Tag Archives: Native Americans

Native American Baby Veronica

Native American Baby Veronica
What happens when a father who at first didn’t want his child, changes his mind? What happens if the father is Native American and a non-Native American couple adopt the child?
This is the long court battle for Native American baby Veronica Brown.
Native American Baby Veronica

Dustin Brown’s decision

In April 2009: Veronica’s birth parents’ relationship ended because the Dustin Brown, the birth father and partially a Cherokee Indian, abandoned his parental responsibilities and was unwilling to financially support Christy Maldonado, the mother of his unborn child.
May 2009: Christy continued providing updates to birth father about pregnancy. Phone records show no response from birth father.
Native American Baby Veronica

Christy Maldonado’s decision

June 2009: Christy decided adoption was best for her unborn child. She was already struggling financially as a single mother of two children and knew it would be even more difficult to provide for a third child without help from the birth father.  Brown responded that he would to sign away his rights.
July 2009: Christy selected Matt and Melanie Capobiancos to raise her child. Christy felt a connection with them and continues to work double shifts to make ends meet for her and her two children. She had not seen Brown in months.
Native American Baby Veronica

Adoptive relationship

August 2009: Melanie and Christy begin speaking weekly. Melanie flew to Oklahoma to visit Christy.  Christy and the Capobiancos filed paperwork is with agencies and attorneys.

Dusten’s first name was misspelled (“Dustin”), but Christy brought it to their attention. Dusten was inadvertently spelled Dustin. Christy is unaware of birth father’s exact birth date.

Native American Baby Veronica

Later Key Points

  1. Maldonado provided her attorney with father’s correctly spelled name and location and what she believed to be his date of birth.
  2. her attorney forwarded this information to Cherokee Nation in a letter dated August 21, 2009. She testified she knew father’s birthday was in October and that he was older than she was, so Father’s year of birth was sometime before 1982.
  3. During oral arguments at SC Supreme Court hearing, Cherokee Nation acknowledge only 8 members (out of 316,000+) have the same first and last name as birth father using both “i” and “e.”
Native American Baby Veronica

Baby Veronica adopted

Sept. 15, 2009:Veronica is born; Matt and Melanie Capobianco bring her to their James Island, South Carolina home shortly afterward.
Brown was located after numerous attempts and served papers allowing the adoption to be finalized. He signed and acknowledged to Christy that he signed.
Native American Baby Veronica

Adoption challenged

On January 14, 2010, Brown filed for paternity and custody. He did not indicate that Veronica or himself were Native American.
February 2010: Brown overseas with the Army.
April 2010: Brown amended  paperwork to reflect that he and Veronica have Native American blood.
Native American Baby Veronica

Cherokee Nation intervenes

May 2010: Paternity results come back and confirm Brown is Veronica’s biological father. Veronica is now 8 months old.
Native American Baby Veronica

Oklahoma > South Carolina

July 2010: Oklahoma dismissed Brown’s challenge, but the case was transferred to South Carolina. Veronica 10 months old.
December 2010: Brown returned to Oklahoma. He made no attempts to contact Christy, Matt, Melanie, or 15-month-old Veronica.
Native American Baby Veronica

Indian Welfare Act

July 2011: South Carolina sets family court date and declares that the Indian Child Welfare Act applied to Veronica’s case. The Act is a 1978 Federal law that governs jurisdiction over the removal of Native American children from their families.
Family court is held on September 12-16. Christy testified on behalf of the Capobiancos.
November 2011: A South Carolina family court judge ruled in Brown’s favor and an appellate court agreed.
Native American Baby Veronica

Veronica Brown

December 31, 2011: Brown brings Veronica to Oklahoma.
January 2012:  the Capobiancos appealed to the South Carolina Supreme Court.
February 2012: South Carolina Supreme Court agreed to hear case. It was the state Supreme Court’s first time weighing in on a case involving the Indian Child Welfare Act.
A number of mental health and child welfare professionals from around the country issue a letter stating their opposition to the transfer of Veronica to Dusten, particularly the abruptness of the move–“When secure attachment is severed, a child may become embroiled in a variety of negative responses, including distress, anger, rage, fear, shame, and humiliation.”
Native American Baby Veronica

In Brown’s Favor

July 2012: the South Carolina Supreme Court  ruled  3- 2 that the 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act favored the biological father of the girl.
It stated: “We do not take lightly the grave interests at stake in this case. However, we are constrained by the law and convinced by the facts that the transfer of custody to Father was required under the law. Adoptive Couple are ideal parents who have exhibited the ability to provide a loving family environment for Baby Girl. Thus, it is with a heavy heart that we affirm the family court order.”
Native American Baby Veronica

Supreme Court Appeal

October 2012: Attorneys for Matt and Melanie submitted petition to the United States Supreme Court on October 1.
January 5, 2013: The United States Supreme Court announced acceptance of Veronica’s Indian Child Welfare Act Adoption Case. Details can be found on the SCOTUS Blog.
April 15, 2013: The U.S. Supreme Court heard the Capobiancos’ appeal
Native American Baby Veronica

Supreme Court decision

June 25, 2013: in Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl, a Minor Child Under the Age of FourteenYears,the US Supreme Court decided  5 – 4 that a Native American child did not have to be taken away from her adoptive parents and given to her biological father. That decision simply allowed for the possibility of the Capobiancos adopting Veronica.

Native American Baby Veronica

Back to South Carolina

July 17, 2013: in a 3-2 decision the South Carolina Supreme Court awarded custody of Veronica Brown to Matt and Melanie Capobianco and ordered the lower family court to finalize the adoption.

Native American Baby Veronica

More intervention

Native American Baby Veronica

July 22, 2013:  three of largest Native American organizations prepared to intervene.

At a press conference, representatives from the National Congress of American Indians, the Native American Rights Fund and the National Indian Child Welfare Association announced plans to file a civil rights lawsuit if the South Carolina Supreme Court did not reconsider its decision to terminate Cherokee Nation citizen Dusten Brown’s parental rights without a “best interest” custody hearing.

July 31, 2013: the three Native American organizations filed a federal civil rights complaint on behalf of the now three-year-old Veronica.

The complaint argued that, “As a matter of law, the actions of the state courts of South Carolina have deprived the plaintiff (Veronica) of a meaningful opportunity to be heard on the matter of her current best interests before being transferred from her father to an adoptive couple.”

Native American Baby Veronica

Native American Support

More than 40 tribes, attorneys general, scholars and organizations signed a letter in support of the lawsuit, including the Inter-tribal Council of the Five Civilized Tribes, of which Veronica and Dusten Brown’s tribe, the Cherokee Nation, were a member.

Through a spokeswoman, the council released the following statement: “A severe injustice has been committed to an innocent Cherokee child and her loving family in Oklahoma. The Brown family, including Veronica, deserves their due process. They do not deserve to have their lives forever transformed by the South Carolina judicial system without cause or consideration. Indian children being removed from their families and homes is not a new story in Indian Country. Those dark days have reared their head again sadly in South Carolina. We will stand with Veronica, the Browns, and national tribal organizations fighting for fairness and justice.”

Veronica Brown continued to live with Dusten.

Native American Baby Veronica

August 2013

August 1, 2013: The U.S. Supreme Court refuses to intervene.
The week of August 4, 2013: Veronica’s transition was scheduled, but Brown never showed up. A family court judge ordered her immediate handover.
  • August 6 – Judge Martin issued an enforcement order for Brown to immediately transfer Veronica back to her lawful parents and asked for assistance from law enforcement if needed.
  • August 11 – Matt and Melanie Capobianco held a press conference in Charleston asking for help locating their daughter.
  • August 12 – SC Governor Nikki Haley signs extradition warrant for Brown. “Gov. Haley has been working with law enforcement and the solicitor’s office to issue a requisition warrant today,” said spokesman Doug Mayer. “She stands in support of the Capobiancos and shares their desire to bring Veronica home safely.”
  • August 13 – Brown turned himself into authorities in Sequoyah County, Oklahoma.
  • August 13 – Matt and Melanie left for Oklahoma.
  • August 14 – a press conference held at the Hyatt Regency in Tulsa. Immediately following the press conference, OK Governor Mary Fallin released a statement asking Brown to let Matt and Melanie see Veronica.
  • August 15 – Matt and Melanie determined that the Cherokee Nation was hiding Veronica on tribal land and requested a writ of habeaus corpus in Cherokee County, Oklahoma.
  • August 16 – Court hearing held in Cherokee County. Mediation is ordered and a gag order put in place.
  • August 30 – Nowata County, Oklahoma recognized Veronica’s adoption. Biological father appeals to Oklahoma Supreme Court.
Native American Baby Veronica

Oklahoma Supreme Court

August 30, 2013: the Oklahoma Supreme Court granted an emergency stay to keep Veronica with Dusten Brown and planned to hear arguments from his lawyers and those of the girl’s adoptive parents.

  • Sept. 4 – Governor Mary Fallin signed extradition warrant.
  • Sept. 5 – Dusten Brown turned in himself and he is released on bail.
  • Sept. 12 – Oklahoma Supreme Court assigned case to court of civil appeals.
  • Sept. 16 – Mediation hearings begin in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Native American Baby Veronica

Veronica Capobianco

September 23, 2013: after the Oklahoma Supreme Court ruled it would not intervene, Veronica, now 4-years-old, handed over to Matt and Melanie Capobianco

Cherokee Nation spokeswoman Amanda Clinton confirmed the announcement via social media: “It is with a heavy heart that I can confirm Veronica Brown was peacefully handed over to Matt and Melanie Capobianco (this) evening,” she tweeted. “Updates will be forthcoming, but the transition was handled peacefully and with dignity by all parties. Please keep Veronica in your prayers.”

Native American Baby Veronica

Statement from Capobiancos

Nearly 21 months ago, we vowed to do everything legally possible to reunite our family. While we are overjoyed to bring Veronica home, we sympathize with the Brown family during this difficult time. Despite our differences, and everything that has happened over the last several months, we all love Veronica and want what is best for her. We are grateful that the visits we’ve enjoyed with our daughter allowed us to reconnect as a family and ease her transition home. We are all doing well and our focus now is on healing and getting our life back to normal. While we recognize there are many who have taken a strong interest in Veronica’s case, we ask for privacy during this precious time with our daughter. We are eternally grateful for the overwhelming outpouring of prayers and support for our family.

Native American Baby Veronica

Dusten Brown ends fight

October 10, 2013: Brown said he and the Cherokee Nation were dropping the legal fight to regain custody.

I know we did everything in our power to keep Veronica home with her family,” Brown said in Oklahoma. “Veronica is only 4 years old, but her entire life has been lived in front of the media and the entire world. I cannot bear for [it to continue] any longer…. I love her too much to continue to have her in the spotlight. It is not fair for her to be in front of media at all times,” he said. “It was the love for my daughter that finally gave me the strength to accept things that are beyond my control.”

Native American Baby Veronica

Bitter aftermath

November 26, 2013: Matt and Melanie Capobianco filed a motion to collect more than $1 million in attorneys’ fees from Brown and his tribe. Court documents filed by the Cherokee Nation state it would be “inappropriate, unreasonable and unconscionable” for the adopted parents of a 4-year-old Cherokee girl to seek the legal fees.

The Capobiancos dropped the suit in January 2016.

Native American Baby Veronica
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November 16 Peace Love Activism

November 16 Peace Love Activism

LSD

Louis Lewin


In 1886 Louis Lewin, a German pharmacologist, published the first systematic study of the the cactus from which mescal buttons were obtained (his own name was subsequently given to the plant: Anhalonium lewinii).


The plant was new to science, but not to the Indians of Mexico and the American Southwest. It was (according to Aldous Huxley’s 1954 essay, The Doors of Perception), “a friend of immemorially long standing. Indeed, it was much more than a friend. In the words of one of the early Spanish visitors to the New World, “they eat a root which they call peyote, and which they venerate as though it were a deity.”

Albert Hoffman

November 16 Peace Love Activism


November 16, 1938: Albert Hofmann, a chemist working for Sandoz Pharmaceutical in Basel, Switzerland, was the first to synthesize LSD-25. He discovered LSD, a semi-synthetic derivative of ergot alkaloids, while looking for a blood stimulant.


He set it aside for five years, until April 16, 1943, when he decided to take a second look at it. While re-synthesizing LSD, he accidentally absorbed a small amount of the drug through his fingertips and discovered its powerful effects.(see April 16, 1943)

Cold War

November 16, 1945:  in a move that stirred up some controversy, the US shipped 88 German scientists to America to assist the nation in its production of rocket technology. Most of the men had served under the Nazi regime and critics questioned the morality of placing them in the service of America. Nevertheless, the U.S. government, desperate to acquire the scientific know-how that had produced the terrifying and destructive V-1 and V-2 rockets for Germany during WWII, and fearful that the Russians were also utilizing captured German scientists for the same end, welcomed the men with open arms.  (see January 31, 1946)

Religion and Public Education

November 16, 1947:  in support of Vashti McCollum’s case, a Baptist group said that programs of religious instruction in public school buildings were "an invasion of the time-honored doctrine of the separation of church and state." (see Nov 20)

Vietnam

Kennedy to…
November 16 Peace Love Activism
“President Kennedy has decided on the measures that the United States is prepared to take to strengthen South Vietnam against attack by Communists.”
November 16, 1961: President Kennedy decided to increase military aid to South Vietnam without committing U.S. combat troops. (NYT Article) (see Nov 18)
…Clinton
November 16, 2000: Bill Clinton became the first sitting U.S. President to visit Vietnam. (Vietnam)
Sons and Daughters In Touch
Spring 2003: Sons and Daughters In Touch led an historic two week journey to Vietnam. Guided by Vietnam combat veterans and nurses who served in the war, more than 50 Gold Star ‘sons and daughters’ were able to stand in the precise location where their fathers were lost. While in Vietnam, the SDIT delegation also visited Ho Chi Minh City, the Mekong Delta, Cu Chi, Da Nang, Quang Tri, Khe San, China Beach, Hue City and Hanoi. (see August 20, 2009)

see November 16 Music et al for more

Beatles Christmas Show
November 16, 1963: tickets for The Beatles’ Christmas Show sold out. CBS News bureau London – at the suggestion of Beatles’ manager Brian Epstein – sent a news crew to the British seaside resort of Bournemouth where they film a Beatles concert, thousands of screaming fans, and a few Beatles’ comments on camera.  This film clip is later sent to New York. (see Nov 21)

Deep Purple

November 16 – 22, 1963,  “Deep Purple” by Nino Tempo and April Stevens #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. [In 1968 Richie Blackmore suggested the title as the name for his new band named after his grandmother's favorite song.]
Jimi Hendrix
November 16 – 29, 1968: Electric Ladyland the Billboard #1 album.  (see June 20, 1969)
Mind Games
November 16, 1973: US release of Lennon’s fourth album, Mind Games.  (see Nov 24)
Whatever Gets You Through The Night
November 16, 1974,: John Lennon was at No.1 in the US singles chart with 'Whatever Gets You Through The Night.' Elton John played on the session and made a deal with Lennon that if the song reached No.1, Lennon would have to appear on stage live with Elton. Lennon kept his side of the deal and appeared live with Elton. They played three songs together: ‘I Saw Her Standing There,’ ‘Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds’ and ‘Whatever Gets You Through the Night.’ Backstage after the concert, Lennon got back with Yoko Ono after a temporary split. (see Nov 28)
Bob Dylan
November 16, 2016: the Nobel Academy said on its website that it had received a letter from Dylan explaining that due to “pre-existing commitments” he was unable to travel to Stockholm in December. “We look forward to Bob Dylan’s Nobel Lecture, which he must give ― it is the only requirement ― within six months counting from December 10.” (see Dec 10)
November 16 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing
November 16, 1977:  reported in the New York Times: The state rested its case in the Birmingham churchbombing trial today after presenting a witness who said that she saw packages of what appeared to be dynamite at the home of Robert E. Chambliss two weeks before the explosion in September 1963 that took the lives of four black children. (see November 18)

US Labor History

NFL Strike Ends
November 16, 1982, the National Football League Players Association ended a 57-day strike that shortened the season to nine games. The players wanted, but failed to win until many years later, a higher share of gross team revenues. (see December 19, 1984)

Native Americans

November 16 Peace Love Activism
Susquehannock artifacts on display at the State Museum of Pennsylvania in 2007
November 16, 1990: The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act required federal agencies and institutions that receive federal funding to return Native American "cultural items" to lineal descendants and culturally affiliated Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations. Cultural items include human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony. A program of federal grants assists in the repatriation process and the Secretary of the Interior could assess civil penalties on museums that failed to comply.

In 1992, the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas prompted protests from many Native American tribes and supporters, prompting cities including Denver and San Francisco to stop their quincentenary celebrations. (see Feb 11 – July 15, 1994)

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November 15 Peace Love Activism

November 15 Peace Love Activism

November 15
Suffragists protest Woodrow Wilson’s suffragist policy

Feminism

Voting Rights
November 15
Rheta Louise Childe Dorr , first editor of the Suffragist newspaper.  In 1914 she told how she “…tried to get work on a newspaper, but they said I could only write such stuff as ‘Advice to the Lovelorn.’ I wouldn’t. Finally, in three years, I got a $25 a week job; and I never tot a raise in four years thereafter. That’s what I mean when I say women haven’t got the same right as men to work for promotion.”
November 15, 1913: first issue of The Suffragist published. Rheta Louise Childe Dorr was its first editor. (see Nov 18)
Suffragist Tortured, Night of Terror

November 15 Peace Love Activism

November 15, 1917: “Night of Terror” pickets (arrested Nov 10) transferred to Occoquan Workhouse, where Superintendent Raymond Whittaker, just back from White House meeting of district commissioners, set in motion a brutal reception for newly arrived prisoners. Whittaker summarily dismissed demands for political prisoner status and watched guards hurl Dora Lewis into a dark cell, smash her head against an iron bed, and knock her. Her cellmate, Alice Cosu, thought Lewis was dead and suffered a heart attack. They beat Lucy Burns, chained her hands to the cell bars above her head, and left her hanging for the night, bleeding and gasping for air. Julia Emory showed support and sympathy by assuming same position. The next day, 16 women went on hunger strike. (San Francisco site full story) (see Nov 18)

Calvin Graham

Battle of Guadalcanal
November 15, 1942: during the battle of Guadalcanal, the South Dakota was hit forty-seven times by enemy fire. One explosion threw Calvin down three decks of stairs. He was seriously wounded by shrapnel that tore through his jaw and mouth. In spite of his injuries, he helped pull fellow sailors from danger. Half the ship's crew of 3,300 were killed or wounded. He was awarded the Bronze Star, the Purple Heart and the Navy Unit Commendation medal.
36 years later…
November 15, 1978: the General Accounting Office received Graham’s claim from back-pay due him from his World War II service. (see Calvin Graham for full sad story)

The Cold War

 Nikita Khrushchev
November 15 Peace Love Activism
from NYT headline: “Nikita S. Khrushchev today asserted Soviet superiority in the field of missiles and challenged the United States to a rocket-range ‘shooting match.'”
November 15, 1957: in a long and rambling interview with an American reporter, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claims that the Soviet Union has missile superiority over the United States and challenges America to a missile "shooting match" to prove his assertion. The interview further fueled fears in the United States that the nation was falling perilously behind the Soviets in the arms race. (NYT article) (see December 9, 1958)

November 15 Music et al

Beatles before their US appearance
November 15, 1959: Paul McCartney, John Lennon and George Harrison auditioned for a British talent program called TV Star Search at the Hippodrome Theatre in Lancashire. They had been known as The Quarrymen but for this audition, they took the name "Johnny and the Moondogs." They played two Buddy Holly songs: "Think It Over" and "It's So Easy." They must have been good as they were invited back for the next round of audition the next day.

They returned to Liverpool the same night, having no money to rent a hotel room, and therefore missing out on the next round of auditions. (see April 23 & 24, 1960)

Vietnam

Brown University
November 15 Peace Love Activism
President Johnson with Gen. Earle Wheeler in the center. From the NYT: A dozen students clashed with policemen tonight in a Pembroke College auditorium after a speech on Vietnam by Gen. Earle G. Wheeler, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
November 15, 1966: Gen. Earle Wheeler, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, addressed a gathering at Brown University and approximately 60 students walk out to protest his defense of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Some of those who remained shouted and heckled Wheeler, while others attempted to storm the stage. Outside, over 100 students continued the protest. (Wheeler article) (see Dec 12)
March for Peace in Washington, DC
November 15 Peace Love Activism
From the NYT article: “A vast throng of Americans, predominantly youthful and constituting the largest mass march in the nation’s capital, demonstrated peacefully in the heart of the city today, demanding a rapid withdrawal of United States troops from Vietnam.”
November 15, 1969: 250,000 people marched for peace in Washington, DC . It was the largest antiwar rally in U.S. history. Some of the speakers: McCarthy, McGovern, Coretta King, Dick Gregory, Leonard Bernstein. Singers: Arlo Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Peter, Paul, & Mary, John Denver, Mitch Miller, touring cast of Hair . (NYT article) (see Nov 20)
November 15 Peace Love Activism

Irish Troubles

November 15, 1985: Britain and Ireland signed an accord giving Dublin an official consultative role in governing Northern Ireland. (see November 8, 1987)

Sexual Abuse of Children

November 15, 2004: US Roman Catholic bishops elected Bishop William Skylstad as their new president. His Washington diocese faced bankruptcy due to the volume of compensation claims made by alleged victims of child abuse. (see Dec 3)

ADA

November 15, 2006: the Road-to-Freedom tour kicked off. The 50-state bus tour and photographic exhibit chronicles the history of the grassroots "people's movement" that led to passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (see October 22, 2012)

Native Americans

 The Code Talkers
November 15 Peace Love Activism
Navajo Code Talkers stand and salute as the colors are posted during Code Talkers Day event in Window Rock, Ariz., Aug. 14. Photo courtesy of Morris Bitsie
November 15, 2008: President George W. Bush signed The Code Talkers Recognition Act of 2008 into law. The Act recognized every Native American code talker who served in the US military during WWI or WWII with a Congressional Gold Medal for his tribe (to be retained by the Smithsonian Institution) and a silver medal duplicate to each code talker. (see February 14, 2011)

Black History

Jimmie Lee Jackson
November 15 Peace Love Activism
Jimmie Lee Jackson (December 16, 1938 – February 26, 1965) was a civil rights activist in Marion, Alabama, and a deacon in the Baptist church. On February 18, 1965, while participating in a peaceful voting rights march in his city, he was beaten by troopers and shot by Alabama State Trooper James Bonard Fowler.
On February 18, 1965, during a protest near the Perry County Jail in Perry, Alabama, twenty-six-year-old Jimmie Lee Jackson, his mother Viola Jackson, and his 82-year-old grandfather, Cager Lee, ran into a cafe pursued by Alabama State Troopers. Police clubbed Cager Lee to the floor in the kitchen. His daughter Viola attempted to pull the police off, she was also beaten. When Jimmie Lee attempted to protect his mother, one trooper threw him against a cigarette machine. A second trooper shot Jimmie Lee twice in the abdomen. Jimmie Lee Jackson died 8 days later.  A grand jury will not indict James Fowler, the trooper who shot Jackson, but on May 10, 2007, 42 years after the homicide, an Alabama grand jury did indict the former state trooper for the February 18, 1965 murder of Jimmie Lee Jackson. On this date, November 15, 2010, James Fowler apologized for his shooting of Jimmie Lee Jackson, but insisted that he had acted in self-defense, believing that Mr. Jackson was trying to grab his gun. Fowler was sentenced to six months in prison. Perry County commissioner, Albert Turner Jr, called the agreement “a slap in the face of the people of this county.” Fowler served 5 of the 6 months. [BH, see June 26, 2011; Fowler, see July 5, 2015]
BLACK & SHOT
November 15, 2015: white Minneapolis police officers Mark Ringgenberg and Dustin Schwarze fatally shot Jamar Clark, 24, an unarmed black man. (B & S, see Nov 19; Minneapolis, see Nov 23)

Occupy Wall Street

Zuccotti Park
November 15, 2011: day 60 of Occupy Wall Street. NYPD began to clear Zuccotti Park. Mayor Bloomberg released the following statement: “At one o’clock this morning, the New York City Police Department and the owners of Zuccotti Park notified protesters in the park that they had to immediately remove tents, sleeping bags and other belongings, and must follow the park rules if they wished to continue to use it to protest. Many protesters peacefully complied and left. At Brookfield’s request, members of the NYPD and Sanitation Department assisted in removing any remaining tents and sleeping bags. This action was taken at this time of day to reduce the risk of confrontation in the park, and to minimize disruption to the surrounding neighborhood.” (NYT article) (see Nov 18)

LGBT

Gay marriage
November 15, 2013, LGBT: Gov. Neil Abercrombie signed legislation into law, making Hawaii the 15th state to legalize gay marriage. (NYT article) (see Nov 18)

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