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November 17 Peace Love Activism

November 17 Peace Love Activism

Native Americans

November 17, 1828: the Alabama General Assembly passed “An Act to extend the jurisdiction of the State of Alabama over the Creek Nation.” The law became effective January 29, 1829. Alarmed at the state attempt to codify legal encroachment into Creek territory, tribal leaders turned to the federal government to plead for intervention and defense. Instead, the federal authorities seized the growing state pressure on Creek sovereignty as an opportunity to further aspirations to relocate the Creeks out of the southern region.

In March 1829, President Andrew Jackson announced that federal protection only existed for the Creeks willing to leave Alabama for the Western Territory, writing:

"Where you now are, you and my white children are too near to each other to live in harmony and peace...Beyond the great river Mississippi, where a part of your nation has gone, your father has provided a country large enough for all of you, and he advises you to remove to it...In that country, your father, the President, now promises to protect you, to feed you, and to shield you from all encroachment...My white children in Alabama have extended their law over your country. If you remain in it, you must be subject to that law. If you remove across the Mississippi, you will be subject to your own laws, and the care of your father, the President...It is for your nation’s good, and your father requests you to hear his counsel."         

Shortly after the passage of the Alabama law, prominent Creeks Opothle Yoholo and Jim Boy were summoned to appear before the Montgomery County Circuit Court on charges of assault against a white man. Opothle Yoholo and Jim Boy argued they were not subject to the court’s jurisdiction, but the judge proceeded with the case and awarded the alleged victim $4500 in damages.        

In 1832, the Alabama Supreme Court upheld the extension act as constitutional, in Caldwell v. State, and later that year the General Assembly passed another law, this time criminalizing tribal laws and customs that conflicted with Alabama law. By 1837, 23,000 Creeks had emigrated out of the Southeast. (see May 28, 1830)

Anarchism

Bolsheviks
November 17, 1917: The Bolsheviks, a broad-based Socialist group supported by workers and soldiers and led by V. I. Lenin, seized power from the tsarist Romanov dynasty, which had ruled Russia for over three centuries. (see May 16, 1918)
Czechoslovakia
November 17, 1989,: riot police put down student protests against the communist government in Czechoslovakia. The incident started a series of non-violent protests that finally forced the communists from power two weeks later.
Dissolution of the USSR & Velvet Revolution
November 17, 1989: riot police put down student protests against the communist government in Czechoslovakia. The incident started a series of non-violent protests that finally forced the communists from power two weeks later. (see Nov 28)

Feminism

November 17, 1923: following annual conference of national and state National Women’s Party officers in Washington, D.C., deputation of NWP officers meets with President Calvin Coolidge to ask his support for an equal rights amendment. Coolidge voiced support for equal rights but would not endorse an amendment per se.(see Dec 10, 1923)

BLACK HISTORY

Adam Clayton Powell
November 17, 1955:  Rev. Adam Clayton Powell, Democrat from Harlem and the leading African-American in Congress, announced the formation of an “organized civil right bloc” in Congress. The event marked the beginning of a civil rights caucus that eventually led to the formal organization of the Congressional Black Caucus, on March 30, 1971. (see Nov 25)
Albany (Georgia) Movement
November 17, 1960: Albany Movement: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee workers encouraged and coordinated civil rights activism in Albany, Ga., culminating in the founding of the Albany Movement as a formal coalition. (BH, see Nov 26)
U. S. Civil Rights Commission
November 17, 1961: a report by the U. S. Civil Rights Commission identified police brutality as a “serious problem” nationwide. The Commission’s findings soon proved to be prophetic. Police use of excessive force, unjustified fatal shootings of African-Americans, and discriminatory arrest patterns would be major causes of the urban riots that erupted in the summer of 1964 and continue for three more summers. The Kerner Commission report on the riots, issued on February 29, 1968, confirmed the role of police misconduct as a serious problem and a cause of the riots.
Albany Movement
November 17, 1961: often forgotten in most histories of the civil rights movement, the Albany (Georgia) Movement, which began on this day, involved a series of civil rights actions by a coalition of SNCC, the NAACP and SCLC. Police Chief Laurie Pritchett adroitly avoided confrontations that would bring unfavorable national publicity to him and the city. (In 1963, Birmingham, Alabama, Sheriff Bull Connor’s would use fire hoses and police dogs against demonstrators which galvanized the nation and generated support for a federal civil rights law.) Leaders of the Albany Movement asked the Kennedy administration to protect their efforts to secure African-American voting rights, but the administration did not respond. In fact, at one point the Justice Department indicted some of the leaders of the Albany Movement on various criminal charges. In the end, the Albany struggle was unsuccessful. William Anderson, a local doctor was its president. (see Dec 11)
137 SHOTS
November 17, 2015: “No pay for killer cops!” That was what the family members of Malissa Williams were chanting earlier in front of Cleveland’s city hall in response to news that Michael Brelo – one of the 13 cops who fatally shot both Williams and her friend Timothy Russell 137 times– would soon  be back policing the streets.

“Everybody knows this is murder,” said Alfredo Williams, Malissa’s brother said at a press conference. “I have never heard of anything like this in my life. He knows he did wrong.” (see Dec 8)

November 17 Music et al

News Music
November 17, 1958: the Kingston Trio's "Tom Dooley" hit #1 on the Billboard pop chart. While not a protest song, protest folk probably owed its commercial success to the Kingston Trio, three guys in crew cuts and candy-striped shirts who honed their act not in Greenwich Village cafes, but in the fraternities and sororities of Stanford University in the mid-1950s. Without the enormous profits that the Trio’s music generated for Capitol Records, it is unlikely that major-label companies would have given recording contracts to those who would challenge the status quo in the decade to come. Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, for instance, may have owed their musical and political development to forerunners like Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger, but they probably owed their commercial viability to the Kingston Trio. (see October 20, 1960)
Big Girls Don’t Cry
November 17 – December 21, 1962 – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by the Four Seasons #1 Billboard Hot 100.
“Double Fantasy”
November 17, 1980, The Beatles post break-up: John Lennon released his final album, "Double Fantasy" along with his wife Yoko Ono It was the seventh and final studio album released by Lennon in his lifetime. At first the LP was not received very well, but 3 weeks later, when John was murdered it became a worldwide commercial success, and went on to win the 1981 Album of the Year at the 24th Annual Grammy Awards. (see Dec 8)

Vietnam

November 17
US Soldiers & Vietnam: Skytroppers Of 1st Cavalry Division Prepare To Board Assault Helicopters For Plei Me
November 17, 1965: elements of the 66th North Vietnamese Regiment moving east toward Plei Mei encounter and ambush an American battalion. Neither reinforcements nor effective firepower can be brought in. When fighting ended that night, 60 percent of the Americans were casualties and almost one of every three soldiers in the battalion had been killed.(see Nov 20)

My Lai Massacre

November 17 Peace Love Activism
US soldier William Calley, Jr. on cover of Time magazine. Of the first day, the New York Times wrote: The Government described First Lieut, William L Calley Jr. today as a slayer of unarmed and unresisting women, children, old men, and babies.”
November 17, 1970: Lieutenant Calley's court-martial began for six counts of premeditated murder that he had been charged with nearly a year before. A conviction of these charges could come with a death sentence. During the trial, the military prosecutor insisted that Calley ordered his men to deliberately murder civilians, a direct defiance of the U.S. Rules of Engagement. Calley's defense was that he was simply following the orders of Captain Medina. Medina denied any such order. (click to read more >>> NYT article)

November 17 Peace Love Activism

November 20, 2009, Vietnam, My Lai Massacre: former Army photographer Sgt Ron Haeberle admitted that he destroyed photographs that depicted soldiers in the act of killing civilians at My Lai. (2013 Time magazine article on atrocity) (My Lai, see Dec 10; Vietnam, see Nov 21)

November 17 Peace Love Activism

The Cold War

November 17, 1969: Soviet and U.S. negotiators meet in Helsinki to begin the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). (see February 21 > 28, 1972)

Watergate Scandal

November 17 Peace Love Activism

November 17, 1973: President Nixon told an Associated Press managing editors meeting in Orlando, Fla., that ``people have got to know whether or not their president is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook.''(see Nov 21)

Iran hostage crisis

November 17, 1979: Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini ordered the release of 13 female and African American hostages being held at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. On the same day, U.S. President Carter froze all Iranian assets in the United States and U.S. banks abroad in response to the taking of 63 American hostages at the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran. (see Jan 28, 1980)

 

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November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Race revolt
November 3, 1883: riots occurred in Danville, Va. White conservatives seized control of the local government, killing four African Americans in the process.(BH, see May 4; RR, see November 8, 1898)
Greensboro Massacre
November 3, 1979: five protest marchers were shot and killed by members of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party. The protest was the culmination of attempts by the Communist Workers Party to organize mostly black industrial workers in the area. Five Klansmen were charged with murder. None were convicted. (NYT article) (see Dec 17)

Carol Moseley Braun

November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3, 1992: Carol Moseley Braun, a Democrat from Illinois, became the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate. (BH, see Dec 16; Feminism, see Nov 11) (NYT article)

Native Americans

Elk v. Wilkins
November 3, 1884, the question was whether an Indian, born a member of one of the Indian tribes within the US was, merely by reason of their birth within the US, and of their afterward voluntarily separating themselves from the tribe and taking up residence among citizens, a citizen of the US, within the meaning of the first section of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. The Court decided that although “Indian tribes, being within the territorial limits of the United States, were not, strictly speaking, foreign states,” “they were alien nations, distinct political communities,” with whom the United States dealt with through treaties and acts of Congress. Native Americans were not US citizens.(Citizenship, see June 2, 1924; NA, see September 4, 1886)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

Panama
November 3, 1903: with US assistance and plans to build a canal after independence, Panama became independent from Colombia. (see September 22, 1908)
Dominica
November 3, 1978: Dominica independent of United Kingdom. (see February 22, 1979)

US Labor History

Milk driver strike
November 3, 1921: striking milk drivers dump thousands of gallons of milk on New York City streets. (see Dec 15)
Transit worker strike
November 3, 2009: nearly 5,000 transit workers represented by Transport Workers Union Local 234 begin a strike in Philadelphia over wages, pensions, and benefits. The strike shut down the city’s bus, subway, and trolley service and after six days, a five-year contract deal was reached that provided pay and benefit increases. (see January 22, 2010)

Space Race, Sputnik 2

November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3, 1957: Sputnik 2 carried Laika, a female dog, into space. Although the satellite will remain in orbit for 162 days, scientists plan to put Laika to sleep after a week because there is no way to return her to Earth safely. Later reports indicate that Laika died soon after liftoff, from stress and high temperatures inside the capsule. (see Dec 6)
FREE SPEECH
November 3, 1960: an Alabama State Court jury awarded Police Commisioner L.B. Sullivan a libel judgment of $500,000 against The New York Times and four Alabama Negro ministers. (see February 15, 1961) 

November 3 Music et al

November  3 – 16, 1962: “He’s a Rebel” by The Crystals #1 Billboard Hot 100. The first of many Phil Spector produced hits.

Presidential elections

Lyndon B Johnson

November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3, 1964: Lyndon Johnson elected president in a landslide over Barry Goldwater. Johnson wins 486-52 in the electoral vote. Residents of the District of Columbia cast their ballots in a presidential election for the first time. (NYT)
Bill Clinton
November 3, 1992: Bill Clinton is elected the 42nd President of the United States. (NYT article)

Vietnam

November 3, 1969: President Nixon addressed the nation on television and radio, asking the "silent majority" to join him in solidarity with the Vietnam War effort, and to support his policies. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew denounces the President's critics as 'an effete corps of impudent snobs' and 'nattering nabobs of negativism'. (see Nov 13)

Feminism

November 3 Peace Love Activism
Bella Abzug
November 3, 1970: representing Manhattan on a feminist and anti-war platform, Bella Abzug, a lawyer specializing in civil rights, won a Congressional seat. (NYT re Bella Abzug) (see Dec 1)
November 3 Peace Love Activism

Symbionese Liberation Army

November 3, 1974: after months without hearing from Patty, Randolph Hearst withdrew his offer of a $50,000 reward for her safe return. (see January 2, 1975)

Iran–Contra Affair

November 3, 1986: the Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reported that the United States had been selling weapons to Iran in secret, in order to secure the release of 7 American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon. (NYT re Iran) (see Nov 19)
Medical Marjuana

November 3 Peace Love Activism

November 3, 1998, Marijuana: Alaska, Arizona Oregon, Nevada, and Washington legalize medical marijuana. (NYT article) (see July 1999)
Physician-assisted Suicide
November 3, 1998, Michigan voters reject a proposal to legalize physician-assisted suicide for the terminally ill. (NYT article)

Sexual Abuse of Children

November 3, 2002: Boston's Cardinal Law apologized for "decisions which led to suffering.” (see Nov 7)
LGBTQ, Gay marriage denied
November 3, 1998: anti-gay proponents succeeded in amending the Hawaii Constitution so as to prevent the courts from ending the exclusion of same-sex couples; under the Amendment, only the legislature could change that discrimination, notwithstanding the Equal Protection Clause. On the same day, anti-gay forces in Alaska pass Ballot Measure 2, which amended the state constitution to restrict marriage to different-sex couples. (NYT article)

LGBT, Gay marriage denied

November 3, 2009: anti-gay forces in Maine pushed through an anti-gay ballot measure to overturn the freedom to marry in the state and restrict marriage to different-sex couples. (NYT article) (see Dec 15)

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October 12 Peace Love Activism

October 12 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

TERRORISM
October 12, 1871: founded by former Confederate Army officers in December 1865, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) operated as a secret vigilante group targeting black people and their allies with violent terrorism to resist Reconstruction and re-establish a system of white supremacy in the South.

KKK violence was so intense in South Carolina after the Civil War that United States Attorney General Amos Akerman and Army Major Lewis Merrill traveled there to investigate. In York County alone they found evidence of 11 murders and more than 600 whippings and other assaults. When local grand juries failed to take action, Akerman urged President Ulysses S. Grant to intervene, describing the counties as “under the domination of systematic and organized depravity.” Merrill said the situation was a “carnival of crime not paralleled in the history of any civilized community.”

On April 20, 1871, President Grant had signed the Ku Klux Klan Act, which made it a federal crime to deprive American citizens of their civil rights through racial terrorism. On October 12, 1871, President Grant warned nine South Carolina counties with prevalent KKK activity that martial law would be declared if the Klan did not disperse. The warning was ignored. (see Oct 17)
Jonny Gammage
October 12, 1995: Jonny Gammage, cousin and business partner of Pittsburgh Steelers football player Ray Seals, was detained during a traffic stop while driving Mr. Seals’s Jaguar in the working-class suburb of Brentwood on the morning of October 12, 1995. According to testimony, Lt. Milton Mullholland pulled Mr. Gammage over for tapping his breaks and called Officer John Votjas for backup. The officers later claimed that Mr. Gammage, who was 5'6" and 165 pounds, pointed an object at the officers – which turned out to be a cell phone – and struggled. Mullholland and Votjas, along with Officer Michael Albert, Sgt. Keith Henderson, and Officer Sean Patterson, ultimately pinned Mr. Gammage face-down on the pavement; he asphyxiated and died after several minutes.

On November 27, 1995, Mulholland, Votjas were charged with third degree murder, and Albert was charged with involuntary manslaughter. The charges against Mullholland and Votjas, were later reduced to involuntary manslaughter. Henderson and Patterson were not charged in the incident.

Officer Votjas was acquitted by an all-white jury and, a year later, promoted to sergeant; Judge Joseph McCloskey dismissed charges against Mulholland and Albert after two trials resulted in mistrials. In January 1996, Brentwood police chief Wayne Babish, who had called for a complete investigation into Mr. Gammage’s death, was fired by the Brentwood City Council for failing to support the charged officers.

Multiple public protests were held in Pittsburgh and elsewhere, calling for “Justice for Jonny” and federal intervention. However, in 1999 the Department of Justice declined to file civil rights charges, stating that there was not enough evidence that unreasonable force had been used. (Fact Sheet on the Murder of Jonny Gammage)(see Oct 16)

Pledge of Allegiance

October 12 Peace Love ActivismOctober 12, 1892: during Columbus Day observances organized to coincide with the opening of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, the pledge of allegiance was recited for the first time. Francis Bellamy, a Christian Socialist, had initiated the movement for such a statement and having flags in all classrooms. His pledge was: I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

In 1923: the National Flag Conference called for the words "my Flag" to be changed to "the Flag of the United States," so that new immigrants would not confuse loyalties between their birth countries and the United States. The words "of America" were added a year later. (see June 22, 1942)

October 12 Music et al

Sugar Shack
October 12 – November 15, 1963,  “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

see Robert A. Moog and Herbert A. Deutsch for more

October 12 Peace Love Activism

October 12 – 16, 1964: Robert A. Moog and Herbert A. Deutsch introduced and demonstrated their music synthesizer at the convention of the Audio Engineering Society in NYC. (TM, see April 9, 1965; CM, see April 27, 1965)
Cheap Thrills

October 12 – November 15, 1968: Big Brother and the Holding Company’s Cheap Thrills is the Billboard #1 album.
One of the greatest first 10 seconds of any song ever.

“I buried Paul”
October 12, 1969: a DJ on Detroit's WKNR radio station received a phone call telling him that if you play The Beatles 'Strawberry Fields Forever' backwards, you hear John Lennon say the words "I buried Paul." This started a worldwide rumor that Paul McCartney was dead. (see Oct 20)

Space Race

October 12 Peace Love Activism

October 12, 1964: Soviets V. M. Komarov, K. P. Feoktistov and B. B. Yegorov all flew on Voskhod 1, the first mission to send multiple men into space.

INDEPENDENCE DAY

October 12 Peace Love Activism

October 12, 1968: Equatorial Guinea independent from Spain. (see June 4, 1970)
October 12 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

Kent State Killings and Aftermath
October 12, 1970: President Nixon announced the pullout of 40,000 more American troops in Vietnam by Christmas. (NYT article) (Kent State, see January 4, 1979; Vietnam, Nov 9)
Race Revolts
October 12,1972: en route to the Gulf of Tonkin, a fight broke out involving more than 200 sailors aboard the United States Navy aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk; 40 persons were injured and 28 sailors arrested, all but one black. (NYT pdf) (Vietnam, see Oct 26; BH & RR see Nov 23)
WAR POWERS ACT
October 12, 1973: House approved joint conference committee’s resolution 238 – 123. (see Oct 24)
Watergate Scandal
October 12, 1973: following the October 10 resignation of vice president Sprio Agnew, Nixon nominated House Minority Leader Gerald R. Ford, R-Mich., to succeed Agnew as vice president. (see Oct 20)

Crime and Punishment

October 12 Peace Love Activism
October 12, 1984: The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 was enacted. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan. Among its constituent parts and provisions was the Armed Career Criminal Act. The ACCA provided sentence enhancements for felons who committed crimes with firearms, if convicted of certain crimes three or more times.

If a felon has been convicted more than twice of a "violent felony" or a "serious" drug crime, the Act provided a minimum sentence of fifteen years, instead of the ten-year maximum prescribed under the Gun Control Act. The Act provided for a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. (see October 27, 1986)

Irish Troubles

October 12, 1984:  The Provisional Irish Republican Army attempts to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the British Cabinet in the Brighton hotel bombing. (see Feb 28, 1985)

LGBTQ

see Matthew Shepard murder for more
October 12, 1998: Shepard died at Poudre Valley Hospital in Fort Collins, Colorado. (see Oct 17)
Alaska ban on gay marriage overruled
October 12, 2014: U.S. District Judge Timothy Burgess released his 25-page decision that struck down Alaska's first-in-the-nation ban on gay marriages. Five gay couples had asked the state of Alaska to overturn a constitutional amendment approved by voters in 1998 that defined marriage as being between one man and one woman.

The lawsuit filed in May sought to bar enforcement of Alaska's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. It also called for barring enforcement of any state laws that refused to recognize gay marriages legally performed in other states or countries or that prevent unmarried gay couples from marrying.

 Burgess had heard arguments the previous Friday afternoon and promised a quick decision. (NYT article) (see Oct 25)

 TERRORISM

October 12 Peace Love Activism
October 12, 2000: in Aden, Yemen, the USS Cole was badly damaged by two Al-Qaeda suicide bombers, who place a small boat laden with explosives alongside the United States Navy destroyer, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39. (see Dec 19)

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