Category Archives: Birthdays

Drummer Maury Baker

Drummer Maury Baker

Happy birthday
December 25
Drummer Maury Baker
Janis and Maury on the Dick Cavett Show

Broken wrist

Many are the paths that lead to becoming a musician. Maury Baker’s family was filled with musicians and that certainly set up his entrance, but falling and breaking his left wrist was the catalyst.

His father, Herbert (an Emmy Award winning writer with the Flip Wilson Show and the Danny Kaye Show) suggested to his son that the best way to recover his wrist’s strength was to drum.

Before he knew it, “I had my union card” is how Maury jokes.

Drummer Maury Baker

Ars Nova

In 1967, while attending the Mannes Conservatory in New York,  Electra Records signed Ars Nova, a band he played percussion as well as organ. Elektra producer Paul A. Rothchild called them “the most exciting thing since the Doors.”

Ars Nova were promoted by Life Magazine with a profile, but ironically by the time of the article, the band had broken up.

Drummer Maury Baker


He became part of Janis Joplin’s Kozmic Blues Band in 1969. He had been playing with Judy Collins and her road manager suggested the audition to Baker. He wasn’t a part of the whole album being recorded (I Got Dem Ol’ Kozmic Blues Again Mama!), but was part of the single Try from the album.

One of his fondest memories of playing with Janis was performing Try with her on the Dick Cavett Show in July 1969

He went on the road and that road led to Bethel, NY and the Woodstock Music and Art Fair. His biggest memory of the event is flying in a Sikorsky helicopter over the field. He said that the size of the crowd worried Janis, but he reassured her that it would not matter. That once she got up on the stage,  she’d just do her thing.

Drummer Maury Baker


Being part of Janis’s inner circle gave Maury the opportunity to play with other names of those times, perhaps the most famous being Jimi Hendrix, who stopped by one night to jam with Zoot Money’s band.

Of course there are a “few” others listed at his site: Frank Zappa, Carlos Santana, George Duke, Ron Carter, David Benoit, Jimmy Haslip, Bunny Bunel, Johnny and Edgar Winter, Tom Jones, Jackson Browne, Steve Stills, Van Morrison, Seals & Croft, Judy Collins, Phil Ochs, Bobbie Gentry, Trini Lopez, R. B. Greaves, Albert Lee, Big Brother & The Holding Company, Robert E. Luna, Booker T. Jones, Tom Paxton, Bobbie Gentry, Theodore Bikel, Zoot Money, Dr. John, Scott LaFaro, Pepper Adams, David Amram, Lee Michaels, Miroslav Vitous, Henry Franklin, Theo Saunders, Nick Mancini, Michael Saucier, Otmaro Ruiz, Leslie King, Barbara Morrison, Leddie Garcia, Austin Peralta, Zane Musa, and many others.

He also composed music for film, TV, video games, and the Internet.

Drummer Maury Baker


Recently, Baker has worked with Opera NEO. It’s Facebook page states that, “Opera NEO strives to unlock the full potential of young singers while nurturing each individual’s artistic qualities and personality to help them develop into independent artists. We encourage individual thinking and creative decision making that will lead to professional and personal fulfillment.”

There are pictures of him working with NEO at his own Facebook page.

Drummer Maury Baker
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Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

From 1831–1862: The Underground Railroad Approximately 75,000 slaves escape to the North and to freedom via the Underground Railroad, a system in which free African American and white “conductors,” abolitionists and sympathizers help guide and shelter the escapees.

Birth and education

October 2, 1800: Nat Turner was born  on the plantation of Benjamin Turner in Southampton County, Virginia, the week before Gabriel  Prosser (see Aug 30) was hanged after a failed slave insurrection in Richmond, Virginia.

Nat Turner’s mother was enslaved woman named Nancy, who was captured from West Africa. His father, presumed to be a slave named Abraham, ran away from the Southampton, Virginia, plantation when Nat was about ten years old

Benjamin Turner allowed Nat Turner to be instructed in reading, writing, and religion.

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

First vision

While still a young child, Nat was overheard describing events that had happened before he was born. This, along with his keen intelligence, and other signs marked him in the eyes of his people as a prophet.

Nat was given as a gift, along with his mother and grandmother, to Benjamin’s son Samuel around 1809, and formally willed in 1810.

In 1821, Turner ran away from Samuel, but returned  after thirty days because of a vision in which the Spirit had told him to “return to the service of my earthly master.”

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

Second Vision

By 1822, Samuel had died, and his widow, Elizabeth Turner, oversaw Nat until she married Thomas Moore, who took formal ownership of Nat in 1823.

According to a National Geographic article, “After Elizabeth’s death, Moore married Sally Francis, who became a widow and then married Joseph Travis, Nat’s last master, although Sally’s 10-year-old son, Putnam, was legally Nat’s owner.”

In 1825: Nat Turner had a second vision. He saw lights in the sky and prayed to find out what they meant. Then “… while laboring in the field, I discovered drops of blood on the corn, as though it were dew from heaven, and I communicated it to many, both white and black, in the neighborhood; and then I found on the leaves in the woods hieroglyphic characters and numbers, with the forms of men in different attitudes, portrayed in blood, and representing the figures I had seen before in the heavens.

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

Third Vision

May 12, 1828: Turner “…heard a loud noise in the heavens, and the Spirit instantly appeared to me and said the Serpent was loosened, and Christ had laid down the yoke he had borne for the sins of men, and that I should take it on and fight against the Serpent, for the time was fast approaching when the first should be last and the last should be first… And by signs in the heavens that it would make known to me when I should commence the great work, and until the first sign appeared I should conceal it from the knowledge of men; and on the appearance of the sign… I should arise and prepare myself and slay my enemies with their own weapons.

By 1830, Southampton County was home to 6,573 whites, 1,745 free blacks, and 7,756 enslaved African Americans.

It was in 1830 that Turner was moved to the home of Joseph Travis with his official owner being the young child Putnum Moore. Turner described Travis as a kind master, against whom he had no complaints. The Travis plantation was lived 411 acres and had 17 slaves working his property in 1830.

Records show that Nat married an enslaved woman named Cherry who lived on a neighboring plantation, and they had at least one child, a son named Reddick. Nat would have to obtain a pass from his masters to visit his family.

Records show that he was outspoken in his beliefs that blacks should be free, and that freedom would be theirs one day; an opinion for which he was whipped in 1828.

Nat Turner preaches religion. “”Knowing the influence I had obtained over the minds of my fellow-servants…by the communion of the Spirit, whose revelations I often communicated to them… I now began to prepare them for my purpose.” (Image Credit: The Granger Collection, New York)
Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

Signs from the heavens

February 1831: there was an eclipse of the sun. Turner took this to be the sign he had been promised and confided his plan to the four men he trusted the most, Hark Moore, Henry Porter, Nelson Edwards, Sam Francis, Will Francis, and Jack Reese . They decided to hold an  insurrection on July 4 and began planning a strategy. However, they had to postpone action because Turner became ill.

August 13, 1831: there was an atmospheric disturbance in which the sun appeared bluish-green. Turner interpreted this as the final sign.

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831


Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

August 21, 1831: Turner, Moore, Porter, Edwards,  Sam Francis, Will Francis, and Reese  met in the woods to eat a dinner and make their plans.

At 2:00 AM they launched the rebellion by entering the Travis household, where they killed the entire family as they lay sleeping, save for a small infant. They moved from one farm to the next, killing all slave-owning whites they found. As they progressed through Southampton county, other slaves joined in the rebellion.

They continued on, from house to house, killing all of the white people they encountered. Turner’s force eventually consisted of more than 40 slaves, most on horseback.

August 22, 1831: Turner decided to march toward Jerusalem, the closest town. By then word of the rebellion had gotten out to the whites; confronted by a group of militia, the rebels scattered, and Turner’s force became disorganized. After spending the night near some slave cabins, Turner and his men attempted to attack another house, but were repulsed. One slave was killed and many escaped, including Turner.

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831


In the end, the rebels had stabbed, shot and clubbed at least 55 white people to death.Turner escaped and remained free for nearly two months.

In those two months though, the militia and white vigilantes instituted a reign of terror over slaves in the region. Hundreds of blacks were killed. White Virginians panicked over fears of a larger slave revolt and soon instituted more restrictive laws regulating slave life.

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831


Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

August 30, 1831: The Richmond Enquirer published a description of the rebels’ “murderous career” that likened them to “a parcel of blood-thirsty wolves rushing down from the Alps; or rather like a former incursion of the Indians upon the white settlements.” The lesson gleaned by the writer of the article from the case of Turner, “who had been taught to read and write, and permitted to go about preaching,” was that “No black man ought to be permitted to turn a Preacher through the country.”

Credit was given to “many of the slaves whom gratitude had bound to their masters, that thy had manifested the grestest alacrity in detecting and apprehending many of the brigands.”

According to the article, General Broadnax, the militia commander of Greensville County, was “convinced, from various sources” of the “entire ignorance on the subject of all the slaves in the counties around Southampton, among whom he has never known more pefect order and quiet to prevail.” [full text of article]

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

Harriet Ann Jacobs

Harriet Ann Jacobs, born into slavery in North Carolina in 1813, eventually escaped to the North, where she wrote a narrative about her ordeal of slavery.

In Chapter Twelve of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself, Jacobs describes the harassment of blacks in Edenton, North Carolina, following the rebellion.

Her “Fear of Insurrection” begins with a statement that captured the irony of white society’s fear: NOT far from this time Nat Turner’s insurrection broke out; and the news threw our town into great commotion. Strange that they should be alarmed when their slaves were so “contented and happy”! But so it was. [full text]

October 30, 1831: Turner captured and imprisoned in the Southampton County Jail, where he was interviewed by Thomas R. Gray, a Southern physician. Out of that interview came his now famous “Confession.

Convinced that “the great day of judgement was at hand,” and that he “should commence the great work,” Turner took the eclipse of the sun to mean that “I should arise and prepare myself, and slay my enemies with their own weapons.”

Gray described Turner as being extremely intelligent but a fanatic. He went on to say: “The calm, deliberate composure with which he spoke of his late deeds and intentions, the expression of his fiend-like face when excited by enthusiasm; still bearing the stains of the blood of helpless innocence about him; clothed with rags and covered with chains, yet daring to raise his manacled hands to heaven; with a spirit soaring above the attributes of man, I looked on him and my blood curdled in my veins.”

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831

Trial and execution

November 5, 1831: Nat Turner was tried in the Southampton County Court and sentenced to execution. (BH, NT, & SR, see Nov 10)

November 10, 1831: Nat Turner hung. He was buried the following day.

No grave marker exists for Nat Turner, nor for his fellow soldiers. The rebels were caught, tried, and executed in different places, and their scattered remains lie under unmarked soil.

The November 14, 1831, Norfolk Herald reported that: “He betrayed no emotion, but appeared to be utterly reckless in the awful fate that awaited him and even hurried his executioner in the performance of his duty! Precisely at 12 o’clock he was launched into eternity.”

In total, the state executed 55 people, banished many more, and acquitted a few. The state reimbursed the slaveholders for their slaves. But in the hysterical climate that followed the rebellion, close to 200 black people, many of whom had nothing to do with the rebellion, were murdered by white mobs. In addition, slaves as far away as North Carolina were accused of having a connection with the insurrection, and were subsequently tried and executed.
The state legislature of Virginia considered abolishing slavery, but in a close vote decided to retain slavery and to support a repressive policy against black people, slave and free.

The basic information for this blog entry came from Brotherly Love, a PBS article.

Nat Turner Slave Revolt 1831
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1960s Many Independence Days

1960s Many Independence Days

Our world is never fully at peace despite a war to end all wars and famous armistices declaring it so. Nations continue to feud, disassemble, reassemble, and declare independence.

In 2018 there are 195 countries in the world. Next year that number could change.

During the 1960s counter-cultural  revolution, most Americans thought of it as being limited to the United States. An easy impression, but far too limited.

All over the world, particularly in Africa, millions of people became part of a new nation. Their own nation bringing their own new possibilities.

1960s Many Independence Days



Image result for cameroon map

Motto: “Paix – Travail – Patrie” (French)
“Peace – Work – Fatherland”

Flag of Cameroon

January 1, 1960: Cameroon independent from France and the United Kingdom.  Officially the Republic of Cameroon is a country wedged in West and Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west and north; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south.


Image result for  Senegal map

Motto: “Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi” 
“One People, One Goal, One Faith”

Flag of Senegal

April 4, 1960:  Senegal independent from France. It is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, and Guinea-Bissau to the southwest.


Image result for togo map

Motto: “Travail, Liberté, Patrie”
“Work, Liberty, Homeland”

Flag of Togo

April 27, 1960:  Togo independent from France. It is bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.


1960s Yields Many Independence Days

Motto: “Fitiavana, Tanindrazana, Fandrosoana” (Malagasy)
“Amour, Patrie, Progrès” (French)
“Love, Fatherland, Progress”

1960s Yields Many Independence Days

June 26, 1960: Madagasar independent from France. Officially the Republic of Madagascar and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Image result for democratic republic of the congo map

(no official motto)

1960s Yields Many Independence Days

June 30, 1960: Democratic Republic of the Congo independent from Belgium. It is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes referred to by its former name of Zaire, which was its official name between 1971 and 1997. The DRC borders the Central African Republic and South Sudan to the north;  Uganda,  Rwanda,  Burundi, and Tanzania to the east; Zambia to the south; Angola to the southwest; and the Republic of the Congo and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.


1960s Yields Many Independence Days

Motto: Go forward, and never backward

Flag of Somalia

July 1, 1960: Somalia independent from Italy and United Kingdom.  It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest.


Image result for benin map

Motto:  “Fraternité, Justice, Travail” (French)
“Fraternity, Justice, Labour”

Flag of Benin

August 1, 1960: Benin independent from France. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north.


1960s Yields Many Independence Days

Motto: “Fraternité, Travail, Progrès” (French)
“Fraternity, Work, Progress”

Flag of Niger

August 3, 1960:  Niger independent from France. It is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.

Burkina Faso

Image result for Burkina Faso map

Motto: “Unité–Progrès–Justice” (French)

Flag of Burkina Faso

August 5, 1960: Burkina Faso independent from France. It  is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the southeast; Togo and Ghana to the south; and Ivory Coast to the southwest.

Ivory Coast

Image result for Ivory Coast map

Motto: “Union – Discipline – Travail” (French)
“Unity – Discipline – Work”

Flag of Cote d'Ivoire

August 7, 1960: Ivory Coast [officially the Republic of Côte d’Ivoireindependent from France. Its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east.


Image result for chad map

Motto: “Unité, Travail, Progrès” (French)
“Unity, Work, Progress”
“الاتحاد، العمل، التقدم” (Arabic)

Flag of Chad

August 11, 1960: Chad independent from France.   It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.

Central African Republic

Image result for Central African Republic map

Motto: “Unité, Dignité, Travail” (French)
“Unity, Dignity, Work”

Flag of the Central African Republic

August 13, 1960: Central African Republic independent from France. . It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west.

Republic of the Congo

Image result for Republic of the Congo Map

Motto: “Unité, Travail, Progrès” (French)
“Unity, Work, Progress”

Flag of the Republic of the Congo

August 15, 1960: Republic of the Congo independent from France.  It is bordered by five countries: Gabon and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; Cameroon to the northwest; the Central African Republic to the northeast; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the east and south; and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to the southwest.


Image result for Gabon map

Motto: “Union, Travail, Justice” (French)
“Union, Work, Justice”

File:Flag of Gabon.svg

August 17, 1960: Gabon independent from France.  Located on the equator, Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, the Republic of the Congo on the east and south, and the Gulf of Guinea to the west.


Image result for mali map

Motto: “Un peuple, un but, une foi” (French)
“One people, one goal, one faith”

File:Flag of Mali.svg

September 22, 1960: Mali independent from France. It is bordered by Algeria to the northeast, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire to the south, Guinea to the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west.

October 1, 1960

Image result for Cyprus map

(No official motto)

Image result for cyprus flag

Cyprus independent from United Kingdom.  It is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece.


Image result for nigeria map

Motto: “Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress”

Flag of Nigeria

Nigeria independent from United Kingdom. It  borders Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.


Image result for mauritania map

Motto: شرف إخاء عدل (Arabic)
“Honor, Fraternity, Justice”

Flag of Mauritania

November 28, 1960: Mauritania independent from France. It  is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest.

1960s Many Independence Days



Image result for kuwait map

(no official motto)

Flag of Kuwait

February 25, 1961:  Kuwait independent from United Kingdom. It shares borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

Sierra Leone

Image result for Sierra Leone map

Motto: “Unity, Freedom, Justice”

Flag of Sierra Leone

April 27, 1961:  Sierra Leone independent from United Kingdom. It is bordered by Guinea to the northeast, Liberia to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest.


Image result for Tanzania map

Motto: “Uhuru na Umoja” (Swahili)
“Freedom and Unity”

Flag of Tanzania

December 9, 1961:  Tanzania independent from United Kingdom.  It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south; and the Indian Ocean to the east.

1960s Many Independence Days



Image result for Samoa map

Motto: “Faʻavae i le Atua Sāmoa”
“Samoa is founded on God”

Flag of Samoa

January 1, 1962: Samoa [officially the Independent State of Samoa] independent from New Zealand.  The two main islands are Savai’i and Upolu with four smaller islands surrounding the landmasses.  The Samoan Islands are an archipelago in the central South Pacific, forming part of Polynesia and the wider region of Oceania.

July 1, 1962

Image result for burundi map

Motto: “Ubumwe, Ibikorwa, Amajambere” (Kirundi)
“Unité, Travail, Progrès” (French)

Flag of Burundi

  • Burundi independent from Belgium. It is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. It is also considered part of Central Africa.

Image result for rwanda map

Motto: “Ubumwe, Umurimo, Gukunda Igihugu”
“Unity, Work, Patriotism”

The flag of Rwanda: blue, yellow and green stripes with a yellow sun in top right corner

  • Rwanda independent from Belgium.  Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Image result for algeria map

Motto: بالشّعب وللشّعب
By the people and for the people

Flag of Algeria

July 5, 1962: Algeria Independent from France. It is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea.


Image result for jamaica map

Motto: “Out of Many, One People”

Flag of Jamaica

August 6, 1962:  Jamaica independent from United Kingdom. It is the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean and lies about 90 mi  south of Cuba, and  119 mi west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic).

Trinidad and Tobago

Image result for trinidad and tobago map

Motto: Together We Aspire, Together We Achieve

Flag of Trinidad and Tobago

August 31, 1962:  Trinidad and Tobago (officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) independent from United Kingdom. It is situated 81 miles south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 16.8 miles off the coast of northeastern Venezuela.


Image result for uganda map

Motto: “For God and My Country”
“kwa mungu na nchi yangu”

Flag of Uganda

October 9, 1962: Uganda independent from United Kingdom

1960s Many Independence Days



Image result for sarawak map

Motto(s): Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti
United, Striving, Serving

Flag of Sarawak

July 22, 1963: Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and subsequently became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia established on 16 September 1963. Sarawak is located in northwest Borneo Island, and is bordered by the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of Borneo) to the south, and the independent country of Brunei in the north.


Image result for map kenya

Motto: “Harambee” (Swahili)
“Let us all pull together”

Flag of Kenya

December 12, 1963:  Kenya independent from United Kingdom. It is bordered by Tanzania to the south and south-west, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east.

1960s Many Independence Days



Image result for map malawi

Motto: “Unity and Freedom”

Flag of Malawi

July 6, 1964:  Malawi (officially the Republic of Malawi) independent from United Kingdom. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west.


Image result for map malta

Virtute et constantia (Latin)
Strength and consistency
Flag of Malta

September 21, 1964:  Malta independent from United Kingdom.  It is a  island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 50 mi south of Italy, 176 mi east of Tunisia, and 207 mi north of Libya


Image result for zambia map

Motto: One Zambia, One Nation

Flag of Zambia

October 24, 1964:  Zambia independent from United Kingdom. It borders  the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west.

1960s Many Independence Days



Image result for Gambia map

Motto: “Progress, Peace, Prosperity”
Flag of The Gambia

February 18, 1965: The Gambia independent from United Kingdom. It is almost entirely surrounded by Senegal with the exception of its western coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa.


Image result for Maldives map

Motto:  the script below its national emblem reads الدولة المحلديبية  (State of the Mahal Dibiyat)

Flag of Maldives

July 26, 1965:  Maldives independent from United Kingdom. It is located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea and lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India.


Image result for singapore map

Motto: “Majulah Singapura” (Malay)
(English: “Onward, Singapore”)

Image result for singapore flag

August 9, 1965:  Singapore leaves Malaysian Federation. It a sovereign city-state and island country.  It lies 85 miles  north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia’s Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysiato the north.


Image result for map rhodesia

Motto: Sit Nomine Digna
“May she be worthy of the name”

Flag of Rhodesia

Flag of Rhodesia above

Flag of Zimbabwe

Flag of Zimbabwe above

November 11, 1965:  Rhodesia proclaimed its independence from Britain. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces, which culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980.

1960s Many Independence Days



Image result for map guyana

Motto: “One People, One Nation, One Destiny”

Flag of Guyana

May 26, 1966: Guyana independent from United Kingdom. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Suriname to the east and Venezuela to the west.


Image result for map botswana

Motto: “Pula!” (Tswana)

Flag of Botswana

September 30, 1966: Botswana independent from United Kingdom.  It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast.


Image result for map Lesotho

Motto: “Khotso, Pula, Nala” (Sotho)
“Peace, Rain, Prosperity”

Flag of Lesotho

October 4, 1966: Lesotho independent from United Kingdom. It is entirely surrounded by South Africa.


Image result for map Barbados

Motto: “Pride and Industry”

Flag of Barbados


November 30, 1966: Barbados independent from United Kingdom. It is about 104 mi east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 250 mi north-east of Trinidad and Tobago.

1960s Many Independence Days



Image result for map Anguilla

Motto: “Unity, Strength and Endurance”

Flag of Anguilla

May 30, 1967: Anguilla independent from St Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla. It lies east of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and directly north of Saint Martin.


Image result for map yemen

Motto: الله، ٱلْوَطَن، ٱلثَوْرَة، ٱلْوَحْدَة (Arabic)
Allāh, al-Waṭan, ath-Thawrah, al-Waḥdah
“God, Country, Revolution, Unity”

Flag of Yemen

November 30, 1967: Yemen independent from United Kingdom.  It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east.

1960s Many Independence Days



1960s Many Independence Days

Motto: “God’s will first”

Flag of Nauru

January 31, 1968: Nauru (officially the Republic of Nauru) independent from Australia, New Zealand, and United Kingdom.  Its nearest neighbor is Banaba Island  in  Kiribati  190 mi to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands.

With 11,347 residents in a 8.1 sq mi area, Nauru is the smallest state in the South Pacific, smallest republic and third-smallest state by area in the world, behind only Vatican City and Monaco.


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Motto: “Stella Clavisque Maris Indici” (Latin)
French: L’étoile et la clé de l’océan Indien
“Star and Key of the Indian Ocean”

Flag of Mauritius

March 12, 1968: Mauritius (officially the Republic of Mauritius) independent from United Kingdom.  It is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 1,200 mi off the southeast coast of the African continent.

1960s Many Independence Days

1960s Many Independence Days

“Siyinqaba” (Swati)
“We are a fortress”
“We are a mystery/riddle”
“We hide ourselves away”

1960s Many Independence Days

September 6, 1968: Swaziland independent from United Kingdom. It is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north, west and south.

Equatorial Guinea

1960s Many Independence Days

Motto:  “Unidad, Paz, Justicia” (Spanish)
“Unity, Peace, Justice”
1960s Many Independence Days

October 12, 1968: Equatorial Guinea independent from Spain. It consists of two parts, an insular and a mainland region. The insular region consists of the islands of  Bioko and Annobón, The mainland region, Río Muni, is bordered by Cameroon on the north and Gabon on the south and east.

1960s Many Independence Days
1960s Many Independence Days
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