All posts by Woodstock Whisperer

Attended the Woodstock Music and Art Fair in 1969, became an educator for 35 years after graduation from college, and am retired now and often volunteer at Bethel Woods Center for the Arts which is on the site of that 1969 festival.

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20 Peace Love Activism

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 1785: James Madison’s wrote “Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments” in opposition to a proposal by Patrick Henry that all Virginians be taxed to support “teachers of the Christian religion.” Madison argued: Who does not see that the same authority which can establish Christianity, in exclusion of all other Religions, may establish with the same ease any particular sect of Christians, in exclusion of Americans United for Separation of Church and State - 2 - all other Sects? That the same authority which can force a citizen to contribute three pence only of his property for the support of any one establishment, may force him to conform to any other establishment in all cases whatsoever?  (see April 22, 1864)

US Labor History

American Railway Union

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 1893: the American Railway Union (ARU) was founded in Chicago by locomotive fireman Eugene V. Debs and other railway workers. The ARU was an industrial union for railway workers, regardless of craft or service. Within a year, the ARU had 125 locals and very quickly grew to become the country’s largest union.. (Labor, see June 25; Debs, see June 26, 1894)
Ford Motors/UAW
June 20, 1941: after a long and bitter struggle on the part of Henry Ford against cooperation with organized labor unions, Ford Motor Company signed its first contract with the United Automobile Workers of America and Congress of Industrial Organizations (UAW-CIO). (see June 25)
United Farm Workers

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 1966: the UFW announced that the union had merged with an independent Puerto Rican farm workers union, Associacion da Trabajodores Agricolas. (see Aug 23)

Feminism

Voting Rights
June 20, 1917: targeting the Russian envoys visiting President Wilson, Lucy Burns and Dora Lewis held a large banner in front of the White House that stated: “To the Russian envoys: We the women of America tell you that America is not a democracy. Twenty million American women are denied the right to vote. President Wilson is the chief opponent of their national enfranchisement…Tell our government it must liberate its people before it can claim free Russia as an ally.”  Burns was arrested and sentenced to 3 days; again arrested in September, 1917 and sentenced to 60 days; again arrested on November 10, 1917 and sentenced to 6 months. (see July 14, 1917)
Maher v. Roe
June 20, 1977: the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Connecticut Welfare Department, stating that state Medicaid benefits did not have to pay for abortions unless they were considered “medically necessary.” (see July 9, 1977)

BLACK HISTORY

Race Riots

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 1943: the Detroit Race Riot broke out and lasted for three days before Federal troops regained control. The rioting between blacks and whites began on Belle Isle and continued until June 22, killing 34, wounding 433, and destroying property valued at $2 million. (see Aug 1, 1943)
“Freedom Summer”

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 1964: first “Freedom Summer” volunteers arrived in Mississippi. (BH, see June 21; Voting Rights, see March 7, 1966)
Muhammad Ali

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 1967: Ali found guilty of refusing induction into the armed forces by the US Justice Department. He was sentenced to five years in prison and fined $10,000—the maximum penalties. He was stripped of his title by the boxing association and effectively banned from boxing. (Ali, see April 1968; Vietnam, see June 30)

Cultural Milestone

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 1948: Toast Of The Town, which would later be called The Ed Sullivan Show, premiered on CBS-TV. The first show was produced on a budget of $1,375. Only $375 was allocated for talent and $200 of that was shared by the young stars of that night's program, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis. (see March 8, 1950)

The Cold War

Nuclear/Chemical News
June 20, 1963: to lessen the threat of an accidental nuclear war, the US and the Soviet Union agreed to establish a "hot line" communication system between the two nations. The agreement was a small step in reducing tensions between the United States and the USSR following the October 1962 Missile Crisis in Cuba, which had brought the two nations to the brink of nuclear war. (CW, see June 26; NN, see Aug 5)
Dissolution of Yugoslavia
June 20, 1999: as the last of 40,000 Yugoslav troops left Kosovo, NATO declared a formal end to its bombing campaign against Yugoslavia. (see February 23, 2001)

LGBTQ

Daughters of Bilitis

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 1964: at a conference sponsored by the Daughters of Bilitis, the  first national Lesbian rights organization, Dr. Wesley Pomeroy, co-author of the two famous Kinsey reports on male and female sexual behavior, and another doctor challenged the idea that homosexuality was a disease. About 100 people, male and female, attended the event at the Barbizon Plaza. A planned panel discussion on the topic was scheduled to be on the local ABC affiliate’s Les Crane television show but was cancelled, with no reason given. (see May 29, 1965)
Exodus International

June 20 Peace Love Activism

June 20, 2013: for 37 years, Exodus International maintained that gay men and lesbians could change their sexual orientation through prayer and psychotherapy. But on the opening night of the group’s 38th annual conference it announced that the organization would disband, amid growing skepticism among its top officials and board members that sexual attractions can be changed. Alan Chambers, president of Exodus International, said the group had decided that it was doing more harm than good and needed to close down. (LGBTQ, see July 29)

see June 20 Music et al for more

The Beatles & Vietnam
June 20, 1966: Capitol Records released the “Yesterday...and Today” album, but refused to keep the original cover of the Beatles sitting in butcher smocks and holding baby doll parts. John Lennon’s response was that the cover was a relevant as Vietnam.” (Beatles, see June 25; Vietnam, see June 29)
The [bumpy] Road to Bethel
June 20 - 22, 1969: Newport ‘69 Festival held Northridge, CA. On Sunday at the festival which attracted approximately 60,000 paid admissions, police attempted to break up a small group who had tried to rush the gates. Thousands of sympathizers started throwing bottles and rocks at the police. 165 arrested. 45 charged with assaulting an officer. 90 arrested for drug-related offenses. 402 injuries. The Times Herald Record reported the incident as a “battle” and referred to alleged charges of “attempted  murder and assault with a deadly weapon.” (see June 21)
Jimi Hendrix
June 20, 1969: Hendrix earned the largest paycheck (to that time) for a single show when he earned $125,000 for a single set at the Newport ‘69 Festival. (see January 28, 1970)
see Newport ‘69 Festival for more
June 20 – 22, 1969: the Newport ‘69 Festival was the 2nd year for the festival, with the first, the Newport Pop Festival being held in Costa Mesa, CA. The 1969 festival was held at Devonshire Downs in Northridge, CA. Attended by an estimated 200,000 fans, the festival was the largest pop concert up to that time and is considered the more famous of the two Newport Pop Festivals, possibly because of the appearance of the Jimi Hendrix Experience, which got top billing at the venue. Hendrix was the headline act for the Friday night opening, but he played so poorly - supposedly from an LSD-laced drink - that he returned to the stage on Sunday. His Sunday performance with Buddy Miles, Eric Burdon, and several others lasted more than two hours. (see June 21)
June 20 Peace Love Activism

Fourth Amendment

Smith v. Maryland
June 20,1979: the US Supreme Court ruled that the installation of a “pen register” was not a violation of the Fourth Amendment prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures. A pen register is a term for an electronic device that records the phone numbers of all calls made from a telephone number.

Pen registers represent an older technology, as the issue in the surveillance communications now focuses on “metadata” analyses of internet traffic. Metadata records the address destination of emails without recording the content of the messages. Smith became extremely important in 2013, as the U.S. government used it to justify the spying policies of the National Security Agency (NSA). (see January 15, 1985)
Florida v. Bostick
June 20, 1991: the US Supreme court overturned a per se rule imposed by the Florida Supreme Court ruling that held consensual searches of passengers on buses were always unreasonable. The US Court ruled that the fact that the search takes place on a bus is one factor in determining whether a suspect feels free to decline the search and walk away from the officers. (see June 26, 1995)

ADA

DEATH PENALTY
June 20, 2002: in Atkins v. Virginia, the US Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that executing mentally retarded individuals violated the Eighth Amendment's ban on cruel and unusual punishments. (ADA, see May 17, 2004; DP, see June 24)

Iraq War II

June 20, 2006:  the Iraqi National Security Adviser wrote that U.S. troops should be out of Iraq by the end of 2007. (see July 3)

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June 20 Music et al

June 20 Music et al

see The Beatles & Vietnam for more

June 20 Music et al

June 20, 1966: Capitol Records released the “Yesterday...and Today” album, but refused to keep the original cover of the Beatles sitting in butcher smocks and holding baby doll parts. John Lennon’s response was that the cover was a relevant as Vietnam.” (Beatles, see June 25; Vietnam, see June 29)
June 20 Music et al

The [bumpy] Road to Bethel

June 20 - 22, 1969: Newport ‘69 Festival held Northridge, CA. On Sunday at the festival which attracted approximately 60,000 paid admissions, police attempted to break up a small group who had tried to rush the gates. Thousands of sympathizers started throwing bottles and rocks at the police. 165 arrested. 45 charged with assaulting an officer. 90 arrested for drug-related offenses. 402 injuries. The Times Herald Record reported the incident as a “battle” and referred to alleged charges of “attempted  murder and assault with a deadly weapon.” (see June 21)

Jimi Hendrix

June 20 Music et al

June 20, 1969: Hendrix earned the largest paycheck (to that time) for a single show when he earned $125,000 for a single set at the Newport ‘69 Festival. (see January 28, 1970)
June 20 Music et al

see Newport ‘69 Festival for more

June 20 Music et al

June 20 – 22, 1969: the Newport ‘69 Festival was the 2nd year for the festival, with the first, the Newport Pop Festival being held in Costa Mesa, CA. The 1969 festival was held at Devonshire Downs in Northridge, CA. Attended by an estimated 200,000 fans, the festival was the largest pop concert up to that time and is considered the more famous of the two Newport Pop Festivals, possibly because of the appearance of the Jimi Hendrix Experience, which got top billing at the venue. Hendrix was the headline act for the Friday night opening, but he played so poorly - supposedly from an LSD-laced drink - that he returned to the stage on Sunday. His Sunday performance with Buddy Miles, Eric Burdon, and several others lasted more than two hours. (see June 21)

June 20 Music et al, June 20 Music et al, June 20 Music et al, June 20 Music et al

June 19 Peace Love Activism

June 19 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

Women’s Day Massacre

June 19 Peace Love Activism

June 19, 1937: the Women’s Day Massacre in Youngstown, Ohio, when police used tear gas on women and children, including at least one infant in his mother's arms, during a strike at Republic Steel.

In the ensuing melee, a growing crowd of angry union supporters gathered to confront the police. Outraged by the attack on the women and children, the crowd proceeded to beat a policeman who had become isolated from his fellow officers. Panicked by the crowd's violence, the main force of policeman opened fire from Republic's main gate. Immediately, several union supporters fell wounded, but the crowd did not flee the scene. It regrouped to re-engage the police. From that point on, the confrontation escalated into an all-out battle, apparently fueled by a false rumor that the police had killed a pregnant steelworker's wife. As one union organizer later recalled, "When I got there I thought the Great War had started over again. Gas was flying all over the place and shots flying and flares going up and it was the first time I had ever seen anything like it in my life..." Police Captain Richmond later described the scene in these words, "Things would be quiet for a few minutes, and then spasmodic firing of pistols and revolvers and rifles would start up. The crowd would start for us, and we were forced to use gas to drive them back again."

As the battle continued through the night, local Steel Workers Organizing Committee [SWOC] leaders risked their lives in an attempt to restore order and protect union supporters, many of whom arrived on the scene. As SWOC organizer John Steuben later recounted, "We made a series of attempts there — myself and others — to take the crowds up that hill on Powersdale, because it was a very dangerous situation; in fact, it just looked like civil war."' 

In addition, SWOC organizers frantically tried to get the authorities to call a cease-fire. However, their efforts met with no success, and the conflict continued to spiral out of control. As one SWOC member later recounted, "The shooting was going on, and I was standing right in front with bullets whizzing by my ears ... They were shooting the real stuff — bullets. ...I said: 'Boys, we're all crippled up. Let's retreat.' Just then I saw a fellow reaching down for his handkerchief; the gas was bad. A bullet hit him. I heard him gurgle." Two young strikers then came to the aid of the wounded John Bogovich as blood poured from his neck. As they attempted to get him to safety, the men carrying Bogovich were forced to the ground three times to avoid new volleys of police gunfire. Unfortunately, their efforts were in vain. Bogovich died on the way to the hospital.

As word of the shooting of Bogovich spread through the neighborhoods surrounding Youngstown's steel mills, the battle intensified. In fact, according to a police radio log, the strikers began returning gunfire about a half-hour after Bogovich was rushed from the scene. 

By dawn, John Steuben was able to negotiate a peaceful withdrawal of the law enforcement forces. As the last officers left the scene, SWOC organizers gathered the remaining 200 union supporters for a debriefing. Addressing the assembled crowd, John Steuben declared, "Although we were completely unarmed, we stood our ground. Girdler can add one more to his bloody list. We are pledging ourselves to fight to the last drop of blood until we win this strike." The group of exhausted union activists then paused for a moment of silence for their dead. (see January 31, 1938)

FREE SPEECH

Library Bill of Rights

June 19 Peace Love Activism

June 19, 1939: The American Library Association adopted the Library Bill of Rights. It was based on the Library Bill of Rights adopted by the Des Moines, Iowa, Public Library on November 21, 1938. Development of the Library Bill of Rights was in part a response to events in Nazi Germany, where Jews were barred from libraries, and books by Jewish authors and other works disfavored by the Nazi regime were burned.

Today’s Library Bill of Rights (excerpt): “Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation.” (PDF of statement) (see May 20, 1940)

US Labor History

Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinso
June 19, 1986: the  United States Supreme Court's decided that certain forms of sexual harassment were a violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VII, and established the standards for analyzing whether conduct was unlawful and when an employer would be liable. (Labor, see Aug 22; Feminism, see Aug 22).

Cultural Milestone

June 19 Peace Love Activism

June 19, 1941: Cheerios whole grain oat cereal was invented to provide a more convenient and better tasting alternative to cooked oatmeal. Each piece of the O-shaped cereal is 1/2-inch diameter, and weighs .0025 ounce. Each little "O" puffs itself out, like popcorn, as it explodes from the barrel of a puffing gun at high temperature. It was first called Cheerie Oats when General Mills invented it, but that name had to be changed in 1945, to avoid a conflict with a competitor who suggested they had exclusive rights to use the word "oats" in a commercial name. (see February 9, 1942)

BLACK HISTORY

The first bus boycott

June 19 Peace Love Activism

June 19, 1953: Black citizens in Baton Rouge, La., banded together to fight the segregated seating system on city buses. They quit riding for eight days, staging what historians believe was the first bus boycott of the budding Civil Rights movement.

The Baton Rouge episode inspired the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott led by the Rev. Martin Luther King, but was largely forgotten. (see Aug 13)
JFK drafts civil rights bill
June 19, 1963: President Kennedy sent the draft of his civil rights bill to Congress. He stated: "I ask you to look into your hearts--not in search of charity, for the Negro neither wants nor needs condescension--but for the one plain, proud and priceless quality that united us all as Americans: A sense of justice. In this year of the emancipation centennial, justice requires us to insure the blessings of liberty for all Americans and their posterity--not merely for reasons of economic efficiency, world diplomacy and domestic tranquility--but, above all, because it is right." (BH, see June 21; Civil Rights bill, see Feb 10, 1964)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
June 19, 1964: the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was approved after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the United States Senate. Voting for the bill were 46 Democrats and 27 Republicans. Voting against it were 21 Democrats and six Republicans. Except for Senator Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia, all the Democratic votes against the bill came from Southerners. Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona voted against the bill, as he said he would. The five other Republicans opposing it all support Mr. Goldwater's candidacy for the Republican Presidential nomination. (BH, see June 21; Voting Rights, see March 7, 1966)
Solidarity Day March

June 19 Peace Love Activism

June 19, 1968: fifty thousand demonstrators participated in Solidarity Day March of Poor People's Campaign. Marchers walked from Washington Monument to Lincoln Monument, where they were addressed by Vice-president Humphrey, presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy, Coretta Scott King, and Ralph Abernathy. (see June 24)
137 SHOTS
June 19, 2014: in a document filed in Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Court, Prosecutor Timothy McGinty said Cleveland Patrolman Michael Brelo stood less than 5 feet away on the hood of Timothy Russell's car and unloaded 15 gunshots at Russell and his passenger, Malissa Williams, 30. The shooting came after a police chase that McGinty said had "escalated to Blues Brothers proportions.''

                McGinty said officers, at the end of a 22-minute chase that involved 62 police cars, fired more than 100 shots at Russell's 1979 Malibu. The shooting had stopped, until Brelo climbed on the hood of the car, McGinty said.

                The officer, 30, had been indicted the previous month on charges of voluntary manslaughter. He pleaded not guilty. If  convicted, he could be sentenced to six to 22 years in prison.

                "The action had stopped for over 4 seconds when Brelo began firing from the hood of the victims' vehicle -- more than enough time to realize Williams and Russell were no longer a threat,'' McGinty wrote.

                "Further, the manslaughter indictment is supported by evidence that a single firearm shot 15 of the last 18 shots after the stop in action,'' the prosecutor said.

                "Police officers stopped firing weapons, while Brelo, less than 5 feet away from the faces and hands of Russell and Williams, continued to shoot from his exposed vantage point. There is no justification for his actions.''

                In all, Brelo fired 49 shots, pausing to reload his gun. (see July 11)

Red Scare

Death penalty

June 19 Peace Love Activism

June 19, 1953: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed at Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, New York. Both refused to admit any wrongdoing and proclaimed their innocence right up to the time of their deaths, by the electric chair. The Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens to be convicted and executed for espionage during peacetime (Red Scare, see July 27; Nuclear, see Aug 12; DP, see January 30, 1965; Rosenbergs, see May 19, 2015)

see June 19 Music et al for more

Pat Boone
June 19 – 25, 1961, “Moody River” by Pat Boone #1 Billboard Hot 100.
Four Tops
June 19 – 25, 1965: “I Can’t Help Myself (Sugar Pie, Honey Bunch)” by the Four Tops #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
Sitting On the Dock of the Bay”
June 19, 1967: during his stay in California on a houseboat in Sausalito, while listening to the Beatles' Sgt Pepper Lonely Hearts Club Band, Otis Redding was inspired to compose "Sitting On the Dock of the Bay." (see June 25)
The [Bumpy] Road to Bethel: June 19, 1969
  • Michael Lang, Artie Kornfeld, and Joel Rosenman meet with Abbie Hoffman. Hoffman demanded $50,000. They agree to $10,000. 
  • Stanley Goldstein was served with a summons ordering the festival’s principals to appear before the State Supreme court in Goshen, NY on July 7.
  • At the informal meeting the Wallkill town board lays out its three concerns: 1. traffic control,   2. sanitation, and 3. water supply. (see June 20 – 22)

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

Torcaso v. Watkins, 367 U.S. 488
June 19, 1961: the US Supreme Court reaffirmed that the Constitution prohibits States and the Federal Government from requiring any kind of religious test for public office, in the specific case, as a notary public. The provision of the Maryland Constitution had stated: "No religious test ought ever to be required as a qualification for any office or trust in this state, other than a declaration of belief in the existence of God.”  (see June 25, 1962)

Fourth Amendment

Mapp v. Ohio
June 19, 1961: the US Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well, as had previously been the law, as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts. (see June 11, 1968)
US v US District Court
June 19, 1972: the US Supreme Court upheld the 1971 decision (United States v. Sinclair ) of US District Judge Damon Keith.

The Supreme Court held  that the wiretaps were an unconstitutional violation of the Fourth Amendment and as such must be disclosed to the defense. This established the precedent that a warrant needed to be obtained before beginning electronic surveillance even if domestic security issues were involved. The decision applied only to domestic issues; foreign intelligence operations were not bound by the same standards. The governing law for electronic surveillance of "foreign intelligence information" between or among "foreign powers" is the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. (see May 29, 1973)
June 19 Peace Love Activism

ADA

Judy Heumann

June 19 Peace Love Activism

June 19, 1970: earlier in the year, Judy Heumann had sued the New York City Board of Education when it denied her application for a teaching license. The stated reason was the same originally used to bar her from kindergarten—that her wheelchair was a fire hazard. On this date, the Board agreed to grant a teacher’s license to her. The whole experience pushed Heumann toward activism for the disabled.(ADA, see September 26, 1973; Heumann, see April 5, 1977)

Watergate Scandal

June 19, 1972: a GOP security aide is among the Watergate burglars, The Washington Post reports. Former attorney general John Mitchell, head of the Nixon reelection campaign, denied any link to the operation. (see Aug 1)

Religion and Public Education

Edwards v. Aguillard
June 19, 1987:  he US Supreme Court struck down a Louisiana law that required the teaching of creationism alongside evolution. The Court ruled that the law failed to pass the criteria established in Lemon v. Kurtzman (the Lemon Test—June 28, 1971)—that is, the law advances a religious objective and it leads to the excessive entanglement of church and state by mandating "the symbolic and financial support of government to achieve a religious purpose." (Religion, see June 19, 1993; Separation, see in April 1995)
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe
June 19, 2000: the US Supreme Court ruled that the Santa Fe High School practice of conducting a prayer, led by a student-elected chaplain, before football games was a violation of the establishment clause of the First Amendment. Even though the school district modified the practice by holding a second election that asked the students if they wanted to hold these public prayers, the Court held that the practice still represented a form of state sanctioned religious coercion that violated the rights of the dissenting students.

                In a 6-3 opinion delivered by Justice John Paul Stevens, the Court held that the District's policy permitting student-led, student-initiated prayer at football games violates the Establishment Clause. The Court concluded that the football game prayers were public speech authorized by a government policy and taking place on government property at government-sponsored school-related events and that the District's policy involved both perceived and actual government endorsement of the delivery of prayer at important school events. Such speech is not properly characterized as "private," wrote Justice Stevens for the majority. In dissent, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, joined by Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, noted the "disturbing" tone of the Court's opinion that "bristle[d] with hostility to all things religious in public life." (R and PE, see July 28; S of C & S, see November 2, 2002)

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