Tag Archives: Civil Rights

WWII Hero Calvin Graham

WWII Hero Calvin Graham

April 3, 1930 – November 6, 1992

World War II Hero Calvin Graham

Calvin Graham

Throughout our history, whether our nation has been at war or not, we have had a military and many of those in the military have served outside the United States

Thus, we have always had veterans and while we support their efforts with huge amounts of money toward deployment, and combat, our record of support afterwards for the wounded and homeless veterans is less stellar.

When World War II began, thousands of young men enthusiastically joined to defeat the Axis powers. 

Calvin Graham was one of those young men.

WWII Hero Calvin Graham


USS Dakota

On August 16, 1942 Graham enlisted at the Naval Recruiting Station in his hometown of Houston, TX. The age certification, signed by Graham’s mother, showed a birth date of April 3, 1925, making Graham 17.

After boot camp, the Navy sent Graham Pearl Harbor where he was assigned to the USS South Dakota.

Seventy-two days after his enlistment, on October 26, 1942, the USS South Dakota took part in the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. The ship shot down 26 Japanese planes. Graham’s gun crew accounted for seven of them.

Twenty-one days later, on November 15, 1942, during the Battle of Guadalcanal, Japanese fire hit USS South Dakota  forty-seven times. One explosion threw Calvin down three decks of stairs. Shrapnel tore through his jaw and mouth. In spite of his injuries, he helped pull fellow sailors from danger. Half the ship’s crew of 3,300 were killed or wounded. 

WWII Hero Calvin Graham


In Texas, Graham had been one of seven children living at home. His father had died in a car accident, and his mother, a hotel maid, had remarried. With an abusive stepfather, Graham and an older brother moved into a cheap rooming house,

He supported himself by selling newspapers and delivering telegrams on weekends and after school. His mother occasionally visited—sometimes to simply sign his report cards at the end of a semester.  With the country at war, his newspapers had afforded him the opportunity to keep up on events overseas.

WWII Hero Calvin Graham

Hero Calvin Graham

On December 18, 1942, the USS South Dakota returned to the Brooklyn Navy Yard for major repairs, The media profiled the crew for their heroic deeds.

Calvin Graham received a Bronze Star for distinguishing himself in combat, as well as a Purple Heart for his injuries, but he couldn’t bask in glory with his fellow crewmen.

But Graham’s ruse was up. It turned out that back in August, Graham and a friend had signed the other’s enlistment papers where it listed “parent’s approval.” Then they tricked a desk clerk on their paper route to leave the desk and they used his notary public’s seal to stamp their papers.”

Now Graham’s mother, having recognized her son in newsreel footage, wrote to the Navy and revealed her son’s true age. She stated that she “did willingly and knowingly sign consent papers and age certificate to the effect that…Graham was born…on [April  3, 1925] whereas…he was born on April 3, 1930.”

Graham returned to Texas and was thrown in a brig at Corpus Christi, Texas, for almost three months.

He had been 12-years-old at enlistment.  He was 12-years-old when he saved sailors. He was still 12-years-old.

WWII Hero Calvin Graham

April 5, 1943

A string of denials
  1. the Navy cancelled Graham’s enlistment
  2. the Navy denied accrued pay and allowances and travel allowances
  3. the Navy denied credit for his military service (including the more than 4 months foreign service)
  4. the Navy denied mustering out pay
  5. the Navy gave him a dishonorable discharge and revoked his disability benefit
  6. the Navy took back his decorations, including a Purple Heart and Bronze Star
WWII Hero Calvin Graham

Still more denials

On May 26, 1943, Graham requested 36 days’ pay he considered to be due him at the time of his release from the Navy. 


February 14, 1944, Calvin Graham: Graham filed an application with the Chief of Naval Personnel for mustering-out payment.


October 4, 1944, Graham wrote to the Chief of Naval Personnel requesting a discharge certificate.


The basis for each Navy denial was that his enlistment was void and therefore canceled.

Also in October 1944, Graham  presented a claim for arrears of pay and mustering-out pay to the General Accounting Office.


WWII Hero Calvin Graham

US Marine

Graham married at age 14, became a father the following year, and found work as a welder in a Houston shipyard. Neither his job nor his marriage lasted long. He soon broke his back in a fall, for which he received a 20 percent service-connected disability. The only work he could find after that was selling magazine subscriptions.

On November 6, 1950, At 17 years old (really!), divorced, and with no service record, Graham was about to be drafted when he enlisted in the Marine Corps.

On August 1, 1951 after injuring his back in a fall off a pier, he left the US Marines and received a 20 percent service-connected disability. He drove a cab for a while, then sold magazine subscriptions door to door.

WWII Hero Calvin Graham


September 20, 1976, Graham again requested an honorable discharge from the Navy for his World War II service. 


From the Smithsonian magazine article: When President Jimmy Carter was elected, in 1976, Graham began writing letters, hoping that Carter, “an old Navy man,” might be sympathetic. All Graham had wanted was an honorable discharge so he could get help with his medical and dental expenses. “I had already given up fighting” for the discharge, Graham said at the time. “But then they came along with this discharge program for deserters. I know they had their reasons for doing what they did, but I figure I damn sure deserved more than they did.”

WWII Hero Calvin Graham

People magazine

On October 24, 1977, People magazine reported that Graham, 47, was unable to work, had spent some $5,000 on dental repairs, suffered from diabetes, and heart trouble. As a result of pier fall, he walked only with a cane. He and his wife lived on $600 a month—part of which came from limited Marine disability payments. 

On April 20, 1978, the New York Times reported that US Senators Lloyd Bentsen and John Tower of Texas had introduced a bill to give Graham his long-sought discharge. 

WWII Hero Calvin Graham

35 years, 27 days days later

On May 1, 1978, the General Counsel of the Navy informed the Secretary of the Navy that authority existed on April 5, 1943 (date of Graham’s enlistment cancellation) for the issuance of an honorable discharge.  The next day, May 2, 1978 the Secretary of the Navy authorized the issuance of an honorable discharge to Graham, effective April 5, 1943.

On November 15, 1978, the General Accounting Office received Graham’s claim from back-pay due him from his World War II service.

WWII Hero Calvin Graham


February 14, 1979, Graham’s claim for back-pay from his World War II service was denied on the basis that the claim was filed more than 6 years after discharge and, by statute, the claim was too late. The existence of the earlier claim (within the 6-year limit) was not known at the time of this decision. The Navy reinstated all of his medals with the exception of the Purple Heart. He was awarded $337 in back pay but was denied health benefits except for disability.

WWII Hero Calvin Graham


Too Young to be a Hero

March 27, 1988, Calvin Graham: Too Young to be a Hero, a made-for-TV movie, starring Rick Schroder (age 17). It told the story of Calvin Graham. Graham received $50,000, but 50% went to two agents, and 20% went to a writer of an unpublished book.

WWII Hero Calvin Graham

Reagan intervention

November 12, 1988: President Reagan signed legislation that granted Calvin full disability benefits, increased his back pay to $4917, and allowed $18,000 for past medical bills, contingent on receipts for the medical services. By this time, some of the doctors who treated him had died and many medical bills were lost. Calvin received only $2,100 of the possible $18,000.

In 1991,  Allan Stover created The Veterans of Underage Military Service in Ellicott City, Maryland.  “Some of these guys came from large families and there wasn’t enough food to go around, and this was a way out,” a member Jackson said, “Others just had family problems and wanted to get away.”

June 6, 1992, Calvin Graham: Graham died at age 62.

On June 21, 1994 at a ceremony in Arlington, Texas Secretary of the Navy, John Dalton presented Graham’s Purple Heart to Mary Graham, his widow.

WWII Hero Calvin Graham

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

Say the words “Kent State” to any Boomer and they will associate those words with one thing: the 1970 National Guard killing of four students at the Ohio college.

It is a sad testament to our history that the word Orangeburg does not conjure the same.

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

All Star Bowling Lane

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

On February 6 about 200 students from the predominantly black South Carolina State College had gathered at the nearby All Star Bowling lane to protest its segregation of black patrons. There were no incidents.

On February 7 many of the students returned to resume the protest but this time police arrested fifteen of them.

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

February 8, 1968

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

A third night of protests began and because of the previous night’s arrests, there was increased tension.

This night, the students gathered on the South Carolina State University campus instead of at the bowling alley . They built a bonfire which a law enforcement officer attempted to put out.  In the process he was injured by a piece of a banister thrown from the crowd. A highway patrolman then fired his gun into the air in an attempt to calm the crowd.  Upon hearing the shot, other officers, thinking they were being fired upon, opened fire into the crowd of students.  

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

Smith, Hammond, Middleton

1968 Orangeburg Massacre
Henry Smith…………Samuel Hammond……….Delano Middleton

In what became known as the “Orangeburg Massacre,” the troopers shot wounding twenty-eight and killing three black male students: Samuel Hammond, eighteen, a freshman from Florida; Henry Smith, eighteen, a sophomore from Marion, South Carolina; and Delano Middleton, seventeen, an Orangeburg high school student. Cleveland Sellers, the local Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee’s program director was one of those wounded. He was not a student.

Here is a piece from a documentary about the event:

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

Sellers blamed

South Carolina Robert Governor McNair blamed “black power advocates” such as Sellers for the violence and insisted officers had fired in self-defense while under attack from campus snipers. Witness accounts from reporters, firemen, and students contradicted this story; they reported that officers had fired on the crowd without warning. No evidence was ever presented that the protesters were armed.

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

Officers charged

Cleveland Sellers 1968 Orangeburg Massacre

The State charged nine of the officers in the shootings. A jury found none guilty of any wrongdoing.

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

Cleveland Sellers

Cleveland Sellers [born November 8, 1944] in Denmark, South Carolina.  became interested in civil right with the 1955 murder of Emmett Till. In 1960 at 15, he organized his first sit-in protest at a Denmark, South Carolina lunch counter, just two weeks after the Woolworth’s sit-in in Greensboro, North Carolina.

While a sophomore at Howard University he joined the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. Sellers graduated from Howard in 1967 and returned to South Carolina.

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre


Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre
Gov McNair

Thus it was Sellers that Governor McNair used as the example of outside agitator, an easy target because of Sellers SNCC association.

A jury found him guilty. He served seven months in prison after a conviction for inciting to riot despite no evidence.

While imprisoned, he wrote his autobiography, The River of No Return, chronicling his involvement with the civil rights movement.

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre


He received a full pardon 25 years after his conviction, but he chose not to have his record expunged, keeping it as a “badge of honor.”

Cleveland Sellers 1968 Orangeburg Massacre

On April 22, 2008, Voorhees College named Dr. Cleveland L. Sellers Jr., as its president. Today he is its president emeritus and continues to be active in civil rights. (Vorhees College article)

Cleveland Sellers Orangeburg Massacre

Nina Simone Four Women

Nina Simone Four Women


Nina Simone Four Women

Nina Simone Four Women

Eunice Kathleen Waymon

Nina Simone, born Eunice Kathleen Waymon, aspired to be a concert pianist, not an easy thing for a young black woman, even a very talented young black woman.

With the financial help of her Tyron, North Carolina neighbors and her music teacher, Eunice was able to attend the  Juilliard School of Music in New York. A next step would have been the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, but her application was rejected. A rejection she felt was simply a racially motivated one.

She started to take private lessons and to help pay for them she began to perform a mixture of jazz and blues. Knowing her family would disapprove, Waymon adopted a stage name: Nina Simone.

Nina Simone Four Women

Civil Rights Choice

With the rebirth of the civil rights movement, Simone, like other black artists, faced a decision: speak out and risk a career or take that risk. After the assassination of Medgar Evers and the terrorist attack on the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama that killed four girls and blinded another, Simone’s mind was made up.

“Mississippi Goddam” reflected her anger and decision. She felt that the conciliatory demands, the non-violent approach that Martin Luther King, Jr used were not useful. She adopted he separatist views of a Malcolm X  and the Black Nationalist movement.

Nina Simone Four Women

Wild Is the Wind

The 1966 album, Wild is the Wind (1966), Simone included the song “Four Women.” The album itself reflected the many styles Simone had begun to use by then: jazz, blues, folk, R & B. and pop, but “Four Women” reflected her realization of the choices a black woman in America faced. Continued slavery. The mixed race woman rejected by both races. The prostitute. The militant.

Nina Simone Four Women

Nina Simone Four Women

Four Women

The song, like the women, was rejected as racist by many on both sides.

My skin is black
My arms are long
My hair is woolly
My back is strong
Strong enough to take the pain
inflicted again and again
What do they call me
My name is AUNT SARAH
My name is Aunt Sarah
My skin is tan
My hair is fine
My hips invite you
And my mouth like wine
Whose little girl am I?
Anyone who has money to buy
What do they call me
My name is SWEET THING
My name is Sweet Thing
My skin is yellow
My hair is long
Between two worlds
I do belong
My father was rich and white
He forced my mother late one night
What do they call me
My name is SAFFRONIA
My name is Saffronia
My skin is brown
my manner is tough
I’ll kill the first mother I see
My life has been too rough
I’m awfully bitter these days
because my parents were slaves
What do they call me
My name is PEACHES
Nina Simone Four Women


Simone’s career was not an easy one. Difficult marriages.  Illness. Controversial views. An expatriate.  She died of breast cancer in 2003 at her home in Carry-le-Rouet, France, near Marseille.

Peter Keepnews wrote in his New York Times articleMs. Simone was as famous for her social consciousness as she was for her music. In the 1960’s no musical performer was more closely identified with the civil rights movement. Though she was best known as an interpreter of other people’s music, she eloquently expressed her feelings about racism and black pride in those years in a number of memorable songs she wrote herself.

Nina Simone Four Women