Tag Archives: Terrorism

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

What’s an Iran?

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Like Vietnam the decade before, Americans may have heard of  Iran in 1978, but where exactly it was and what was happening there were likely unknown.

Oh, you mean Persia?

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

In our World History classes we’d heard about the ancient country and civilization of Persia and we might have even recognized the name of Cyrus the Great, one of Persia’s great leaders. Our Sunday School teachers may have pointed out that Cyrus liberated the Jews.

Whatever our level of knowledge was, in late 1978 Americans media reported that in Iran…

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Revolution begins

On November 26, 1978 Muslim religious leaders and politicians seeking to topple the Shah of Iran called a general strike that virtually paralyzed the country and by December anti-Shah protesters poured through Tehran chanting “Allah is great.”

December 11, 1978: massive demonstrations took place in Tehran against the Shah. In Isfahan, Iran, 40 people were killed and 60 wounded during riots against the Shah.

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

January 16, 1979:  Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran fled Iran with his family, relocating to Egypt.

Reza Khan, the Shah’s father, had come to power in 1921 and Pahlavi had succeeded him in 1941.

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

February 1, 1979: Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned to Tehran, Iran after 14 years in exile due to his opposition to the Shah’s dynasty. Within nine days his followers seized power in Iran.

Kidnappings

February 14, 1979: In Kabul,Afghanistan, Muslim extremists kidnapped the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs, who was later killed during a gunfight between his kidnappers and police. (NYT article)

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

By April 1, 1979, Iran had been a monarchy ruled by an emperor almost without interruption from 1501, officially became an Islamic republic.

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

US intervention

October 20, 1979: the U.S. government allowed the deposed Shah of Iran to travel to New York for medical treatment.

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Americans taken hostage 

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

November 4, 1979: Iran hostage crisis begins. 3,000 Iranian radicals, mostly students, invaded the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and took 90 hostages (53 of whom are American). They demanded that the United States send the former Shah of Iran back to stand trial. (1981 NYT article about events that led up to hostage taking)

November 12, 1979: in response to the hostage situation in Tehran, U.S. President Jimmy Carter ordered a halt to all oil imports into the United States from Iran. Two days later, Carter issued Executive Order 12170, freezing all Iranian assets in the United States and U.S. banks in response to the hostage crisis.

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Some hostages freed

November 17, 1979: Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini ordered the release of 13 female and African American hostages being held at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. (NYT article)

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Some escape

January 28, 1980: six United States diplomats, posing as Canadians, managed to escaped from Tehran, Iran as they boarded a flight to Zürich, Switzerland. (NYT article)

April 7, 1980: the US severs diplomatic relations with Iran and imposes economic sanctions.

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Failed rescue attempt

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

April 24, 1980: an American military aborted rescue mission in Iran after mechanical problems ground the helicopters. Eight United States troops are killed in a mid-air collision during the failed operation. (NYT article)

July 27, 1980: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, deposed Shah of Iran, died in Cairo. (NYT article)

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Ronald Reagan

November 4, 1980: Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent President Jimmy Carter.

December 24, 1980: Americans remembered the U.S. hostages in Iran by burning candles or shining lights for 417 seconds — one second for each day of captivity

. Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Agreement

January 19, 1981: the United States and Iran signed an agreement paving the way for the release of 52 Americans held hostage for more than 14 months.

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

January 20, 1981: Iran released the 52 Americans held for 444 days within minutes of Ronald Reagan’s inauguration ending the Iran hostage crisis.

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

January 30, 1981: an estimated 2 million New Yorkers turned out for a ticker-tape parade honoring the freed American hostages from Iran.

June 3, 1989: Ayatollah Khomeini died in Tehran. (NYT article)

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

Iran Hostages Ayatollah Khomeini

 

Please follow and like us:
0

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Life Sentence

On November 26, 1975, a jury found Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme guilty of attempting to assassinate President Gerald Ford on the previous September 5. The judge sentenced her to life in prison.

Fromme was a follower of then jailed (now dead) Charles Manson, cult leader of the infamous Manson Family whose members had murdered Sharon Tate (8 months pregnant) and her friends: Folgers coffee heiress Abigail Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, and Hollywood hairstylist Jay Sebring at Roman Polanski’s home in Los Angeles, California on August 9, 1969 as well as killing Leno and Rosemary LaBiana, wealthy Los Angeles residents, the following day.

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Early life

Lynette Alice Fromme was born  in Santa Monica, California on October 22, 1948. In 1967, often an outsider whose didn’t fit into the traditional academic settings her parents wanted her to succeed in, she met Charles Manson in Venice, California. She joined his “family” and traveled with them.

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Squeaky

Back in California, the family lived as caretakers on the Spahn Ranch. The 80-year-old George Spahn nicknamed Fromme “Squeaky” because of the sound she made when he would touch her.

Fromme was not charged with involvement in the August 1969 murders. During the trial, Fromme and other family members “camped” outside the Los Angeles County courtroom where the Manson family trial occurred.

After a jury convicted Manson, authorities moved him from prison to prison, Fromme moved from town to town to be near him.

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Assassination attempt

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

In 1972, Fromme moved to Sacramento, CA and it was there on September 5, 1975 that she aimed a loaded pistol an President Gerald Ford in Sacramento. Fromme was concerned about the cutting of redwood trees in California and felt that her actions would bring attention to that concern. The gun didn’t go off, and Secret Service agents wrestled Fromme to the ground.

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Escape

On December 23, 1987, Fromme escaped from the Federal Prison Camp, Ain Alderson, West Virginia. She hoped to meet the still-imprisoned Manson whom she heard was ill. Authorities captured her two days later and sent her to the Federal Medical Center, Carswell in Fort Worth, Texas.

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Parole

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

She was released on August 14, 2009 at the age of 60, after serving 34 years.

Under parole, Fromme moved to Marcy, NY to live with her boyfriend. Oneida County District Attorney Scott McNamara confirmed that, but officials would not release her exact address.

With the death of Manson, the surviving members of his cult briefly became newsworthy again.

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced

Reflexion

In August 2018, the Peasenhall Press published Reflexion. 

From the Manson Blog site: In nearly 500 pages Fromme vividly chronicles her life with Charles Manson from the time she met him in May of 1967 to the final arrest of the so-called “Manson Family” in Death Valley in October of 1969. From Venice Beach, to the redwoods around Mendocino, to San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury, to Topanga Canyon and the Spiral Staircase and Condemned Houses, to Dennis Wilson’s Sunset Drive mansion, to Spahn’s Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, and finally to the Myers and Barker Ranches in Goler Wash in the Mojave Desert — everything is here in Fromme’s reflexion on her extensive travels and experiences with Manson and the like people around them who were “preparing to survive either a revolution, or the static institutions that were systematically trading all of our vital necessities for money.”

Lynette Squeaky Fromme Sentenced
Please follow and like us:
0

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

San Francisco, September 22, 1975

Sara Jane Moore

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed
mugshot of Sara Jane Moore
Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Two Michigan guys and a mom

Two Michigan guys, strangers to each other, got out of two different beds on September 22, 1975. Neither imagined that someone was about to intertwine their lives forever. That someone was Sara Jane Moore. She got up that morning intending to assassinate President Gerald Ford. Moore put on baggy tan pants and a neatly pressed blue raincoat. A 45-year-old mother of four packing a chrome revolver.

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Oliver W Sipple

President Fort had addressed a conference at the St. Francis Hotel in downtown San Francisco. Outside was Oliver W Sipple, a 33-year-old ex-marine, twice-wounded in Vietnam. He  happened to be downtown that day and thought, “Why not stick around and see the President.” As the President left the hotel, Sipple was standing near Moore when he noticed her outstretched arm holding a revolver. Sipple yelled “The bitch has got a gun” and lunged at her. The bullet missed Ford and hit a cab driver who, fortunately, was only wounded.

With so much media around, a picture caught the moment: Sipple on the far left, Moore circled in red.

Oliver W Sipple

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Hero

President Ford sent a letter to Sipple. It said in part,

“I want you to know how much I appreciated your selfless actions last Monday…. The events were a shock to us all, but you acted quickly and without fear for your own safety.

“By doing so you helped to avert danger to me and to others in the crowd. You have my heartfelt appreciation.”

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Outed

Navy veteran Harvey Milk was openly gay and active in San Francisco politics, He saw Sipple’s bravery as an opportunity to demonstrate that a gay person could also be a hero. Milk contacted San Francisco journalist Herb Caen. A few day’s later, Caen wrote about Milk, Sipple, and Sipple being gay. The new component to Sipple’s life went national.

Being a gay ex-Marine who displayed bravery both in uniform and again as a civilian sadly changed the story’s arc. For many, it somehow tempered their view of that courage, even in San Francisco, a place more (but not completely) tolerant of gays.

On September 29, William Safire wrote in the New York Times, “Mr. Sipple is guilty of committing heroism in public, and is trying to hold on to the last shreds of the privacy that was stripped from him as a consequence of his selfless act. He is probably under family pressure to go one way, and under peer‐group pressure to go the other, with publicity stakes fairly high. He will think twice before he does any good deed again.”

Until his brave act, Sipple’s parents did not know of is sexual orientation. Finding out, his parents disowned him and later when Sipple’s mother died, Mr Sipple told his son he was not welcome to attend the funeral.

Keep in mind that on September 19th, just three days before the assassination attempt, a three‐member panel of Air Force officers took 4 hours 27 minutes  to conclude that T.Sgt. Leonard P. Matlovich, gay, was unfit for military service.

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Aftermath

Sipple sued the Chronicle for invasion of privacy. The Superior Court in San Francisco dismissed the suit. Sipple continued his legal battle. In May 1984 the California Supreme Court refused to reinstate his invasion-of-privacy suit. His lawyer said that Sipple would have been better off ”if he had let that woman shoot.”

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Death

Oliver W. Sipple death is listed as February 2, 1989. That is the day authorities discovered his body. He had likely been dead for a few days. He was 47.

Papers reported that he had received treatment for schizophrenia, alcoholism and several other health problems. He weighed nearly 300 pounds when he died. His apartment was in the Tenderloin area of San Francisco, a mainly low rent district. Sipple’s days then consisted of getting up and going to a bar to drink.

On the wall of his apartment hung the framed letter from Ford.

President Ford, the man who pardoned the un-convicted President who’d broken laws as President, had never invited the man who saved his live to the White House. Some conjectured that that failure was due to Sipple’s sexual orientation. The President said his letter had been enough.

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Moore

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed

Sara Jane Moore pleaded guilty. At her sentencing to life in prison she stated “Am I sorry I tried? Yes and no. Yes, because it accomplished little except to throw away the rest of my life. And, no, I’m not sorry I tried, because at the time it seemed a correct expression of my anger.”

Moore escaped from prison in 1979 for a few hours. She later said, “If I knew that I was going to be captured…I would have stopped at the local bar just to get a drink and a burger.”

On December 31, 2007, Moore, 77, was released from prison on parole after serving 32 years of her life sentence. When the media asked about her crime Moore stated, “I am very glad I did not succeed. I know now that I was wrong to try.

In May 2009, NBC’s Matt Lauer interviewed her on the “Today Show.” (NYT article)

Hero Oliver W Sipple Outed
Please follow and like us:
0