Tag Archives: Medical marijuana

November 24 Peace Love Activism

November 24 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Black Codes instituted
November 24, 1865: shortly after the end of the Civil War in 1865, Southern states sought to control and confine their large populations of newly-freed black people by passing laws that authorized their arrest and incarceration. These laws, known as “black codes,” typically applied only to black people and criminalized acts that were not offenses at all when committed by whites.

In November and December 1865, the Mississippi legislature approved numerous black codes. One passed on November 24, 1865, declared that “all freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes” found without proof of employment or business or found “unlawfully assembling themselves” would be deemed vagrants and, upon conviction, owe up to $50 in fines and serve up to ten days in jail. The same law threatened whites with vagrancy convictions if found assembling or associating with freedmen “on terms of equality" or found “living in adultery” with a black partner. If convicted, whites faced up to $200 in fines and up to six months in jail.

As a result of black codes like these in Mississippi, and similar laws passed during the same period in states throughout the South, the post-Civil War era brought American black people more contact with the criminal court and prison systems than ever before. As the former Confederacy learned to wield the criminal justice system as a tool of racial control, countless black men, women, and children were convicted and sentenced under unjust laws that criminalized them for existing as free, black citizens. (see Dec 18)
Dramatists Guild
November 24, 1946: the issue of race discrimination in Washington theaters came to a head, it was reported on this day, when the Dramatists Guild signed a contract with local theaters demanding that there be no racial discrimination “on either side of the footlights.”

The issue of race discrimination in the nation’s capital had been brewing since the great African-American singer Marian Anderson was denied use of Constitution Hall by the hall’s owners, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). That controversy ended when the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt granted permission to hold the concert at the Lincoln Memorial, on April 9, 1939. The concert is regarded as a historic event in the history of racial equality in the U.S. (see Dec 5)

US Labor History

November 24, 1875: the United Cigar Makers of New York affiliated with the Cigar Makers’ International Union (CMIU) to form CMIU Local 144. Samuel Gompers was elected first president of the local and served several terms before going on to serve as the international’s vice president. “[W]e are powerless in an isolated condition,” Gompers said, “while the capitalists are united; therefore it is the duty of every Cigar Maker to join the organization.” (see June 21, 1877)

Edwards v. California

November 24, 1941 in Edwards v California the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a California law barring indigents from entering the state. California passed the law during the Depression in an effort to keep poor migrants out of the state and thereby avoid the costs of public relief.

The Court majority held that the law violated the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Justices William O. Douglas, joined by Hugo Black, Frank Murphy and Robert Jackson, however, argued that the law violated the Privileges and Immunities clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Justice Douglas in dissent: “. . . I am of the opinion that the right of persons to move freely from State to State occupies a more protected position in our constitutional system than does the movement of cattle, fruit, steel and coal across state lines . . . The conclusion that the right of free movement is a right of national citizenship stands on firm historical ground.”

The New York Times headline for the article was "OKIE'S RIGHTS" 
November 24 Peace Love Activism

Hollywood Ten

November 24, 1947: the House of Representatives issued citations for Contempt of Congress to the Hollywood Ten—John Howard Lawson, Alvah Bessie, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole, Edward Dmytryk, Ring Lardner Jr., Albert Maltz, Samuel Ornitz, Adrian Scott, and Dalton Trumbo. They had refused to cooperate at hearings dealing with communism in the movie industry held by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). The "Hollywood 10," as the men were known, were sentenced to one year in jail. The Supreme Court later upheld the contempt charges. 

The ten responded the next day. (see Nov 25, 1947)

Lee Harvey Oswald

November 24, 1963, Jack Ruby murdered Lee Harvey Oswald at the Dallas jail where Oswald was being held. (see March 14, 1964)

 

November 24 Music et al

Sgt Pepper’s

November 24 Peace Love Activism

November 24, 1966, after live performances: began recording Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club Band. (see Dec 16)
“Photograph”
November 24, 1973: Ringo Starr becomes the third former Beatle to earn a solo #1 hit when "Photograph" topped the Billboard Hot 100 (see March 13, 1974) 

My Lai Massacre

November 24, 1969: U.S. Army officials announced that 1st Lt. William Calley would be court-martialed for the premeditated murder of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai. Army Secretary Stanley Resor and Army Chief of Staff William C. Westmoreland announced the appointment of Lt. Gen. William R. Peers to "explore the nature and scope" of the original investigation of the My Lai slayings in April 1968. The initial probe, conducted by the unit involved in the affair, concluded that no massacre occurred and that no further action was warranted. (see Dec 5)

Marijuana

November 24 Peace Love Activism

November 24, 1976, : a Washington, DC Robert Randall, afflicted by glaucoma, employed the little-used Common Law Doctrine of Necessity to defend himself against criminal charges of marijuana cultivation (US v. Randall). On November 24, 1976, federal Judge James Washington ruled Randall's use of marijuana constituted a 'medical necessity...'

Judge Washington dismissed criminal charges against Randall. Concurrent with this judicial determination, federal agencies responding to a May, 1976 petition filed by Randall, began providing this patient with licit, FDA-approved access to government supplies of medical marijuana. Randall was the first American to receive marijuana for the treatment of a medical disorder. (see February 21, 1978)

Nuclear & chemical weapons

Superpower treaty
November 24, 1987: the US and the Soviet Union agreed to scrap shorter- and medium-range missiles in the first superpower treaty to eliminate an entire class of nuclear weapons.  (Cold War, see Dec 7; NN, see Dec 8
Iran’s nuclear program
November 24, 2013: the US and five other world powers announced a landmark accord that would temporarily freeze Iran’s nuclear program and lay the foundation for a more sweeping agreement. It was the first time in nearly a decade, American officials said, that an international agreement had been reached to halt much of Iran’s nuclear program and roll some elements of it back.

In return for the initial agreement, the US agreed to provide $6 billion to $7 billion in sanctions relief. Of this, roughly $4.2 billion would be oil revenue that has been frozen in foreign banks. (see January 12, 2014)

Crime and Punishment

November 24, 2015: Governor Steve Beshear, Democrat of Kentucky, issued an executive order restoring voting rights for nonviolent ex-felons who had completed their sentences. The order gave 170,000 ex-offenders the opportunity to register to vote, according to the Brennan Center for Justice. (see January 25, 2016)

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November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Race revolt
November 3, 1883: riots occurred in Danville, Va. White conservatives seized control of the local government, killing four African Americans in the process.(BH, see May 4; RR, see November 8, 1898)
Greensboro Massacre
November 3, 1979: five protest marchers were shot and killed by members of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party. The protest was the culmination of attempts by the Communist Workers Party to organize mostly black industrial workers in the area. Five Klansmen were charged with murder. None were convicted. (NYT article) (see Dec 17)

Carol Moseley Braun

November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3, 1992: Carol Moseley Braun, a Democrat from Illinois, became the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate. (BH, see Dec 16; Feminism, see Nov 11) (NYT article)

Native Americans

Elk v. Wilkins
November 3, 1884, the question was whether an Indian, born a member of one of the Indian tribes within the US was, merely by reason of their birth within the US, and of their afterward voluntarily separating themselves from the tribe and taking up residence among citizens, a citizen of the US, within the meaning of the first section of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. The Court decided that although “Indian tribes, being within the territorial limits of the United States, were not, strictly speaking, foreign states,” “they were alien nations, distinct political communities,” with whom the United States dealt with through treaties and acts of Congress. Native Americans were not US citizens.(Citizenship, see June 2, 1924; NA, see September 4, 1886)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

Panama
November 3, 1903: with US assistance and plans to build a canal after independence, Panama became independent from Colombia. (see September 22, 1908)
Dominica
November 3, 1978: Dominica independent of United Kingdom. (see February 22, 1979)

US Labor History

Milk driver strike
November 3, 1921: striking milk drivers dump thousands of gallons of milk on New York City streets. (see Dec 15)
Transit worker strike
November 3, 2009: nearly 5,000 transit workers represented by Transport Workers Union Local 234 begin a strike in Philadelphia over wages, pensions, and benefits. The strike shut down the city’s bus, subway, and trolley service and after six days, a five-year contract deal was reached that provided pay and benefit increases. (see January 22, 2010)

Space Race, Sputnik 2

November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3, 1957: Sputnik 2 carried Laika, a female dog, into space. Although the satellite will remain in orbit for 162 days, scientists plan to put Laika to sleep after a week because there is no way to return her to Earth safely. Later reports indicate that Laika died soon after liftoff, from stress and high temperatures inside the capsule. (see Dec 6)
FREE SPEECH
November 3, 1960: an Alabama State Court jury awarded Police Commisioner L.B. Sullivan a libel judgment of $500,000 against The New York Times and four Alabama Negro ministers. (see February 15, 1961) 

November 3 Music et al

November  3 – 16, 1962: “He’s a Rebel” by The Crystals #1 Billboard Hot 100. The first of many Phil Spector produced hits.

Presidential elections

Lyndon B Johnson

November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3, 1964: Lyndon Johnson elected president in a landslide over Barry Goldwater. Johnson wins 486-52 in the electoral vote. Residents of the District of Columbia cast their ballots in a presidential election for the first time. (NYT)
Bill Clinton
November 3, 1992: Bill Clinton is elected the 42nd President of the United States. (NYT article)

Vietnam

November 3, 1969: President Nixon addressed the nation on television and radio, asking the "silent majority" to join him in solidarity with the Vietnam War effort, and to support his policies. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew denounces the President's critics as 'an effete corps of impudent snobs' and 'nattering nabobs of negativism'. (see Nov 13)

Feminism

November 3 Peace Love Activism
Bella Abzug
November 3, 1970: representing Manhattan on a feminist and anti-war platform, Bella Abzug, a lawyer specializing in civil rights, won a Congressional seat. (NYT re Bella Abzug) (see Dec 1)
November 3 Peace Love Activism

Symbionese Liberation Army

November 3, 1974: after months without hearing from Patty, Randolph Hearst withdrew his offer of a $50,000 reward for her safe return. (see January 2, 1975)

Iran–Contra Affair

November 3, 1986: the Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reported that the United States had been selling weapons to Iran in secret, in order to secure the release of 7 American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon. (NYT re Iran) (see Nov 19)
Medical Marjuana

November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3, 1998, Marijuana: Alaska, Arizona Oregon, Nevada, and Washington legalize medical marijuana. (NYT article) (see July 1999)
Physician-assisted Suicide
November 3, 1998, Michigan voters reject a proposal to legalize physician-assisted suicide for the terminally ill. (NYT article)

Sexual Abuse of Children

November 3, 2002: Boston's Cardinal Law apologized for "decisions which led to suffering.” (see Nov 7)
LGBTQ, Gay marriage denied
November 3, 1998: anti-gay proponents succeeded in amending the Hawaii Constitution so as to prevent the courts from ending the exclusion of same-sex couples; under the Amendment, only the legislature could change that discrimination, notwithstanding the Equal Protection Clause. On the same day, anti-gay forces in Alaska pass Ballot Measure 2, which amended the state constitution to restrict marriage to different-sex couples. (NYT article)

LGBT, Gay marriage denied

November 3, 2009: anti-gay forces in Maine pushed through an anti-gay ballot measure to overturn the freedom to marry in the state and restrict marriage to different-sex couples. (NYT article) (see Dec 15)

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November 2 Peace Love Activism

November 2 Peace Love Activism

Black History

The Mississippi Plan of 1875
November 2, 1875: The Mississippi Plan of 1875, which included violence against African Americans to keep them from voting, resulted in huge victories for white Democrats across the state. John R. Lynch, the last African-American congressman for Mississippi until the 1986 election of Mike Espy, wrote: “It was a well-known fact that in 1875 nearly every Democratic club in the State was converted into an armed military company.” A federal grand jury concluded: “Fraud, intimidation, and violence perpetrated at the last election is without a parallel in the annals of history.” (see January 4, 1876)
Coleman Young/Tom Brady

November 2 Peace Love Activism

November 2 Peace Love Activism

November 2, 1971: Coleman Young elected first African American mayor of Detroit; Tom Bradley elected first Black mayor of Los Angeles. (see Feb 28, 1972)
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

November 2 Peace Love Activism

November 2, 1983:  President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday on the third Monday of every January (see Nov 8)
School Desegregation
November 2, 2004: Alabama voters narrowly voted to retain a state constitutional provision mandating separate schools for black and white children. The amendment would have removed a provision from Article XIV, Section 256, of the Alabama Constitution of 1901, which reads: “Separate schools shall be provided for white and colored children, and no child of either race shall be permitted to attend a school of the other race.”

The amendment also would have removed language added to Section 256 in 1954, which stated that the Alabama Constitution does not create a right to public education. As Alabama resisted school desegregation following the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the 1954 language was enacted to authorize the state to dismantle its public education system if forced to integrate. Proponents of the 2004 amendment argued that removing both the 1901 and 1954 language would purge the constitution’s educational provisions of that pro-segregation legacy.

 Shortly before the election, some conservative officials mounted a campaign arguing that removal of the “no right to public education” language would expose the state to potential legal challenges and could allow the state to raise taxes. The proposed amendment failed by 1850 votes (0.13%). In November 2012, Alabama voters again had the opportunity to remove the school segregation provision from the state constitution and again voted to retain it.

Meanwhile, many school systems in Alabama remained segregated. Following the forced implementation of the Brown decision, all-white private schools and academies opened across the state. These academies still exist, especially in the Alabama's Black Belt region, where white enrollment in public schools is particularly low. In 2008-09, 94% of students enrolled in the Bullock County public school system were African American and less than 1% were white. (BH, see January 6, 2005; SD, see June 28, 2007)
Church Burning
November 2, 2016:  someone burned and vandalized Hopewell Missionary Baptist Church in Greenville, Mississippi. The Delta Daily News reported that the majority of the damage was to the main sanctuary and that there were no reported injuries. Someone had spray-painted the words “Vote Drumpf” along the side of the building. 

Two months later, police arrested 45-year-old Andrew McClinton, a member of the church  (BH, see Dec 16)

Technological Milestone

Locomobile
November 2, 1902: engineer Andrew Riker delivered the first four-cylinder, gas-powered Locomobile—a $4,000, 12-horsepower Model C—to a buyer in New York City. The Locomobile Company had been known for building heavy, powerful steam cars, but by the turn of the century it was clear that the future of the automobile—and thus of the Locomobile—lay in the internal-combustion engine. (see December 17, 1903)

Presidential elections

Harry Truman
November 2, 1948: Truman’s surprise re-election. President Harry S. Truman elected to a second term as president, defeating Republican Thomas Dewey, Progressive Henry Wallace, and Dixiecrat Strom Thurmond in the election of 1948. (see Dec 3)
Jimmy Carter

November 2 Peace Love Activism

November 2, 1976: Jimmy Carter defeated incumbent Gerald Ford, becoming the first candidate from the Deep South to win since the Civil War.
George W Bush
November 2, 2004, Bush re-elected President.

Cold War

November 2, 1949:  The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) voted in its national convention to revoke the charter of the United Electrical Workers, the third largest union in the CIO, for failing to purge itself of Communist influence. Ultimately twelve left-leaning unions, and countless individual left-wing organizers, will be booted from the CIO. (see December 10, 1949)

Marijuana

Boggs Act
November 2, 1951:  President Harry Truman signed the "Boggs Act" into law, setting minimum federal sentences for drug offenders. A first-offense marijuana possession carried a minimum sentence of 2-10 years with a fine of up to $20,000. (C & P, see May 22, 1964; Marijuana, see March 30, 1961)
Maine
November 2, 1999: Maine became the fifth state to legalize medical marijuana when ballot initiative Question 2 was passed with 61% of the vote. The law "provides a simple defense, which means the burden is on the state to prove that a patient’s medical use or possession was not authorized by statute." (see June 4, 2000)
Medical marijuana

November 2 Peace Love Activism

November 2, 2004: Sixty-two percent of voters in Montana approved Initiative 148. The law took effect that same day. It removed state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who possess written documentation from their physicians authorizing the medical use of marijuana. The law established a confidential state-run patient registry that issues identification cards to qualifying patients. (see Jan 3, 2006)
Arizona

November 2 Peace Love Activism

November 2, 2010: Arizona became the 15th state to legalize medical marijuana when Proposition 203, the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act, passes by a margin of 4,341 votes out of 1,678,351 votes cast in the Nov. 2, 2010 election. The law allows registered qualifying patients to obtain marijuana from a registered nonprofit dispensary, and to possess and use medical marijuana to treat the condition. (see May 13, 2012)

Vietnam

South Vietnam Leadership
November 2, 1963: Ngo Dinh Diem and brother Ngô Đình Nhu surrendered and were murdered. The military took power, calling itself The Military Revolutionary Council. The Council dissolved Diệm's rubber stamp National Assembly and the constitution of 1956. It vowed support for free elections, unhindered political opposition, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, and an end to discrimination, and that the purpose of the coup was to bolster the fight against the Vietcong. (see Nov 5)
Norman R. Morrison

November 2 Peace Love Activism

November 2, 1965: Norman R. Morrison, a Baltimore Quaker and a pacifist sacrificed himself in flames in front of the Pentagon. His widow said he gave his life "protesting our government's deep military involvement" in Viet Nam. He had clutched his year-old daughter Emily in one arm late as he began to burn. Screams of "drop the baby" from onlookers may have saved her life, for she fell uninjured to the ground. Morrison, 31, drenched in kerosene, kindled himself as a human torch in full view of hundreds of Defense Department workers and military men. (Baltimore Sun article) (see Nov 9)

November 2 Music et al

see British Beatlemania for more
November 2, 1963: London’s Daily Mirror used the term "Beatlemania" in a news story about the group's concert the previous night in Cheltenham. (see Nov 4)
Peter, Paul and Mary
November 2 Peace Love Activism
Album cover
November 2 – December 6, 1963: Peter, Paul, and Mary’s Blowin’ In the Wind  is the Billboard #1 album. The best-known cover of Bob Dylan’s song. In the liner notes to Dylan’s original release, Nat Hentoff calls the song "a statement that maybe you can say to make yourself feel better... as if you were talking to yourself." The song was written around the time that Suze Rotolo indefinitely prolonged her stay in Italy. The melody is based on an older song, "Who's Gonna Buy Your Chickens When I'm Gone". The melody was taught to Dylan by folksinger Paul Clayton, who had used the melody in his song "Who's Gonna Buy Your Ribbons When I'm Gone?"  (see January 13, 1964)
 

Cream’s Disraeli Gears

November Music et al

November 2, 1967: Cream released second album, Disraeli Gears.

Women’s Health

November 2, 1965: The New York Times reported that the first federally supported Women’s Health program had opened in a rural area near York, Pennsylvania. The clinic was funded through President Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty, and it marked the beginning of federal aid for family planning services. Federal support became institutionalized with the 1970 Family Planning Services Act, passed by Congress on December 24, 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 26, 1970.  (see March 1, 1966)

Native Americans

November 2, 1972: more than 2,000 Indians go to Washington on the eve of the presidential election to present Nixon with their 20-point program. They occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) headquarters for seven days, demanding that the U.S. recognize tribal self-determination.  (see February 27, 1973)

Dissolution of Yugoslavia

November 2, 1991: The UN Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution opening the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia. (see January 9, 1992)
November 2 Peace Love Activism

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

November 2, 2002: an estimated 2,000 people assembled on the National Mall on this day in the first Godless March on Washington. Participants included atheists, agnostics, humanists, and free-thinkers. Twenty people spoke at the four-hour event, which attracted some protesters. Marchers carried signs and T-shirts reading “What Our Schools Need is a Moment of Science,” and “Atheism is Myth-Understood.” (see Nov 18)

LGBTQ

Amendments deny same-sex marriage
November 2 Peace Love Activism
November 2, 2004: marshaled by Karl Rove, anti-gay forces in eleven states push through constitutional amendments to deny same-sex couples the freedom to marry. In Mississippi, Montana, and Oregon the amendments restrict marriage to different-sex couples. In the other states - Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Michigan, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Ohio, and Utah - the amendments deny all forms of family recognition or status, including civil union and domestic partnership. A similar amendment banning marriage was passed in Missouri in August 2004. (NYT article) (see Jan 19, 2005; Oklahoma, see January 14, 2014)
November 2, 2015
  • federal education authorities, staking out their firmest position yet on an increasingly contentious issue, found that an Illinois school district violated anti-discrimination laws when it did not allow a transgender student who identifies as a girl and participates on a girls’ sports team to change and shower in the girls’ locker room without restrictions. Education officials said the decision was the first of its kind on the rights of transgender students, which were emerging as a new cultural battleground in public schools across the country. In previous cases, federal officials had been able to reach settlements giving access to transgender students in similar situations. But in this instance, the school district in Palatine, Ill., had not yet come to an agreement, prompting the federal government to threaten sanctions. The district, northwest of Chicago, had indicated a willingness to fight for its policy in court.
  • Kim Davis, the clerk of Rowan County, asked the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit to scrap a series of rulings issued by the district judge Judge David L. Bunning who sent her to jail for refusing to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Ms. Davis’s lawyers called Bunning’s order that Ms. Davis license same-sex marriages a “rush to judgment” that trampled her religious liberty. (LGBTQ, see Nov 14; Davis, see August 18, 2016)

Nuclear/Chemical News

ICAN
November 2, 2015: after mobilizing campaigners behind the Humanitarian Pledge for almost a year, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons [ICAN] took significant credit for bringing 127 onto the Pledge as signatories; another 23 States vote in favor of Pledge goals at General Assembly.

Also, the UN General Assembly established the Open-Ended Working Group [OEWG] to review the evidence of catastrophic humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons and to make concrete recommendations for taking forward multilateral nuclear disarmament. ICAN called on the OEWG “to begin the serious practical work of developing the elements for a treaty banning nuclear weapons.” (Nuclear, see January 6, 2016; ICAN, see February – August 2016)

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