Tag Archives: Immigration history

November 12 Peace Love Activism

November 12 Peace Love Activism

Black History

George Washington, Slaves
November 12 Peace Love Activism
George Washington and one of his many slaves
November 12, 1775: General Washington, owner of more than 300 slaves, issued an order which forbade recruiting officers to enlist blacks. (see July 2, 1777)
Race Revolt
November 12, 1976: a race revolt erupted at Reidsville State Prison, now known as Georgia State Prison, in Reidsville, Georgia. Just a few years prior, a federal judge had ordered the prison to desegregate inmate living quarters. According to newspaper reports at the time, the riot began when 50-75 white prisoners armed with shanks attacked a group of black prisoners; in the end, 47 prisoners were injured and five were killed. Prison officials blamed the incident on an argument between homosexual inmates.

In 1968, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Georgia state law requiring racial separation of prisoners at Reidsville (where 60-65% of prisoners were black). However, after an initial attempt at integration, the prison had repeatedly reverted to segregation in supposed efforts to cool racial tensions. At the time, ACLU of Georgia Director Gene Guerrero remarked, “It's the worst sort of cop-out – to lay the problems at Reidsville on integration.”

Following the November 1976 riot and several other incidents of deadly violence, U.S. District Judge Anthony Aliamo issued an order on July 3, 1978, to re-segregate dormitories at Reidsville for a period of 60 days. The common areas, such as the mess hall and recreation yard, were to remain integrated. When another deadly racial attack occurred in August 1978, the state successfully sought an extension of the re-segregation order, resulting in eight months of segregated dorms. At the time, Commissioner of the Georgia Department of Offender Rehabilitation said that he thought the prison would have a “hard time going back” to integrated dormitories. (BH, see Nov 25; RR, see May 17, 1980)
BLACK & SHOT
November 12, 2016: the judge in the Samuel DuBose case (see July 19, 2015) declared a mistrial after the jury became deadlocked. (B & S, see January 24, 2017; DuBose, see July 18, 2017)

Immigration History

Ellis Island

November 12 Peace Love Activism

November 12, 1954: Ellis Island closed after processing more than 20 million immigrants since opening in New York Harbor in 1892. (NYT article) (see June 17, 1958)

November 12 Music et al

 News Music
November 12, 1966: deejay Jimmy O'Neill was the host of  Shindig! He opened a nightclub called Pandora's Box on the Sunset Strip. This led to massive throngs of teens and traffic on the strip, and Los Angeles city enacted a series of loitering and curfew laws targeting teenagers. Young people gathered at Pandora's Box to defy the 10pm curfew. The riots kept growing, and the panicked L.A. City Council quickly moved to condemn and demolish Pandora's Box, which they ultimately did in 1967. The incident inspired a number of songs in 1967 and see Sunset Riots:
“For What It’s Worth” by Buffalo Springfield

Plastic People” by Frank Zappa & The Mothers of Invention

Daily Nightly” by The Monkees

Riot on Sunset Strip” by The Standells

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Poor Side of Town
November 12 – 18, 1966: “Poor Side of Town” by Johnny Rivers #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
The Monkees
November 12, 1966 – February 10, 1967: The Monkees’ The Monkees the Billboard #1 album.

Free Speech

Religion & Public Education

November 12 Peace Love Activism

November 12, 1968: in Epperson v. Arkansas, the US Supreme Court struck down an Arkansas state law that prohibited the teaching of Darwinian evolution. The Court argued that the First Amendment required government neutrality on questions of religion and overturned the Arkansas State Supreme Court, which had ruled that the state's law represented a legitimate exercise of its authority to determine school curriculum.

Justice Fortas wrote, "The State's undoubted right to prescribe the curriculum for its public schools does not carry with it the right to prohibit, on pain of criminal penalty, the teaching of a scientific theory or doctrine where that prohibition is based upon reasons that violate the First Amendment." The two other members of the Court concurred in the result, writing that it violated either the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment (because it was unconstitutionally vague) or the Free Speech clause of the First Amendment. (FS, see April 4, 1969; R & PE, see June 28, 1971)

Feminism/US Labor History

November 12, 1973: in the case of Laffey v. Northwest, decided on this day, stewardesses employed by Northwest Airlines won a sweeping ruling regarding sex discrimination over issues related to unequal pay, the lack of promotions, unequal benefits compared to male employees, and weight monitoring for stewardesses. The job of stewardess was a separate all-female job category, and women were forced to retire in their early 30s, not allowed to be married, and subject to monitoring of their weight. (Feminism, see January 21, 1974;  Labor, see March 24, 1974)
Church of England
November 12, 1981: The Church of England General Synod votes to admit women to holy orders. (see Feminism June 30, 1982)
November 12 Peace Love Activism

Iran hostage crisis

November 12, 1979: in response to the hostage situation in Tehran, U.S. President Jimmy Carter orders a halt to all oil imports into the United States from Iran. (see Nov 14)

Calvin Graham

November 12, 1988: President Reagan signed legislation that granted Calvin full disability benefits, increased his back pay to $4917, and allowed $18,000 for past medical bills, contingent on receipts for the medical services. By this time, some of the doctors who treated him had died and many medical bills were lost. Calvin received only $2,100 of the possible $18,000. (Calvin Graham for full story)

César E. Chávez

November 12, 1990:  Mexican President Salinas de Gortari awarded  Chávez the Aguila Azteca, the highest Mexican civilian award. (see April 23, 1993)

Terrorism, World Trade Center

November 12 Peace Love Activism
World Trade center bomber Ramzi Yousef
November 12, 1997:  Ramzi Yousef was found guilty of masterminding the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. (NYT article) (see January 8, 1998)

AIDS, Ricky Ray

November 12 Peace Love Activism
Ricky Ray’s parents were prevented from enrolling their son in school.
November 12, 1998: the U.S. Congress enacts the Ricky Ray Hemophilia Relief Fund Act, honoring the Florida teenager who was infected with HIV through contaminated blood products. The Act authorized payments to individuals with hemophilia and other blood clotting disorders who were infected with HIV by unscreened blood-clotting agents between 1982 and 1987. (Federal site info) (see April 30, 2000)

LGBTQ

Same-sex Marriage
November 12, 2008, LGBT: same-sex marriages begin to be officially performed in Connecticut. (NYT article) (see Jan 1, 2009)
Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell
November 12 Peace Love Activism
Don’t Ask Don’t Tell protest
November 12, 2010: The US Supreme Court refused to intervene on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy while it was on appeal in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. (NYT article) (see Nov 30)
Banning Marriage Equality
November 12, 2014: U.S. District Judge Richard Mark Gergel ruled against South Carolina’s constitutional amendment banning marriage equality.  In Condon v. Haley, Lambda Legal and private attorneys sued the state on behalf of same-sex couples who argued that South Carolina’s ban on marriage equality violated the U.S. Constitution.  In his ruling, Judge Gergel cited the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals’ ruling in Bostic v. Shaeffer, in which the federal appeals court struck down Virginia’s ban on marriage for same-sex couples. The Fourth Circuit ruling in Bostic was binding precedent on South Carolina. (NYT article) (LGBTQ, see Nov 19; South Carolina, see Nov 20)

Medical marijuana

November 12, 2013:  a University of Utah neurologist and two other Utah doctors announced their support for allowing a medical use of a marijuana extract for children who suffer from seizures. In a letter sent to the state Controlled Substances Advisory Committee on Tuesday, pediatric neurologist Dr. Francis Filloux said the liquid form of medical marijuana is a promising option for children with epilepsy. (see Dec 10)
Fair Housing & Consumer Protection
November 12, 2015: a proposed federal rule announced on this date would prohibit smoking in public housing homes nationwide under, a move that would affect nearly one million households and open the latest front in the long-running campaign to curb unwanted exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke.

The ban, by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, would also require that common areas and administrative offices on public housing property be smoke-free. (FH, see January 20, 2017; CP, see May 5, 2016)

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October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3 Peace Love Activism

FREE SPEECH

October 3, 1915: John Sumner was appointed to replace Anthony Comstock as leader of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice (NYSSV). He pledged to continue Comstock’s censorship crusade against alleged indecent literature under the 1873 Comstock Act (March 3, 1873), the most important federal censorship law for almost 100 years. The NYSSV was the leading censorship organization from its founding in 1873 through the late 1930s, (see March 3, 1919)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

Kingdom of Yugoslavia
 October 3, 1929: The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. (ID, see Dec 11, 1931; Yugoslavia, see June 25, 1991)

Iraq

October 3, 1932: Iraq independent from the United Kingdom. (see November 22, 1943)
Germany
October 3, 1990: Germany reunited. (NYT article) (see April 9, 1991)

October 3 Music et al

Roots of Rock
October 3, 1945: Elvis Presley made his first ever-public appearance in a talent contest at the Mississippi Alabama Dairy Show singing 'Old Shep', Elvis was 10 years old at the time and came second. (see October 5, 1948)
Howl and Other Poems
October 3, 1957: at the conclusion of the obscenity trial regarding Howl and Other Poems, Judge Clayton W. Horn ruled that the poem was not obscene. In his decision, he stated that, “I do not believe that "Howl" is without redeeming social importance. The first part of "Howl" presents a picture of a nightmare world; the second part is an indictment of those elements in modern society destructive of the best qualities of human nature; such elements are predominantly identified as materialism, conformity, and mechanization leading toward war. The third part presents a picture of an individual who is a specific representation of what the author conceives as a general condition.” [Full transcript of decision] [complete Howl] (BG, see April 2, 1958; FS, see Nov 1)

Beatles not breaking up
October 3, 1966: The Beatles' manager Brian Epstein, recently released from hospitalization, denied reports that Paul McCartney was leaving the group. There had been much press speculation during the latter part of 1966 that The Beatles were splitting up. Each of the four members had pursued outside interests after their final concert, with John Lennon filming How I Won The War in Germany and Spain, George Harrison visiting India, and McCartney and Ringo Starr busying themselves in England. Epstein also revealed that Lennon was appearing as Private Gripweed in Richard Lester's film, and that McCartney was composing the music for another movie entitled Wedlocked, or All In Good Time. (see Oct 16)
Woody Guthrie

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3, 1967: Woody Guthrie died of complications of Huntington's disease.  NYT obit. (see Oct 6)
Fifth Big Sur Folk Festival

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3, 1968: The Fifth Big Sur Folk Festival (Big Sur, see Sept 14 – 15, 1969; Festival, see Oct 26 & 27)
  • Joan Baez
  • Judy Collins
  • Mimi Fariña
  • Arlo Guthrie
  • Charles River Valley Boys
 Seventh Big Sur Folk Festival

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3, 1970 – The Seventh Big Sur Folk Festival (held at the Monterey County Fairgrounds) (see Sept 25, 1971)
1:00 pm Concert:
Beach Boys
John Phillips
Joan Baez
Merry Clayton and Love Ltd.Kris Kristofferson (with Chris Gantry and Vince Matthews)
John Hartford
8:00 pm Concert:
Beach Boys
John Phillips
Linda Ronstadt, with Swamp Water
Mimi Fariña & Tom Jans
Mark Spoelstra
Country Joe McDonald
Tom Ghent
Joan Baez

Nuclear/Chemical News

 

October 3, 1952:  the United Kingdom successfully tested its atomic bomb. The test made the UK the world's third nuclear power. (see Oct 13)
October 3 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

United Auto Workers
October 3, 1961: the United Auto Workers (UAW) union went on strike at Ford plants across the country to win higher wages and better benefits for its members. It was the first company-wide strike since Ford had agreed to a collective-bargaining deal in 1941. (see January 17, 1962)
Major League Umpires Association
October 3, 1970: baseball umpires strike for recognition of their newly-formed Major League Umpires Association, win after one day. (see Dec 29)
Nissan plant
October 3, 2001: the United Automobile Workers lost an election to represent the workers in a Nissan plant in Smyrna, Tennessee. It was one of a series of defeats in attempts to organize the plants of foreign car makers in the U.S. UAW membership continued to slide. (see March 12, 2004)

Immigration History

October 3, 1965: President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. The Act ordered elimination of the national origins quota system established in 1882 in favor of a worldwide quota blind to national origin. Pushed by the American families of European immigrants who wanted to bring relatives over, the Act replaced the nation's tightly controlled, country-of-origin immigration system with a process that divided visas equally between all countries, giving preference to immigrants with advanced skills and education or with family ties to U.S. citizens.

As a result of the Act, the USA, a country that was almost entirely native-born in  1965 changed with a significant foreign-born population; demographic diversity has spread to every region, expanding a black-and-white racial paradigm into a multicolored one. Americans have gleefully adopted musical genres and foods that have immigrant origins, while remaining conflicted and uneasy politically over who's here, legally and not. (see June 15, 1982)

BLACK HISTORY

Frank Robinson
October 3 Peace Love Activism

 

October 3, 1974: the Cleveland Indians hired Frank Robinson as major league baseball's first black manager. (see Oct 30
Medgar Evers assassination
October 3, 1991: a Federal judge in Chattanooga, Tenn., refused to block the extradition of Byron de la Beckwith, sending him back to Mississippi for a third trial in the 1963 slaying of the civil rights leader Medgar Evers. (NYT article) (Evers, see November 13)

Irish Troubles

October 3, 1981:  those Republican prisoners who had still been refusing food decided to end their hunger strike. At this stage in the protest six prisoners were on hunger strike. The prisoners took their decision when it became clear that each of their families would ask for medical intervention to save their lives. (see Oct 6)

Feminism

The League of Women Voters
October 3 Peace Love Activism
October 3, 1988: after The League of Women Voters had sponsored the Presidential debates in 1976, 1980 and 1984, its 14 trustees voted unanimously to pull out of the debates. League President Nancy M. Neuman issued a press release condemning the demands of the major candidates' campaigns:  The League of Women Voters is withdrawing sponsorship of the presidential debates...because the demands of the two campaign organizations would perpetrate a fraud on the American voter. It has become clear to us that the candidates' organizations aim to add debates to their list of campaign-trail charades devoid of substance, spontaneity and answers to tough questions. The League has no intention of becoming an accessory to the hoodwinking of the American public. (see Feb 11, 1989)  NYT article
The Vagina Monologues

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3, 1996: The Vagina Monologues was first performed at HERE Arts Center in Soho, New York. Written and originally performed by Eve Ensler, the play is a one-woman show based on a series of interviews Ensler conducted with a diverse group of women who talked freely about womanhood, sex, and their vaginas. (NYT article) (see January 23, 1997)

October 3, 2008, George. Bush signed the revised Emergency Economic Stabilization Act creating a 700 billion dollar Treasury fund to purchase failing bank assets.

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