1969 Toledo Pop Festival

1969 Toledo Pop Festival

September 14, 1969

Toledo Raceway Park
1969 Festival #39

From the Pizza Don’t Go Bad site:

Four short weeks after Jimi Hendrix closed the generation-defining Woodstock Festival with a soul-stirring, whammy-bar laden performance of the Star Bangled Banner, Toledo fans got a homegrown opportunity to air out their freak flags courtesy of the daylong Toledo Pop Festival.Culled primarily from the S.E. Michigan/N.W. Ohio axis of high-energy rock’n’roll, the day’s slightly disparate line-up featured a virtual who’s who of Rust Belt axe-slingers: Brothers Wayne Kramer and the late-great Fred “Sonic” Smith from the MC5; Ted Nugent from the Amboy Dukes; The Frost’s Dick Wagner, who would later go on to co-write, record, and tour extensively with the likes of Alice Cooper and Lou Reed, among others; Ron Koss of Savage Grace; Gary Quackenbush of SRC; Steve Correll of The Rationals; and, the soon-to-be-known-as “Leather Tuscadero” in the persona of one Miss Suzi Quatro, performing bass, vocal and jail-bait duties for the Pleasure Seekers, a band consisting chiefly of her brothers and sisters.

1969 Toledo Pop Festival

PDGB wonders if the concert promoter’s somewhat curious decision to place feel-good hit-makers The Turtles atop a bill filled largely with outfits known for their aggressive, potentially incendiary histrionics was -at least in part- a conscious decision intended to serve as a musical blow-off valve, The Turtles cheery melodies and infectious lyrics helping to ease the attendees transition from frenzied jam kick-outing to the parking lot slough that awaited them. Then again, maybe they just needed a big name to sell some tickets.

Either way, we’re sure the inevitable twenty minute-plus live rendition of “Happy Together” didn’t go unnoticed, reshuffling the synapses of numerous first-time psychedelic users so completely that even now, some forty-years later, the simple act of hearing said melody errantly whistled by passerby is capable of triggering intense psychotic episodes of such severity that even immediate medical attention followed by years of therapy can’t guarantee the return of normal brain activity. Way to go Boomers!

Held at Toledo Raceway Park (which we assume is the Horse racing facility of approximately the same name that still stands in North Toledo today) the $5.00 admission ($4.25 Advance) was an unbelievable bargain, even adjusted for inflation. 

1969 Toledo Pop Festival

 

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Love Your Animal Friends…
Don’t Eat Them

Limited photos

I had only loaded the borrowed 35mm camera with one roll of Kodachrome, so I had to carefully measure my picture-taking at Woodstock.

During that weekend, I saw someone walking around with a lamb and a sign. The sign read:  Love Your Animal Friends, Don’t Eat Them.

Keep in mind that it was 1969 and meat and potatoes dominated the United States diet. Salad was an option and a meatless meal verboten.

To see such an interesting-looking guy expressing such (to me) an odd view merited using one of my valuable pictures. He was distant from me,  but close enough to give it a try.

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Nowadays

After my tours at Bethel Woods Center for the Arts Museum, I stick around to show any interested guests those several pictures I took. When I get to the “vegetarian guy” I try to explain how unusual it was to me to see someone like that.

Tdoday, when people invite friends and relatives to eat, they also ask if anyone has any dietary preferences. Some are simply that: preferences. Others are prescribed medical requirements.

Times have changed.

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Lewis Marvin

It was only recently that I found out who the “vegetarian guy” was: Lewis Marvin. And not only did I find out his name, it also surprised me that he was an heir to the S & H Green Stamp fortune because his father had been that company’s chairman.

Being a vegetarian at that time was one thing and to express such fondness for animals in general could bring outrage and ridicule. Just watch how Joe Pyne treats and speaks to Marvin on Pyne’s show in 1966:

The audience as well seems to enjoy the way Pyne excoriates Marvin as well.

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Moon Fire Ranch

Marvin’s story was more than just a respect for animals and tolerance of ridicule.  According to a 2012 article by Adrain Glick Kudler (who also used information from a Wall Street Journal article) in Curbed,  Marvin bought property in Topanga Canyon (CA) “in 1957 for $15,000….”

His wife, Barbara,  and he raised their three children there.

 “Over the next two decades, Mr. Marvin’s estate became part-salon, part-muse for his motley crew of artistic friends.” Those friends included, naturally, George Harrison…and Jim Morrison, as well as the Manson Family, supposedly.”

Apparently Jim Morrison was wearing Marvin’s hat (with skull and crossbones on it) on March 1, 1969 in Miami when police accused Morrison of lewd behavior.

Off the grid

While the idea of living off the grid may seem like a recent lifestyle, the Moon Fire Ranch was so isolated that Marvin used solar panels and a generator for power and collected rainwater.

Marvin also built the Moon Fire Temple there, “for the 1966 Paul Newman film, Harper, and is featured prominently as The Temple in the Clouds. Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin and The Doors performed at the Moon Fire Temple regularly during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Artists who have featured their work include; Andy Warhol, David Nelson Rose, Bon Jovi, Mastodon, Thrill Kill Cult, 80’s hairband Dokken’s music video “Walk Away”, Tommy Chong in Far Out Man and numerous Playboy shoots.”

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Mondo Hollywood

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Mondo Hollywood is a 1967 documentary that depicts the social/political/cultural scene in Los Angeles, and especially Hollywood, in the mid to late ’60s.

alfiehitchie writes in their IMDB review of Mondo, “Long considered a cult classic, “Mondo Hollywood” captures the underside of Hollywood by documenting a moment in time (1965-67), when an inquisitive trust in the unknown was paramount, hope for the future was tangible and life was worth living on the fringe. An interior monologue narrative approach is used throughout the film, where each principal person shown not only decided on what they wanted to be filmed doing, but also narrated their own scenes. The film opens with Gypsy Boots (the original hippie vegan – desert hopping blender salesman), and stripper Jennie Lee, working out ‘Watusi-style’ beneath the ‘Hollywood’ sign — leading into the ‘sustainable community’ insight of Lewis Beach Marvin III, the S&H Green Stamp heir, who lived in a $10 a month garage while owning a mountain retreat in Malibu.”

The IMDB entry on the movie does not indicate, as the Kudler article does, that Lewis and the Ranch were part of the movie.

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

The Family

Ed Sanders (of Fug fame) wrote of Moonfire in his well-respected book on Charles Manson, The Family: “the place had been constructed for a 1966 movie called Harper, starring Paul Newman and Lauren Bacall … In the film, the structure on the high hill above the Pacific belonged to a “religious fanatic” to serve as a “Temple in the clouds.” and that “occult ceremonies had occurred” and that Manson had visited.

According to Kudler’s article, Marvin died in 2005, I cannot find much more about his death other than in a second internet article by  Moonbattery that states, “He died in 2005 at a monkey refuge in Panama.”

I cannot find any additional corroboration.

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

Moonfire today

 

Today the ranch has become “…a premiere Los Angeles venue.” At least that what its site claims. It also states that, “Moonfire Ranch is now available for bookings. Welcoming all motion pictures, movie shoots, photo shoots, music video productions, and artistic events.”

One might say that Joe Pyne won.

Moonfire Lewis Beach Marvin III

1960s Many Independence Days

1960s Many Independence Days

Our world is never fully at peace despite a war to end all wars and famous armistices declaring it so. Nations continue to feud, disassemble, reassemble, and declare independence.

In 2018 there are 195 countries in the world. Next year that number could change.

During the 1960s counter-cultural  revolution, most Americans thought of it as being limited to the United States. An easy impression, but far too limited.

All over the world, particularly in Africa, millions of people became part of a new nation. Their own nation bringing their own new possibilities.

1960s Many Independence Days

1960

Cameroon

Image result for cameroon map

Motto: “Paix – Travail – Patrie” (French)
“Peace – Work – Fatherland”

Flag of Cameroon

January 1, 1960: Cameroon independent from France and the United Kingdom.  Officially the Republic of Cameroon is a country wedged in West and Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west and north; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south.

 Senegal

Image result for  Senegal map

Motto: “Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi” 
“One People, One Goal, One Faith”

Flag of Senegal

April 4, 1960:  Senegal independent from France. It is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, and Guinea-Bissau to the southwest.

Togo

Image result for togo map

Motto: “Travail, Liberté, Patrie”
“Work, Liberty, Homeland”

Flag of Togo

April 27, 1960:  Togo independent from France. It is bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.

Madagascar

1960s Yields Many Independence Days

Motto: “Fitiavana, Tanindrazana, Fandrosoana” (Malagasy)
“Amour, Patrie, Progrès” (French)
“Love, Fatherland, Progress”

1960s Yields Many Independence Days

June 26, 1960: Madagasar independent from France. Officially the Republic of Madagascar and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Image result for democratic republic of the congo map

(no official motto)

1960s Yields Many Independence Days

June 30, 1960: Democratic Republic of the Congo independent from Belgium. It is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes referred to by its former name of Zaire, which was its official name between 1971 and 1997. The DRC borders the Central African Republic and South Sudan to the north;  Uganda,  Rwanda,  Burundi, and Tanzania to the east; Zambia to the south; Angola to the southwest; and the Republic of the Congo and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

Somalia

1960s Yields Many Independence Days

Motto: Go forward, and never backward

Flag of Somalia

July 1, 1960: Somalia independent from Italy and United Kingdom.  It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest.

Benin

Image result for benin map

Motto:  “Fraternité, Justice, Travail” (French)
“Fraternity, Justice, Labour”

Flag of Benin

August 1, 1960: Benin independent from France. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north.

Niger

1960s Yields Many Independence Days

Motto: “Fraternité, Travail, Progrès” (French)
“Fraternity, Work, Progress”

Flag of Niger

August 3, 1960:  Niger independent from France. It is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.

Burkina Faso

Image result for Burkina Faso map

Motto: “Unité–Progrès–Justice” (French)
“Unity–Progress–Justice”

Flag of Burkina Faso

August 5, 1960: Burkina Faso independent from France. It  is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the southeast; Togo and Ghana to the south; and Ivory Coast to the southwest.

Ivory Coast

Image result for Ivory Coast map

Motto: “Union – Discipline – Travail” (French)
“Unity – Discipline – Work”

Flag of Cote d'Ivoire

August 7, 1960: Ivory Coast [officially the Republic of Côte d’Ivoireindependent from France. Its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east.

Chad

Image result for chad map

Motto: “Unité, Travail, Progrès” (French)
“Unity, Work, Progress”
“الاتحاد، العمل، التقدم” (Arabic)

Flag of Chad

August 11, 1960: Chad independent from France.   It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.

Central African Republic

Image result for Central African Republic map

Motto: “Unité, Dignité, Travail” (French)
“Unity, Dignity, Work”

Flag of the Central African Republic

August 13, 1960: Central African Republic independent from France. . It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west.

Republic of the Congo

Image result for Republic of the Congo Map

Motto: “Unité, Travail, Progrès” (French)
“Unity, Work, Progress”

Flag of the Republic of the Congo

August 15, 1960: Republic of the Congo independent from France.  It is bordered by five countries: Gabon and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; Cameroon to the northwest; the Central African Republic to the northeast; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the east and south; and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to the southwest.

Gabon

Image result for Gabon map

Motto: “Union, Travail, Justice” (French)
“Union, Work, Justice”

File:Flag of Gabon.svg

August 17, 1960: Gabon independent from France.  Located on the equator, Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, the Republic of the Congo on the east and south, and the Gulf of Guinea to the west.

Mali

Image result for mali map

Motto: “Un peuple, un but, une foi” (French)
“One people, one goal, one faith”

File:Flag of Mali.svg

September 22, 1960: Mali independent from France. It is bordered by Algeria to the northeast, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire to the south, Guinea to the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west.

October 1, 1960
Cyprus

Image result for Cyprus map

(No official motto)

Image result for cyprus flag

Cyprus independent from United Kingdom.  It is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece.

Nigeria

Image result for nigeria map

Motto: “Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress”

Flag of Nigeria

Nigeria independent from United Kingdom. It  borders Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

Mauritania

Image result for mauritania map

Motto: شرف إخاء عدل (Arabic)
“Honor, Fraternity, Justice”

Flag of Mauritania

November 28, 1960: Mauritania independent from France. It  is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest.

1960s Many Independence Days

1961

Kuwait

Image result for kuwait map

(no official motto)

Flag of Kuwait

February 25, 1961:  Kuwait independent from United Kingdom. It shares borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

Sierra Leone

Image result for Sierra Leone map

Motto: “Unity, Freedom, Justice”

Flag of Sierra Leone

April 27, 1961:  Sierra Leone independent from United Kingdom. It is bordered by Guinea to the northeast, Liberia to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest.

Tanzania

Image result for Tanzania map

Motto: “Uhuru na Umoja” (Swahili)
“Freedom and Unity”

Flag of Tanzania

December 9, 1961:  Tanzania independent from United Kingdom.  It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south; and the Indian Ocean to the east.

1960s Many Independence Days

1962

Samoa

Image result for Samoa map

Motto: “Faʻavae i le Atua Sāmoa”
“Samoa is founded on God”

Flag of Samoa

January 1, 1962: Samoa [officially the Independent State of Samoa] independent from New Zealand.  The two main islands are Savai’i and Upolu with four smaller islands surrounding the landmasses.  The Samoan Islands are an archipelago in the central South Pacific, forming part of Polynesia and the wider region of Oceania.

July 1, 1962
Burundi

Image result for burundi map

Motto: “Ubumwe, Ibikorwa, Amajambere” (Kirundi)
“Unité, Travail, Progrès” (French)

Flag of Burundi

  • Burundi independent from Belgium. It is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. It is also considered part of Central Africa.
Rwanda

Image result for rwanda map

Motto: “Ubumwe, Umurimo, Gukunda Igihugu”
“Unity, Work, Patriotism”

The flag of Rwanda: blue, yellow and green stripes with a yellow sun in top right corner

  • Rwanda independent from Belgium.  Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Algeria

Image result for algeria map

Motto: بالشّعب وللشّعب
By the people and for the people

Flag of Algeria

July 5, 1962: Algeria Independent from France. It is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea.

Jamaica

Image result for jamaica map

Motto: “Out of Many, One People”

Flag of Jamaica

August 6, 1962:  Jamaica independent from United Kingdom. It is the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean and lies about 90 mi  south of Cuba, and  119 mi west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic).

Trinidad and Tobago

Image result for trinidad and tobago map

Motto: Together We Aspire, Together We Achieve

Flag of Trinidad and Tobago

August 31, 1962:  Trinidad and Tobago (officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) independent from United Kingdom. It is situated 81 miles south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 16.8 miles off the coast of northeastern Venezuela.

Uganda

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Motto: “For God and My Country”
“kwa mungu na nchi yangu”

Flag of Uganda

October 9, 1962: Uganda independent from United Kingdom

1960s Many Independence Days

1963

Sarawak

Image result for sarawak map

Motto(s): Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti
United, Striving, Serving

Flag of Sarawak

July 22, 1963: Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and subsequently became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia established on 16 September 1963. Sarawak is located in northwest Borneo Island, and is bordered by the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of Borneo) to the south, and the independent country of Brunei in the north.

Kenya

Image result for map kenya

Motto: “Harambee” (Swahili)
“Let us all pull together”

Flag of Kenya

December 12, 1963:  Kenya independent from United Kingdom. It is bordered by Tanzania to the south and south-west, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east.

1960s Many Independence Days

1964

Malawi

Image result for map malawi

Motto: “Unity and Freedom”

Flag of Malawi

July 6, 1964:  Malawi (officially the Republic of Malawi) independent from United Kingdom. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west.

Malta

Image result for map malta

Virtute et constantia (Latin)
Strength and consistency
Flag of Malta

September 21, 1964:  Malta independent from United Kingdom.  It is a  island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 50 mi south of Italy, 176 mi east of Tunisia, and 207 mi north of Libya

Zambia

Image result for zambia map

Motto: One Zambia, One Nation

Flag of Zambia

October 24, 1964:  Zambia independent from United Kingdom. It borders  the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west.

1960s Many Independence Days

1965

Gambia

Image result for Gambia map

Motto: “Progress, Peace, Prosperity”
Flag of The Gambia

February 18, 1965: The Gambia independent from United Kingdom. It is almost entirely surrounded by Senegal with the exception of its western coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa.

Maldives

Image result for Maldives map

Motto:  the script below its national emblem reads الدولة المحلديبية  (State of the Mahal Dibiyat)

Flag of Maldives

July 26, 1965:  Maldives independent from United Kingdom. It is located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea and lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India.

Singapore

Image result for singapore map

Motto: “Majulah Singapura” (Malay)
(English: “Onward, Singapore”)

Image result for singapore flag

August 9, 1965:  Singapore leaves Malaysian Federation. It a sovereign city-state and island country.  It lies 85 miles  north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia’s Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysiato the north.

Rhodesia

Image result for map rhodesia

Motto: Sit Nomine Digna
“May she be worthy of the name”

Flag of Rhodesia

Flag of Rhodesia above

Flag of Zimbabwe

Flag of Zimbabwe above

November 11, 1965:  Rhodesia proclaimed its independence from Britain. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces, which culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980.

1960s Many Independence Days

1966

Guyana

Image result for map guyana

Motto: “One People, One Nation, One Destiny”

Flag of Guyana

May 26, 1966: Guyana independent from United Kingdom. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Suriname to the east and Venezuela to the west.

Botswana

Image result for map botswana

Motto: “Pula!” (Tswana)
“Rain”

Flag of Botswana

September 30, 1966: Botswana independent from United Kingdom.  It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast.

Lesotho

Image result for map Lesotho

Motto: “Khotso, Pula, Nala” (Sotho)
“Peace, Rain, Prosperity”

Flag of Lesotho

October 4, 1966: Lesotho independent from United Kingdom. It is entirely surrounded by South Africa.

Barbados

Image result for map Barbados

Motto: “Pride and Industry”

Flag of Barbados

 

November 30, 1966: Barbados independent from United Kingdom. It is about 104 mi east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 250 mi north-east of Trinidad and Tobago.

1960s Many Independence Days

1967

Anguilla

Image result for map Anguilla

Motto: “Unity, Strength and Endurance”

Flag of Anguilla

May 30, 1967: Anguilla independent from St Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla. It lies east of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and directly north of Saint Martin.

Yemen

Image result for map yemen

Motto: الله، ٱلْوَطَن، ٱلثَوْرَة، ٱلْوَحْدَة (Arabic)
Allāh, al-Waṭan, ath-Thawrah, al-Waḥdah
“God, Country, Revolution, Unity”

Flag of Yemen

November 30, 1967: Yemen independent from United Kingdom.  It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east.

1960s Many Independence Days

1968

Nauru

1960s Many Independence Days

Motto: “God’s will first”

Flag of Nauru

January 31, 1968: Nauru (officially the Republic of Nauru) independent from Australia, New Zealand, and United Kingdom.  Its nearest neighbor is Banaba Island  in  Kiribati  190 mi to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands.

With 11,347 residents in a 8.1 sq mi area, Nauru is the smallest state in the South Pacific, smallest republic and third-smallest state by area in the world, behind only Vatican City and Monaco.

Mauritius

Image result for map mauritius

Motto: “Stella Clavisque Maris Indici” (Latin)
French: L’étoile et la clé de l’océan Indien
“Star and Key of the Indian Ocean”

Flag of Mauritius

March 12, 1968: Mauritius (officially the Republic of Mauritius) independent from United Kingdom.  It is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 1,200 mi off the southeast coast of the African continent.

1960s Many Independence Days
Swaziland

1960s Many Independence Days

Motto: 
“Siyinqaba” (Swati)
“We are a fortress”
“We are a mystery/riddle”
“We hide ourselves away”

1960s Many Independence Days

September 6, 1968: Swaziland independent from United Kingdom. It is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north, west and south.

Equatorial Guinea

1960s Many Independence Days

Motto:  “Unidad, Paz, Justicia” (Spanish)
“Unity, Peace, Justice”
1960s Many Independence Days

October 12, 1968: Equatorial Guinea independent from Spain. It consists of two parts, an insular and a mainland region. The insular region consists of the islands of  Bioko and Annobón, The mainland region, Río Muni, is bordered by Cameroon on the north and Gabon on the south and east.

1960s Many Independence Days
1960s Many Independence Days

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