Tag Archives: Free Speech

November 10 Peace Love Activism

November 10 Peace Love Activism

Black History

Nat Turner
November 10, 1831: Nat Turner hung.
Underground Railroad
From 1831–1862 the Underground Railroad helped approximately 75,000 slaves escape to the North and to freedom . The so-called railroad was a system in which free African American and white "conductors," abolitionists and sympathizers helped guide and shelter the escapees. (Slave Revolts, see in July 2, 1839)
Dred Scott
In 1832 Scott’s owner, Peter Blow, died. (Scott's full story)
Jeremiah Reeves
November 10, 1952: Jeremiah Reeves, a 16-year-old black high school student and jazz drummer, was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, and interrogated about the rape of Mabel Ann Crowder the previous July. Ms. Crowder, a white woman, had claimed rape after she and was discovered in her home having sex with Jeremiah – sex many in the black community suspected was part of a consensual, ongoing affair. Within minutes of his arrest, Jeremiah was taken to Kilby Prison where, during “questioning” by police, he was strapped into the electric chair and told that he would be electrocuted unless he admitted committing all of the rapes of white women reported that summer. The fearful boy soon confessed to the charges against him. Alabama executed him on March 8, 1958. (BH, see Dec 30; JR, see December 6, 1954)
Marcus Garvey
November 10, 1964: Garvey’s body was returned to Jamaica. The following day he was declared the country's first national hero. He is buried in the Marcus Garvey Memorial, National Heroes' Park, Kingston, Jamaica. (see Nov 14)
Rainey Pool murder
November 10 – 13, 1999: James “Doc” Caston, Charles Ernie Caston, and Hal Spivey Crimm had a joint jury trial in the Circuit Court of Humphreys County, Mississippi, the Honorable Jannie M. Lewis, presiding, for the death of Pool. Doc, Charles and Crimm were convicted of manslaughter by an unanimous jury.   All three men were sentenced to serve a term of twenty (20) years in the custody of the Mississippi Department of Corrections. (see Dec 9)
Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers
November 10, 2014: President Barack Obama announced 19 recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, including James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, the three civil rights workers killed by the KKK, on June 21, 1964 in Mississippi.

"From activists who fought for change to artists who explored the furthest reaches of our imagination; from scientists who kept America on the cutting edge to public servants who help write new chapters in our American story, these citizens have made extraordinary contributions to our country and the world," he said. (see Dec 17) 

Feminism

Voting Rights
November 10 November 10
November 10, 1917: large picket demonstration held to protest treatment of Alice Paul and other suffrage prisoners. Thirty-one pickets arrested, including Dora Lewis and just-released-from-prison Lucy Burns. Pickets sentenced to varying terms at Occoquan Workhouse; Burns receives harshest penalty of six months. (see Nov 15)
Malala Yousafzai

November 10

November 10, 2013: in a decision announced by All Pakistan Private Schools Federation President Mirza Kashif, Malala Yousufzai’s recent book I am Malala will be banned in all schools across the country due to its ‘controversial’ content. In order to justify the decision, Mr. Kashif stated that the reason behind the ban is to avoid any confusion that the book may cause for students. It bears mentioning that the decision was taken by the private school owners; the government remained neutral toward the development. Furthermore, Mr. Kashif said that the book had little to do with the curriculum in schools and therefore should not be included in the syllabus. (see Nov 20)

Free Speech

November 10, 1919:  the US Supreme Court ruled in Abrams v. United States that the federal government could criminalize free speech if it was of a type tending to bring about harmful results, in this case resistance to the United States war effort. In a powerful dissenting opinion, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes countered that even during wartime, free speech could only be curtailed when there was clear and "present danger of immediate evil or an intent to bring it about." (Abrams v. United States)(see March 23, 1920)

Vietnam

Robert McNamara
November 10, 1964: at a news conference, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara said that the US had no plans to send combat troops into Vietnam. When asked whether the US intended to increase its activities in Vietnam, he replied, "Wait and see." (see Dec 19)
No combat fatalities
November 10, 1970: for the first time in five years, no U.S. combat fatalities in Southeast Asia were reported for the previous week. (see Nov 17)
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
November 10, 1982: the newly finished Vietnam Veterans Memorial was opened to its first visitors in Washington, D.C. (see Nov 13)

Japanese Internment Camps

November 10, 1983: the 1944 challenge that Fred Korematsu brought regarding the Japanese internment and that the Supreme Court sided with the government in Korematsu v. United States ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional, in response to a petition of error coram nobis (“error before us”) by Fred Korematsu, the San Francisco Federal District Court reversed Korematsu’s 1942 conviction and rules that the internment was not justified. (NYT article) (see August 10, 1988)

Kate Smith, God Bless America

November 10, 1938, Kate Smith first sang Irving Berlin's "God Bless America" on network radio.

Technological and Cultural Milestone

Direct-dial phone call
November 10, 1951: direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service began with a call between the mayors of Englewood, N.J., and Alameda, Calif. (coast to coast telephone service) (see Dec 20)

November 10

Sesame Street
November 10, 1969: "Sesame Street" made its broadcast debut. The show was the brainchild of Joan Ganz Cooney, a former documentary producer for public television. Cooney's goal was to create programming for preschoolers that was both entertaining and educational. She also wanted to use TV as a way to help underprivileged 3- to 5- year-olds prepare for kindergarten. (see January 1, 1970)
November 10 Peace Love Activism

Space Race

November 10, 1968: Zond 6 followed its predecessor's trajectory around the moon and returns with a "skip" reentry, bouncing once off the Earth's atmosphere to reduce the G-forces acting upon the contents. Two more Zond flights will follow in 1969 but they will all be unmanned. (see Dec 21 – 27)

Ken Kesey

November 10, 2001:  Ken Kesey died in a hospital in Eugene, Ore. He was 66 and lived in Pleasant Hill, Ore. The cause was complications after surgery for liver cancer late last month, said his friend and business associate, Ken Babbs. (see April 29, 2008)

Marijuana

November 10, 2009:  The American Medical Association softened its position on medical marijuana. The statement read in part: "Our AMA urges that marijuana's status as a federal Schedule I controlled substance be reviewed with the goal of facilitating the conduct of clinical research and development of cannabinoid-based medicines, and alternate delivery methods. This should not be viewed as an endorsement of state-based medical cannabis programs, the legalization of marijuana, or that scientific evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis meets the current standards for a prescription drug product." (see January 11, 2010)

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October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Slave Revolts
October 1, 1851: citizens of Syracuse, N.Y., broke into the city’s police station and freed William Henry (known as Jerry), a runaway slave who had been working as a barrel-maker. A group of black and white men created a diversion and managed to free Jerry, but he was later rearrested. At his second hearing, a group of men, their skin color disguised with burnt cork, forcibly overpowered the guards with clubs and axes, and freed Jerry a second time. He was then secretly taken over the border to Canada. (Slave Revolts, see Oct 16 – 17, 1959; BH, see March 20, 1852)
Elaine, Arkansas

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1919: a race riot broke out in Elaine, Arkansas. Black sharecroppers were meeting in the local chapter of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America. Planters opposed their efforts to organize for better terms and the sharecroppers had been warned of trouble. A white man intent on arresting a black bootlegger approached the lookouts defending the meeting, and was shot. The planters formed a militia to attack the African-American farmers. In the ensuing riot they killed between 100 and 200 blacks, and five whites also died. (BH, see Oct 11; RR, see May 31 and June 1, 1921; Elaine, see February 19, 1923)
Perez v. Sharp
October 1, 1948: by a 4–3 vote, the California Supreme Court, in Perez v. Sharp, struck down an 1850 state law banning interracial marriage. The case involved Andrea Perez, who was a Mexican-American but classified as “white” by the state at that time, and Sylvester Davis, who was African-American. Reportedly, this was the first time any court in the U.S. had ruled on the issue of racial intermarriage.

The U.S. Supreme Court declared interracial marriage bans unconstitutional in the famous case of Loving v. Virginia on June 12, 1967.

The Court: “In summary, we hold that sections 60 and 69 are not only too vague and uncertain to be enforceable regulations of a fundamental right, but that they violate the equal protection of the laws clause of the United States Constitution by impairing the right of individuals to marry on the basis of race . . . alone and by arbitrarily and unreasonably discriminating against certain racial groups.” (see Dec 10)
James H Meredith

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1962: in the fall of 1962, the University of Mississippi was the scene of violent riots in protest of James Meredith’s attempts to enroll as the segregated school’s first black student. In June 1962, after more than a year of litigation, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ordered the university to admit Meredith. In response, Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett gave a televised speech on September 13, 1962, vowing to resist integration.

Meredith, a 29-year-old Air Force veteran born in Mississippi, sought to enroll at Ole Miss in September 1962. Governor Barnett, a member of the pro-segregation White Citizen’s Council, personally blocked him the first two times he tried, and sent Lt. Governor Paul Johnson to prevent Meredith’s enrollment a third time. On September 28, 1962, the Fifth Circuit unanimously held Barnett in contempt of court for violating his duty to maintain order and allow Meredith to lawfully enroll.

On September 30, 1962, the next date set for Meredith’s enrollment, mobs had formed on campus and riots raged, killing two people and injuring many others. The following day, October 1, 1962, federal marshals sent by President John F. Kennedy successfully escorted Meredith to enroll as the University of Mississippi’s first black student and accompanied him to his first day of classes.

Mississippi Attorney General Joe Patterson soon instructed university students it was their constitutional right to refuse “to socialize or fraternize with an undesirable student” and unrest continued. Meredith suffered ongoing isolation, harassment, and violence. In October, students rioted and broke university cafeteria windows as Meredith ate there; in December, Meredith’s home was struck by shotgun blasts that nearly injured his teenaged sister and a dead raccoon was left on his car. Nevertheless, Meredith remained and on August 18, 1963, he graduated from the University of Mississippi with a degree in political science. (Black History, see Oct 16; Meredith, see January 20, 1963)
Muhammad Ali
October 1, 1975: Ali defeated Joe Frazier in the “Thrilla in Manila.” It is their third fight, each winning once before. Ali had expected an easy bout, but Frazier takes it to the champ. Ali wins the bout in one of the greatest battles in the history of boxing. (BH, see January 22, 1976; Ali, see September 28, 1976)

Medgar Evers
October 1, 1989: sealed documents from the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission revealed that at the same time that the state of Mississippi prosecuted Byron De La Beckwith in 1964 for the murder of NAACP leader Medgar Evers, another arm of the state, the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission, secretly assisted Beckwith’s defense, trying to get him acquitted. The revelation led the district attorney’s office to reopen and re-prosecute the case against Beckwith. It was the first of a series of prosecutions of unpunished killings from the civil rights era. (see December 17, 1990)

US Labor History

October 1, 1910: LA Times Bombing: an ink storage room in the L.A. Timesbuilding was dynamited during a citywide fight over labor rights and organizing.  The explosion was relatively minor, but it set off a fire in the unsafe, difficult-to-evacuate building, ultimately killing 21.  A union member eventually confessed to the bombing, which he said was supposed to have occurred early in the morning when the building would have been largely unoccupied. (Labor, see Nov 26; LA Times, see December 5, 1911)
October 1 Peace Love Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights
October 1, 1918:  U.S. Senate defeated federal woman suffrage amendment by vote of 34 nays to 62 yeas, two votes shy of required two-thirds majority. Amendment’s supporters quickly add it to Senate calendar for reconsideration. (see Oct 7)

The Red Scare, McCarthyism, and the Cold War

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1949: Chairman Mao Zedong declared victory in the Chinese Civil War, creating the Communist People's Republic of China. (see Oct 7)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

October 1, 1960
1) Cyprus independent from United Kingdom

2) Nigeria independent from United Kingdom (see February 25, 1961)

STUDENT ACTIVISIM & FREE SPEECH

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1964: the Free Speech Movement was launched at the University of California at Berkeley. Students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom. (see Dec 2)

October 1 Music et al

Jimi Hendrix
October 1, 1966: Cream was playing a show at London Polytechnic. Hendrix asked Eric Clapton if he could jam with them and did playing “Killing Floor” and amazing the audience as well as the members of Cream. (see Dec 26)

Abbey Road

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1969: US release of Abbey Road. (see Oct 12)
Side One

Side 2

 

Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers

October 1, 1969: Daniel Ellseberg, with his Rand Corporation colleague Anthony Russo, began copying the secret Pentagon Papers in Los Angeles on this day. The Papers, which they had obtained while working at the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, California, had been commissioned by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in 1967 because of his growing doubts about the Vietnam War. The documents in the Papers revealed the secrets surrounding American involvement in Vietnam that led to the escalation of the war. In one of the major controversies of the Vietnam War, The New York Times published the first stories based on the Papers on June 13, 1971. The Nixon Administration obtained an injunction halting publication by the Times on June 15, 1971. In a landmark case on freedom of the press, New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled the injunction unconstitutional on June 30, 1971.

Ellsberg and Russo were prosecuted for taking the Pentagon Papers from the Rand Corporation, but in the middle of the trial, on May 11, 1973, the charges were dismissed because of revelations of government misconduct against Ellsberg. The misconduct included the break-in of the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist on September 9, 1971, by the “Plumbers” unit of President Nixon’s White House. The purpose of the break-in was to find damaging information about Ellsberg.

One consequence of the dismissal of the charges against Ellsberg and Russo was that with respect to Edward Snowden (June 5, 2013) there is no directly relevant precedent for the criminal prosecution of someone who stole and leaked sensitive government documents. (see DE/PP)

Nuclear/Chemical News

October 1, 1979: The Progressive Magazine on this day published an article by Howard Morland on the hydrogen bomb, which the government claimed revealed the “secret” of how to make the bomb. The government enjoined the publication of that issue (March 9, 1979), but after lengthy legal proceedings finally gave up. Morland maintained that the article only discussed the conceptual aspects of the H-Bomb, with no technical engineering details necessary to make one. And no authority has since claimed that the article contains the “secret” to the H-bomb.

The affair echoed an incredible incident nearly 30 years earlier when government officials, on March 31, 1950, seized and burned all 3,000 copies of the respected magazine Scientific American, because they alleged that an article on atomic energy revealed the “secret” to the atomic bomb. Coming at the height of the Cold War, the incident passed with only very limited news coverage and public protest. (see January 2, 1980)

LGBTQ

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger
October 1, 1986: the following excerpt from a letter was delivered by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Prefect [the future Pope Benedictus XVI] and approved and ordered published by Pope John Paul II: "Although the particular inclination of the homosexual person is not a sin, it is a more or less strong tendency ordered toward an intrinsic moral evil; and thus the inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder.Therefore special concern and pastoral attention should be directed toward those who have this condition; lest they be led to believe that the living out of this orientation in homosexual activity is a morally acceptable option. It is not." (see March 10, 1987)
Registered Partnership Act
October 1, 1989, LGBTQ: the Registered Partnership Act went into effect in Denmark. It was the first law in the world that allowed civil unions between homosexual couples. (see February 26, 1990)

STAND YOUR GROUND LAW

October 1, 2005: Florida’s “Stand Your Ground” law goes into effect. (see February 26, 2012)

Occupy Wall Street

October 1, 2011, Occupy Wall Street protesters set out to march across the Brooklyn Bridge. The NY Times reported that more than 700 arrests were made. (see Oct 5)

Voting Rights

October 1, 2014:  a federal appeals court ordered a lower court to block two new voting restrictions in North Carolina, saying there was "no doubt" the measures would disenfranchise minorities. North Carolina would be required to reinstate same-day voter registration, as well as allow voters to cast ballots even if they show up to vote in the wrong precinct.

In a two-to-one ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit ruled that "whether the number is thirty or thirty-thousand, surely some North Carolina minority voters will be disproportionately adversely affected in the upcoming election" and that it was important to act now, since "there could be no do-over and no redress" once the election was over. (VR, see Oct 9; North Carolina, see April 6, 2015)

Environmental Issues

October 1, 2015: the Obama administration unveiled a major new regulation on smog-causing emissions that spew from smokestacks and tailpipes, significantly tightening the current Bush-era standards but falling short of more stringent regulations that public health advocates and environmentalists had urged.

The Environmental Protection Agency et the new national standard for ozone, a smog-causing gas that often forms on hot, sunny days when chemical emissions from power plants, factories and vehicles mix in the air, at 70 parts per billion, tightening the current standard of 75 parts per billion set in 2008. Smog has been linked to asthma, heart and lung disease, and premature death. (see Nov 6)

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September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28 Peace Love Activism

FREE SPEECH

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28, 1842: In People v. Richard Hobbes and People v. Henry R. Robinson, a New York grand jury indicted publishers of obscene books. In People v. Richard Hobbes and People v. Henry R. Robinson for the first time in US history . In addition, indictments were issued against the five print shop owners and book stand operators used by the two publishers.

Titles named in the indictments: Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure; Memoirs of the Life and Voluptuous Adventures of the Celebrated Courtesan Mademoiselle Celestine of Paris; The Cabinet of Venus Unlocked; The Curtain Drawn Up, or The Education of Laura; The Confessions of a Voluptuous Young Lady of High Rank; The Amorous Songster or Jovial Companion; The Lustful Turk; The Amorous History and Adventures of Raymond De B— and Father Andouillard; The Auto-Biography of a Footman. (see July 19, 1911)

BLACK HISTORY

Opelousas Massacre
September 28, 1868:  one of the worst outbreaks of violence during Reconstruction took place in Opelousas, La. The event started with three local members of the KKK-like Knights of the White Camelia beating newspaper editor Emerson Bentley, who had promoted voter registration and education for all. After some African Americans came to his rescue, bands of armed white mobs roamed the countryside and began killing. It is estimated that more than 200 blacks and 30 whites died in the Opelousas Massacre. (see January 5, 1869)
Omaha, Nebraska race revolt

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28, 1919: a major race riot erupted in Omaha, Nebraska. A white mob of about 4,000 people lynched and burned the body of Willie Brown, an African-American who was being held in the county jail. The mayor of Omaha, who was white, was almost lynched by the mob, which set fire to the county courthouse.

The origin of the revolt lay in racial conflict in the extensive city stockyards and meat packing plants. (A similar conflict underlay the East St. Louis race revolt that began on July 2, 1917.)  Rumors that Willie Brown had raped a white woman spurred the lynching. Later reports by the police and U.S. Army investigators determined that the victim had not made a positive identification.

 The riot lasted for two days, and ended when over 1,200 federal troops arrived to restore order. Although martial law was not formally proclaimed, for all practical purposes it existed, with troops remaining in the city for several weeks. (see Oct 1)
Gary, Indiana integration protests
September 28, 1927: student against integration in Gary, Indiana continued to protest and now numbered over 1300. Family and other local citizen also protested the proposed school integration. City, school, and district officials met with protesters to begin negotiations for bringing the strike to an end. (see Sept 30)
James H Meredith
September 28, 1962: federal marshals, patrolmen from the Texas – Mexico border, and 110 Army engineers with 49 trucks, van, tractor-trailers, and Jeeps loaded with equipment arrived in Memphis, TN in anticipation of a showdown regarding the admission of Meredith. (see September 29, 1962)
Black Panthers
September 28, 1968: a judge sentenced Huey P. Newton to 2 to 15 years in state prison. (BH, see Oct 16; Black Panthers, see “In November”)
Muhammad Ali
September 28, 1976:  Ali defeated Ken Norton in the fifteenth and final round at Yankee Stadium. Though Norton is ahead through the first eight rounds, Ali pulls through to win all but one of the subsequent rounds. As with Frazier the year before, this bout ends the three-fight series between Ali and Norton. (NYT article) (Ali, see February 15, 1978; BH, see Nov 12)
Johnnie Mae Chappell
September 28, 2005:  retired detectives Lee Cody and Don Coleman, who had led the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office investigation into the 1964 murder of Johnnie Mae Chappell, answered subpoenas sent by the state attorney's office.

Detective Lee Cody said that in all the years he'd been involved in the Chappell case, it was the first time he'd ever been under oath. Cody and Detective Don Coleman took confessions from the three men, but the charges against them were dropped. (BH & Chappell, see Oct 11)

September 28 Music et al

Hey Jude
September  28 – November 29, 1968, The Beatles after live performances: “Hey Jude” #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. "Hey Jude" was released in August 1968 as the first single from the Beatles' record label Apple Records. More than seven minutes in length, it was at the time the longest single ever to top the British charts.[1] It also spent nine weeks at number one in the United States, the longest for any Beatles single. "Hey Jude" tied the "all-time" record, at the time, for the longest run at the top of the US charts. The single has sold approximately eight million copies and is frequently included on professional critics' lists of the greatest songs of all time. (see Oct 18)
see Time Peace: The Rascals Greatest Hits for more

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28 - October 4, 1968: The Rascals’ Time Peace: The Rascals Greatest Hits is the Billboard #1 album.

September 28 Peace Love Activism

George Wallace

September 28, 1972: Arthur Bremer’s sentence reduced to 53 years after appeal. (NYT article) (see November 9, 2007)

ADA

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28, 1987: protesters demanded better access to mass transit systems by blocking buses at a transit association convention. The number of arrests in two days rose to at least 54. ''It's a very emotional issue for disabled people to have to come out here and do this,'' said Judy Heumann of the World Institute on Disability, an organization based in Berkeley. (see March 13, 1988)

Feminism

Violence Against Women Act
September 28, 1994: the House of Representatives passed the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), enhancing states' ability to respond to domestic violence, stalking, and sexual assault. (see In February 1995)
RU-486
September 28, 2000: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the use of mifepristone (RU-486) for the termination of early pregnancy, defined as 49 days or less. (see Nov 7

Iraq War II

September 28, 2004:  the same intelligence unit that produced a gloomy report in July 2004 about the prospect of growing instability in Iraq warned the Bush administration about the potential costly consequences of an American-led invasion two months before the war began, government officials said. [NYT, 9/28/04] (see Oct 7)

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