days in jail. (see March 1, 1916)

Black History

African National Congress Youth League

African_National_Congress_Youth_League_logo

September 10, 1944: Nelson Mandela and other activists formed the African National Congress Youth League after becoming disenchanted with the cautious approach of the older members of the A.N.C. The league’s formation marked the shift of the congress to a mass movement. But its manifesto, so charged with pan-African nationalism, offended some non-black sympathizers.

In 1948 the white National Party took power in South Africa and set out to construct apartheid, a system of strict racial segregation and white domination.

In 1952: Mandela and Oliver Tambo opened South Africa’s first black law practice. (see December 5, 1956)
School desegregation
September 10, 1963: in January 1963, African American parents of students in Macon County, Alabama, sued the Macon County Board of Education to desegregate the county’s public schools. Though the United States Supreme Court had declared school segregation unconstitutional nearly nine years earlier, the board had taken no steps integrate local schools. In August 1963, Federal District Judge Frank Johnson ordered the school board to begin integration immediately.

The school board selected 13 African American students to integrate Tuskegee High School that fall. On September 2, 1963, the scheduled first day of integrated classes, Alabama Governor George Wallace had ordered the school closed due to “safety concerns.” The school reopened a week later, and on September 10, 1963, the second day of classes, white students began to withdraw. Within a week, all 275 white students had left the school.

Most fleeing white students enrolled at Macon Academy, a newly formed, all-white private school. In support of the school and its efforts to sidestep federal law to maintain school segregation, Governor Wallace and the school board approved the use of state funds to provide white students abandoning the public school system with scholarships to attend Macon Academy. Meanwhile, the Macon County School Board ordered Tuskegee High School closed due to low enrollment and split its remaining African American students among all-white high schools in Notasulga and Shorter, Alabama. White students in those high schools boycotted for several days and many eventually transferred to Macon Academy.

Macon-East Academy, the school relocated near Montgomery, Alabama, in 1995, and today (2015) operates as one of several private schools in the Alabama Black Belt with origins rooted in resistance to integration. As of the 2007 - 2008 school year, Macon-East Academy's student population of more than 400 was 98% white and less than 1% African American. NYT article (see Sept 12)
BLACK & SHOT
September 10, 2014: Darrien Hunt was shot seven times by Saratoga Springs, Utah, police who were investigating reports of a man with a sword on at a shopping center. Hunt's family said the sword was a replica. Police said Hunt refused to give up his sword and then started swinging it at them. An autopsy report determined that Hunt was shot seven times by officers, including several times in the back as he fled from police. The Hunt family's attorney, Bob Sykes, disputed assertions from cops that the 22-year-old acted aggressively. "I think it's a whitewash. I think it's an exaggeration," Sykes said. "I think they ignored good hard evidence to the contrary." (see Oct 20)

Religion and Public Education

September 10, 1945: the opening argument by Vashti McCollum's attorney, Landon Chapman, suggested the program was sectarian and social pressure from students and teachers was used to get all students to participate. Defense attorney John Franklin indicated similar programs existed in 46 states and 80 Illinois communities.

The Baptist Joint Committee submitted an amicus brief in support of McCollum, saying, "We must not allow our religious fervor to blind us to the essential fact that no religious faith is secure when it meshes its authority with that of the state." (see January 26, 1946)

FREE SPEECH

September 10, 1963: a New York state court ruled on this day that “trashy” novels “have a place in our society,” and deserved the same constitutional protection as recognized literary classics. The judge dismissed obscenity charges against three book distributors and their executives charged with selling obscene publications. He agreed that the 25 books in question were “poor writings, bad in taste, profane, offensive, disgusting and plain unvarnished trash.” Nonetheless, he ruled, they are entitled to First Amendment protection. (see January 6, 1964)

September 10 Music et al

You Can’t Hurry Love
September 10, 1966, the Supremes’ ”You Can’t Hurry Love” is Billboard #1 single.
 
Revolver 
revolverSeptember 10 – October 21, 1966:  Revolver became Billboard's #1 album. Released in the US on August 8, Richie Unterberger of Allmusic wrote: In many respects, Revolver is one of the very first psychedelic LPs – not only in its numerous shifts in mood and production texture, but in its innovative manipulation of amplification and electronics to produce new sounds on guitars and other instruments. Specific, widely-heralded examples include the backwards riffs of "I'm Only Sleeping", the sound effects of "Yellow Submarine", the sitar of "Love You To", the blurry guitars of "She Said, She Said", and above all the seagull chanting, buzzing drones, megaphone vocals, free-association philosophizing, and varispeed tape effects of "Tomorrow Never Knows"

Side 1

  • “Taxman” (George Harrison)
  • “Eleanor Rigby”
  • “Love You To” (Harrison)
  • “Here, There and Everywhere”
  • “Yellow Submarine”
  • “She Said She Said”

 Side 2

  • “Good Day Sunshine”
  • “For No One”
  • “I Want to Tell You” (Harrison)
  • “Got to Get You into My Life”
  • “Tomorrow Never Knows”
From Rolling Stone magazine: Revolver signaled that in popular music, anything – any theme, any musical idea – could now be realized. And, in the case of the Beatles, would be. (see Sept 26)

Vietnam & Cultural Milestone

September 10, 1967:  the second season of The Smothers Brothers Comedy Show begins with Pete Seeger appearing for the first time in 17 years since his 1950s blacklisting. He sang Waist Deep in the Big Muddy, but CBS dropped the performance when Seeger refused to edit the obviously anti-Viet Nam sentiments the old song presented. (CM, see Sept 17; Seeger, see February 25, 1968; Vietnam, see Sept 27)
 
September 10 Peace Love Activism

Dissolution of the USSR

September 10, 1989:  thousands of East Germans cross the Austria-Hungary frontier after Budapest waives border restrictions amid the largest legal exodus from eastern Europe since 1945. (see Nov 9)  Video on East German exodus

Stop and Frisk Policy

September 10, 2008:  a judge ordered that New York City and the NYPD  turn over all UF-250 (stop-and-frisk) data for the past 10 years.

By December 2008, 531,159 police had stopped New Yorkers. 271,602 were black (51 percent); 167,111 were Latino (32 percent); 57,407 were white (11 percent) (see May 1, 2009)

LGBTQ

Alan Turing
September 10, 2009: British Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for the way in which Turing was treated after the war. The statement read, in part: Thousands of people have come together to demand justice for Alan Turing and recognition of the appalling way he was treated. While Turing was dealt with under the law of the time, and we can't put the clock back, his treatment was of course utterly unfair, and I am pleased to have the chance to say how deeply sorry I and we all are for what happened to him. Alan and the many thousands of other gay men who were convicted, as he was convicted, under homophobic laws, were treated terribly. full statement[] (Turing, see December, 2011; LGBTQ, see Oct 28)

Terry Jones

September 10, 2010:  Jones told NBC's "Today" show that he will cancel Koran burning if he could meet with Rauf. Rauf insists no meeting has been planned with Jones and that he is committed to meeting with anyone "seriously committed to pursuing peace." (see Sept 11)

Native Americans & Environmental Issues

September 10, 2016:  the federal government ordered work to stop on one segment of the project in North Dakota and asked the Texas-based company building it to "voluntarily pause" action on a wider span that an American Indian tribe says holds sacred artifacts.

The government's order came minutes after a judge had rejected a request by the Standing Rock Sioux to halt construction of the $3.8 billion, four-state pipeline.

The tribe, whose cause drew thousands to join their protest, had challenged the Army Corps of Engineers' decision to grant permits for the pipeline at more than 200 water crossings. Tribal leaders alleged that the project violated several federal laws and wouldharm water supplies. The tribe also said ancient sites had been disturbed during construction. (NA, & EI, see Dec 4)

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September 9 Peace Love Activism

September 9 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Slave Revolts

September 9 Peace Love Activism

September 9, 1739: early on the morning of the 9th, a Sunday, about twenty slaves gathered near the Stono River in St. Paul's Parish, less than twenty miles from Charlestown. SC. The slaves went to a shop that sold firearms and ammunition, armed themselves, then killed the two shopkeepers who were manning the shop. From there the band walked to the house of a Mr. Godfrey, where they burned the house and killed Godfrey and his son and daughter. They headed south. It was not yet dawn when they reached Wallace's Tavern. Because the innkeeper at the tavern was kind to his slaves, his life was spared. The white inhabitants of the next six or so houses they reach were not so lucky -- all were killed. The slaves belonging to Thomas Rose successfully hid their master, but they were forced to join the rebellion. (They would later be rewarded. See Report re. Stono Rebellion Slave-Catchers.) Other slaves willingly joined the rebellion. By eleven in the morning, the group was about 50 strong. The few whites whom they now encountered were chased and killed, though one individual, Lieutenant Governor Bull, eluded the rebels and rode to spread the alarm.

The slaves stopped in a large field late that afternoon, just before reaching the Edisto River. They had marched over ten miles and killed between twenty and twenty-five whites.

Around four in the afternoon, somewhere between twenty and 100 whites had set out in armed pursuit. When they approached the rebels, the slaves fired two shots. The whites returned fire, bringing down fourteen of the slaves. By dusk, about thirty slaves were dead and at least thirty had escaped. Most were captured over the next month, then executed; the rest were captured over the following six months -- all except one who remained a fugitive for three years. (BH, see May 10, 1740; SR, see March and April 1741)
Dr. Ossian Sweet
September 9, 1925: Dr. Ossian Sweet, an African-American, bought a house in an all-white neighborhood in Detroit and moved in with his family. On this day, a white mob attacked the house, throwing stones and breaking upstairs windows. Dr. Sweet had asked nine other men to be in the house for protection, and some of them brought guns. Guns were fired at the mob, killing one man and wounding another. Sweet and his friends were arrested and tried for murder. The first trial ended in a hung jury. When Henry Sweet, Ossian’s brother, was acquitted in the second trial, the prosecutor dismissed the charges against the other defendants.

The trial involved two famous or soon-to-be-famous individuals. The judge was Frank Murphy, who later became Governor of Michigan, U.S. Attorney General, and a Supreme Court Justice (January 18, 1940). The defense attorney was Clarence Darrow, who had just finished handling the famous Scopes “Monkey Trial” that had begun on July 10, 1925. (see February 7, 1926)
Voting Rights
Civil Rights Act of 1957
September 9, 1957: the the Civil Rights Act of 1957 was enacted. It was a voting rights bill and the first civil rights legislation enacted by the US Congress since Reconstruction. The bill passed the House with a vote of 285 to 126 (Republicans 167 yea - 19 nay, Democrats 118 yea -107 nay) and the Senate 72 to 18 (Republicans 43-0 yea, Democrats 29 yea -18 nay)
Agricultural Workers Association
In 1960:  Dolores Huerta co-founded the Agricultural Workers Association to set up voter registration drives and pressed local governments for housing improvements. (Chavez, see see March 31, 1962; Voting Rights, see May 6)
School Desegregation, Tennessee

September 9 Peace Love Activism

September 9, 1957:  in September 1957 the public schools of Nashville, Tennessee, implemented a "stairstep plan" that began with a select group of first-graders and added one grade a year until all twelve grades were desegregated. Nineteen black first-graders enrolled in eight previously all-white schools. Organized white protesters, led by NJ segregationist John Kasper, appeared at most of the schools, but there was no violence. On September 9, the night after desegregation began, a dynamite explosion destroyed a wing of Hattie Cotton Elementary School, where one black child had enrolled.. A local Klansman surrendered to the FBI a few days later and he told Nashville police that he and Kasper had hidden dynamite in an abandoned house the night before the Hattie Cotton attack and that the explosives had gone missing. There was not enough evidence to hold any suspects. (Black History, see Sept 17; SD, see Sept 23)
Church Burning
September 9, 1962: terrorists burned two African-American churches used by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee for voter registration meetings in Sasser, Ga. (BH, see Sept 12; CB, see Dec 14)
School desegregation, Alabama
September 9, 1963: segregationist Governor George Wallace of Alabama angrily defended the “rights of whites” on this day, arguing that the presence of African-American students in public schools would be “disruptive.” He issued an executive order barring African-American students from all-white public schools in Birmingham, Tuskegee, and Mobile, Alabama. (see Sept 10)

School Desegregation, Virginia

September 9, 1964: public schools in Prince Edward County, Virginia, reopened after being closed for five years by officials attempting to prevent court-ordered racial desegregation. (BH, see Sept 11; SD, see May 13, 1966)
School desegregation, Michigan
September 9, 1971: police arrested Robert Miles and the four other Klansmen for the August 30, 1971 bus bombing. (SD, see March 14, 1972; Miles, see April, 1973)
Murders of Chaney, Goodman,  and Schwerner
September 9, 2005: judge Marcus Gordon sent Edgar Ray Killen, the former Klansman convicted of the 1964 killing of three civil rights workers in Mississippi, back to prison saying Killen had deceived the court about his health when he asked to be released on bond. The hearing was called after Mr. Killen, who was granted bail after testifying that he was confined to a wheelchair, was seen up and walking by sheriff's deputies.

Attica Prison Riot

September 9, 1971: prisoners in the New York State Attica Correctional Facility began a rebellion with about 1,000 prisoners seizing 42 prison employees as hostages. The prisoners’ grievances included many items of basic human decency: an end to serious overcrowding (the prison was built to hold 1,200 inmates but then held 2,225); being allowed only one shower per week; one roll of toilet paper per person per month. After four days of negotiation, New York officials had agreed to 28 of the inmates’ 42 demands, but refused to grant amnesty to the rebelling prisoners. (see Sept 13)
Murders of Chaney, Goodman,  and Schwerner
September 9, 2005: judge Marcus Gordon sent Edgar Ray Killen, the former Klansman convicted of the 1964 killing of three civil rights workers in Mississippi, back to prison saying Killen had deceived the court about his health when he asked to be released on bond. The hearing was called after Mr. Killen, who was granted bail after testifying that he was confined to a wheelchair, was seen up and walking by sheriff's deputies. (BH, see Sept 28; Murders, see July 14, 2006)
Dee/Moore Murders
September 9, 2008: a panel of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned the kidnapping conviction of James Seale. (BH, see Oct 7; D/M Murders, see June 5, 2009)
Trayvon Martin Shooting
September 9, 2013: police questioned George Zimmerman after his wife, Shellie, reported that he had punched her father and threatened them with a gun. Afterward, Shellie Zimmerman and her father declined to press charges and Ms. Zimmerman later said she had not seen a gun. The police said they still had not decided whether to press charges against Mr. Zimmerman. (see Oct 29)

Immigration History & US Labor History

September 9, 1885: U.S. troops escorted the surviving Chinese back into the town where many of them returned to work. Eventually the Union Pacific fired 45 of the white miners for their roles in the September 2 massacre, but no effective legal action was ever taken against any of the participants. (LH, see April 25, 1886; IH, see February 25, 1886)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

North Korea

September 9 Peace Love Activism

September 9, 1948:  Day of the Foundation of the Republic North Korea. (see December 24, 1951)
Dissolution of the USSR, Tajikistan

September 9 Peace Love Activism

September 9, 1991: Tajikistan declared its independence from the Soviet Union. (see Sept 21)

September 9 Music et al

Roots of Rock & Fear of Rock
September 9, 1956: Elvis Presley made his first appearance on the The Ed Sullivan Show.  Actor Charles Laughton hosted as Sullivan himself had recently been in a very serious car accident that left him in the hospital.

Elvis was not on location in New York for the broadcast since he was in Los Angeles for the filming of Love Me Tender. When it came time for Elvis' appearance, Laughton introduced him and then cut to the stage in Hollywood with Elvis.

Elvis appeared with large, artistic guitars as decoration. Wearing a plaid jacket and holding his guitar, Elvis thanked Mr. Laughton and then said, "This is probably the greatest honor that I've ever had in my life." Elvis then sang, "Don't Be Cruel" with his four back-up singers (the Jordanaires) followed by "Love Me Tender," which was the not-yet-released title track from his new movie.

Although the cameras stayed mostly from the waist up on Elvis' first set on the show, the second set he appeared the camera widened out and the TV audience was able to see Elvis' gyrations. Elvis sang "Ready Teddy" and then ended with a portion of "Hound Dog."

Elvis' appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show was a major success. Over 60 million people, both young and old, watched the show and many people believe it helped bridge the generation gap for Elvis' acceptance into the mainstream. (Elvis, see July 6, 1957; RoR, see February 5, 1957)

ElvisEd


Fear of Rock

In 1958: the Mutual Broadcasting System (radio) dropped all rock from its network music programs, calling it “distorted, monotonous, noisy music.”


To coincide with the ban, the network changed the title of its 21 hours of music programming from “Top 50” to “Pop 50.” Songs removed from play included “Splish Splash” by Bobby Darin and Elvis Presley’s “Hard Headed Woman.” (Rock is Dead source) (see January 12, 1958)


The Road to Bethel
September 9, 1969: the New York Times ran article that described the likely breakup of the Woodstock Ventures partners. Michael Lang and Artie Kornfeld agree to a buyout of $31,750 each. (see January 7, 1970)
Imagine

September 9 Peace Love Activism

September 9, 1971: John Lennon's second solo album, Imagine, released. The follow-up to  John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band was a critical and commercial success and was Lennon's peak as a solo artist. (see Dec 10)

Fair Housing

September 9, 1965: President Johnson signed legislation establishing the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (see January 18, 1966)  NYT article

Consumer Protection

September 9, 1966: President Lyndon Johnson signed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act into law. Immediately afterward, he signed the Highway Safety Act. The two bills made the federal government responsible for setting and enforcing safety standards for cars and roads. Unsafe highways, Johnson argued, were a menace to public health: "In this century," Johnson said before he signed the bills, "more than 1,500,000 of our fellow citizens have died on our streets and highways; nearly three times as many Americans as we have lost in all our wars." It was a genuine crisis, and one that the automakers had proven themselves unwilling or unable to resolve. "Safety is no luxury item," the President declared, "no optional extra; it must be a normal cost of doing business." (see May 29, 1968)

Vietnam

Chicago 8
September 9, 1968: a Federal grand jury was impaneled to consider criminal charges against anyone who had organized the Chicago protests at the Democratic Convention. President Johnson's Attorney General, Ramsey Clark, discouraged an indictment, believing that the violence during the convention was primarily caused by actions of the Chicago police. (Vietnam, see Sept 29; Chi8, see March 20, 1969)
Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers
September 9, 1971: The White House "plumbers" unit - named for their orders to plug leaks in the administration - burglarized a psychiatrist's office to find files on Daniel Ellsberg, the former defense analyst who leaked the Pentagon Papers. (Watergate, see June 17, 1972; Vietnam, see Oct 29; see DE/PP)
September 9 Peace Love Activism


Matlovich_time_cover

LGBTQ

September 9, 1980: a Federal district judge, ruling that the military had confusing standards for dealing with homosexual service personnel, ordered the Air Force to reinstate Leonard Matlovich five years after he was dismissed from the service for admitting his homosexuality. The Air Force offered Matlovich a financial settlement instead.  Matlovich accepted. (LGBTQ, see July 3, 1981; Matlovich, see June 22, 1988)

AIDS

September 9, 1983: CDC identified all major routes of HIV transmission—and ruled out transmission by casual contact, food, water, air, or environmental surfaces. (see Dec 6)

Jack Kevorkian

September 9, 1993: hours after a judge ordered him to stand trial in Thomas Hyde's death, Kevorkian is present at the death of cancer patient Donald O'Keefe, 73, in Redford Township, Michigan. (see Nov 5 – 8)

Irish Troubles

September 9, 1997:  Sinn Fein, the Irish Republican Army's political ally, formally renounced violence as it took its place in talks on Northern Ireland's future. (see Dec 11)

Sexual Abuse of Children

September 9, 2003: in the largest known payout by a U.S. diocese to settle molestation charges, the Boston Archdiocese agrees to pay $85 million to settle more than 500 lawsuits from people who claim priests abused them. Victims will receive awards ranging from $80,000 to $300,000. David Clohessy, national director of the Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests, says of the deal, "For many victims, some kind of official, public acknowledgment that 'We were harmed' can be a real step toward healing." (see Nov 21)

Hurricane Katrina

September 9, 2005: U.S. Army Lieutenant General Russel L. Honoré and New Orleans Director of Homeland Security Terry Ebbert announced a "zero access" policy with regards to the media, in order to prevent members of the media from reporting on the recovery of dead bodies in New Orleans. CNN filed a lawsuit, then obtained a temporary restraining order to prevent government agencies from interfering with news coverage of recovery efforts. (see Sept 12)

Iraq War II

September 9, 2008: President Bush announced that about 8,000 US troops will be withdrawn from Iraq by February – with 4,500 being sent to Afghanistan. (see Nov 27)

Terry Jones

September 9, 2010:  Jones said, "As of right now, we are not convinced that backing down is the right thing." That evening, President Obama calls Koran burning a "stunt," and urges Jones not to go through with his plans. In a press conference with Musri, Jones says he will cancel the Koran burning event. During the conference Jones claims an agreement has been reached with Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf to move the mosque near Ground Zero and that a meeting has been planned with Jones and Imam Rauf on Sept. 11. Later reports quote Jones as saying, "We felt that that would be a sign that God would want us to do it...The American people do not want the mosque there and, of course, Muslims do not want us to burn the Quran." Jones also states he is against any other groups burning Korans.

After Jones’s announcement, AP reported that Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf said no agreement had been reached to move the mosque and the plans to build the mosque near Ground Zero would go forward as planned. Musri also says there was no agreement to move the mosque and that the only agreement reached was for Jones to meet with the imam overseeing the mosque on Sept. 11. Jones insists Musri promised him the mosque would be moved and that he would be "very, very disappointed" if it was not. (see Sept 10)

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September 8 Peace Love Activism

September 8 Peace Love Activism

Cold War

Korea divided
September 8, 1945: U.S. troops land in Korea to begin their postwar occupation of the southern part of that nation, almost exactly one month after Soviet troops had entered northern Korea to begin their own occupation. Although the U.S. and Soviet occupations were supposed to be temporary, the division of Korea quickly became permanent. NYT article (see Nov 16)
SEATO
September 8, 1954: the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization  formed. It was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact. It was primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia. (see Nov 27)

BLACK HISTORY

Clyde Kennard
September 8, 1959: in 1955, Clyde Kennard, a black U.S. Army veteran and Mississippi native, had attempted to enroll in Mississippi Southern College, an all-white public university in the city of Hattiesburg. Mr. Kennard's credentials met the criteria for admission, but his application was denied because he was unable to provide references from five alumni in his home county.

In December 1958, in a letter to a local newspaper, Mr. Kennard announced his intent to re-apply to the university. In response, the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission – a state agency formed to protect segregation – hired investigators to research Mr. Kennard's background and uncover details that could be used to discredit him; these attempts were unsuccessful. Soon after, Mr. Kennard withdrew his application after the governor of Mississippi personally requested that he do so.

On September 8, 1959, Mr. Kennard once again tried to apply for admission to Mississippi Southern College. In a letter written to the college's administration, he declared that, if again rejected, he would sue the University for denying him admission based on his race. After he unsuccessfully tried to register for courses on September 15, 1959, Mr. Kennard was charged with illegal possession of alcohol.

Despite this legal retaliation, Mr. Kennard continued his attempts to register at Mississippi Southern. In September of 1960, he was arrested and charged with assisting in stealing $25 worth of chicken feed from a local store. Although there was little evidence against him, an all-white jury convicted him of being an accessory to burglary, and he was sentenced to seven years in state prison. BH, see January 5, 1960; Kennard, see July 4, 1963)
James H Meredith
September 8, 1965: Columbia University Law School accepted Meredith. (BH, see Sept 24; Meredith, see June 5, 1966)

Black Panthers

September 8 Peace Love Activism

September 8, 1968: a jury deliberated for four days and in the end come up with a compromise verdict, convicting Huey Newton of voluntary manslaughter. He was acquitted of the assault charge and the kidnap charges were dropped. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover declared the Black Panther Party "greatest threat to the internal security of the country". (see Sept 28)
BLACK & SHOT
September 8, 2015: the city of Baltimore reached a $6.4 million settlement in a lawsuit filed by the family of Freddie Gray, the 25-year-old man black man who died in April after suffering a critical injury while in police custody. The settlement plan would go to the city's spending oversight board on the following day for formal approval, the mayor's office said. Gray's death triggered sometimes violent protests, accompanied by devastating looting and arson in Baltimore, and prompted a national outcry. It ultimately led to the firing of Police Commissioner Anthony Batts. (see Nov 15)

Consumer Protection

September 8, 1961: statistical evidence linking heavy smoking with heart disease was reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Drs. Daniel J Nathan and Dr. David M. Spain had studed 3,000 men. They found that for smokers of over 40 cigarettes daily and aged under 51 years, their chance of having coronary heart disease almost doubled. Further, among those studied that had coronary heart disease, 57% of heavy smokers suffered heart attacks, as compared to only 31% of light smokers. The doctors said it remained an "open question" whether the statistics were proof that heavy smoking was a cause of hardening of coronary arteries. Only a four-sentence article on page 3 appeared in the New York Times. (see January 11, 1964)

US Labor History

United Farm Workers

September 8 Peace Love Activism

September 8, 1965: Filipino American grape workers walk out on strike against Delano, California, table and wine grape growers, protesting years of poor pay and working conditions. Latino farm workers soon joined them, and the strike and subsequent boycott lasted more than five years (see Sept 16, 1965)
NJ Unions
September 8, 2015: another 16 New Jersey public worker unions asked the U.S. Supreme Court to consider whether the state's highest court erred by declaring a pension funding agreement between the state and employees unenforceable.

In a petition filed with the U.S. Supreme Court, lawyers for 16 labor groups — including the New Jersey Education Association, Communications Workers of America and the Policemen's Benevolent Association — argued that the New Jersey Supreme Court should have applied the protections of the federal Contract Clause to the deal.

Hetty Rosenstein, state director for the CWA, that the organizations will "leave no stone unturned."

"One way or another we will protect these pensions. We will never allow the state of New Jersey to destroy the pensions that 800,000 people depend on," she said. (see Dec 4)

Cultural Milestone

September 8 Peace Love Activism

September 8, 1966: the TV series "Star Trek" premiered on NBC. (see February 5, 1967)
September 8 Peace Love Activism

Watergate Scandal

September 8, 1974: though never indicted of any crimes, Gerald Ford gave an unconditional pardon to Richard Nixon.  [Ford's pardon proclamation] (see Oct 4)

Religion and Public Education

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
September 8, 1981: voters in the Clear Creek, Iowa, school district voted overwhelmingly on this day to reject a proposal to make the Bible a textbook in the district’s schools. The vote was 689 to 90. The Iowa Civil Liberties Union hailed the vote as a victory over “religious zealots.” (Religion, see January 6, 1983; Separation, see January 6, 1983)

Dissolution of Yugoslavia

INDEPENDENCE DAY
September 8, 1991: the Republic of Macedonia becomes independent. (Yugo, see Oct 8; ID see Sept 9)

Iraq War II

September 8, 2006:  a Senate report faulted intelligence gathering in the lead-up to the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq. NYT article (see Nov 5)

Terry Jones

September 8, 2010:  Jones remained steadfast, claiming he has received more than 100 death threats and that he has begun carrying a pistol. That evening, Imam Muhammad Musri emerges from a meeting with Jones, saying he is hopeful Jones will change his mind. (see Sept 9)

Occupy Wall Street

September 8 Peace Love Activism

September 8, 2011: “Chris” launched the Tumblr page, "We Are the 99 Percent," (see Sept 17)

Westboro Baptist Church

September 8 Peace Love Activism
September 8, 2014: a new billboard with the message "Gods Loves Gays" debuted in Topeka, Kansas, the home city of the Westboro Baptist Church. "The Facebook God," a satirical Facebook page with more than 1.7 million "likes," raised more than $80,000 on the crowd-funding platform Indiegogo in order to mount the billboard. "This hate group goes around saying that God hates gay people," an animated depiction of God says in a YouTube video uploaded to the Indiegogo page. "Nonsense! I love gay people. These Westboro psychos protest at the funerals of soldiers, murdered children and more. How dare they!" (see March 24, 2016)

LGBTQ

September 8, 2015: Kim Davis was released from jail on Tuesday but would not say whether she would begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples, was not at work the next day. A lawyer for Ms Davis, Mathew D Staver, said Ms. Davis would “return soon.”. After spending five nights in jail, he said, Ms Davis “needs some rest and time with the family.”

Ms. Davis spoke at a rally after she was ordered freed, saying: “I just want to give God the glory. His people have rallied, and you are a strong people.” Kim Davis has emerged as a heroine to religious conservatives.

The Federal District Court judge who ordered Ms. Davis detained, David L Bunning, said she could go free because her office was “fulfilling its obligation to issue marriage licenses to all legally eligible couples.” But he warned Ms Davis not to interfere “directly or indirectly, with the efforts of her deputy clerks to issue marriage licenses to all legally eligible couples.” (see Sept 14)

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