When the Bolshevik Revolution began in 1917, the capitalistic economies of the world saw the uprising as a threat to their systems. The Bolsheviks challenged the notion of private property, private business, and personal self-determination.
When the nuclear arms race began after World War II, exemplified in particular between the United State and the Soviet Union, propaganda on both sides successfully demonized their enemy.
As Americans the suffix "-ick" became associated with Communism and thus with evil intentions. When Senator Joseph McCarthy announced that he had incontrovertible evidence of Communist infiltration into the government and the arts, he launched hearings through the House Un-American Activities Committee. The Committees hearings and accusations damaged the careers of dozens of American citizens.
A corollary of the US-Soviet arms race was the space race. While on paper it looked like a race to get humans into space, the basis for it was to design rockets to deliver nuclear weapons.
On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik 1 and Americans had another Communist -ick to hate (NYT article).
In reaction to the horrors of World War II and the increasing emphasis of the American Dream equaling American Consumerism (the antithesis of Soviet Communism), some young Americans like Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs, Jack Kerouac, Neal Cassady (future hippie and driver of Furthur), and many others developed a literary view and philosophy that de-emphasized conspicuous consumerism. They deliberately did not fit in. According to Wikipedia, "Jack Kerouac introduced the phrase "Beat Generation" in 1948 to characterize a perceived underground, anti-conformist youth movement in New York."
The Beats were already seen with suspicion when Herb Caen, a well-known and popular San Francisco Examiner columnist, published a column on April 2, 1958. In it he wrote, "Look magazine, preparing a picture spread on S.F.'s beat generation (oh, no, not AGAIN!) hosted a party in a No. Beach house for 50 beatniks, and by the time word got around the sour grapevine, over 250 bearded cats and kits were on hand, slopping up Mike Cowles' free booze. They're only beat, y'know, when it comes to work."
The term took hold immediately and the San Francisco Beats, already discriminated against, now carried the additional negative Communist association.
Ever ready to take advantage of a popular coinage, the media was able to convert the negative image of the beatnik into one to ridicule and have fun with. The Halloween costume. The TV show The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis in which Bob Denver played Maynard G Krebs, the lazy air-head beatnik. Denver acting career, as successful as it was, never recovered as his even more successful character on Gilligan's Island is simply the same beatnik without the costume.
November 7, 1837: abolitionist, clergyman and editor Elijah P. Lovejoy was killed by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Ill., as he defended his newly delivered printing press. Lovejoy was a Presbyterian minister, journalist, and news editor first established a newspaper called the St. Louis Observer in St. Louis, Missouri but was eventually run out of town for his critical editorials about slavery and other religions. He established a new newspaper in Alton, Illinois called the Alton Observer. On three occasions a pro-slavery mob destroyed his printing press for his strongly abolitionist views. When they attempted to destroy the final printing press, Lovejoy tried to intervene but was shot five times by the angry mob who were armed with shotguns. Lovejoy then was viewed as a martyr for the abolitionist movement and inspired antislavery ideas in the North. No one was ever convicted for his murder. (see Feb 6)
Successful Slave revolt
November 7, 1841: a slave revolt occurred on a slave trader ship, the 'Creole,' which was en route from Hampton, Va., to New Orleans, La.,. Slaves overpowered crew and sailed vessel to Bahamas where they were granted asylum and freedom.(Slave Revolts, see December 26, 1848; Black History, see August 1842)
November 7, 1932: in Powell v. Alabama by a vote of 7 -2, Supreme Court reversed the convictions. The Court ruled that the defendants were denied the right to counsel, which violated their right to due process under the Fourteenth Amendment. The cases were remanded to the lower court. (Scottsboro, see Scottsboro; Right to counsel, see May 23, 1938)
Mayor and City Council of Baltimore City v. Dawson
November 7, 1955: a per curiam order by the US Supreme Court affirming an order by theUS Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit that enjoined racial segregation in public beaches and bathhouses. The case arose from a challenge to segregation at Sandy Point State Park in Maryland. (see ff)
Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company
November 7, 1955: the Interstate Commerce Commission, in response to a bus segregation complaint filed in 1953 by a Women's Army Corps private named Sarah Louise Keys, broke with its historic adherence to the Plessy v. Ferguson separate but equal doctrine and interpreted the non-discrimination language of the Interstate Commerce Act as banning the segregation of black passengers in buses traveling across state lines. (see Nov 9)
Cleveland’s first Black mayor
November 7, 1967: Carl B. Stokes elected mayor of Cleveland becoming the first African American mayor of a major US city. (see Dec 29)
November 7, 1972: Nixon reelected in one of the largest landslides in American political history, taking more than 60 percent of the vote and crushing the Democratic nominee, Sen. George McGovern of South Dakota. Also, Barbara Jordan of Houston and Andrew Young of Atlanta, become the first African Americans from the south elected to Congress since Reconstruction. (BH, see Nov 23; Nixon, see January 8, 1973)
NYC’s first Black mayor; Virginia’s first Black governor
November 7, 1989: David Dinkins elected first African American mayor of New York City; Douglas Wilder wins the Virginia governor's race, becoming the first elected African American governor. (see Dec 7)
Interracial marriage legal in Alabama
November 7, 2000: Alabama became the last state to officially legalize interracial marriage. By November 2000, interracial marriage had been legal in every state for more than three decades after the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Loving v. Virginia (1967) - but the Alabama State Constitution still contained an unenforceable ban in Section 102: "The legislature shall never pass any law to authorise or legalise any marriage between any white person and a Negro or descendant of a Negro." The Alabama State Legislature clung to the old language as a symbolic statement of the state's views on interracial marriage; as recently as 1998, House leaders successfully killed attempts to remove Section 102. When voters finally had the opportunity to remove the language, the outcome was close: although 59% of voters supported removing the language, 41% favored keeping it. Interracial marriage remained controversial in the Deep South, where a 2011 poll found that a plurality of Mississippi Republicans still support anti-miscegenation laws. (Alabama results) (see Dec 16)
University of Missouri football
November 7, 2015: dozens of black University of Missouri football players said that they would boycott all football-related activities — including games — until the university’s president, Timothy M. Wolfe, steps down or was removed. At issue, the players and other student activists said, were recent instances of racism directed at black students and a lack of action from administrators that the students contend have combined to create an intolerable atmosphere on campus. Wolfe resigned on November 9.
November 7, 1966: Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara faced a student protest when he visited Harvard University to address a small group of students. As he left a dormitory, about 100 demonstrators shouted at him and demanded a debate. When McNamara tried to speak, supporters of the Students for a Democratic Society shouted him down. McNamara then attempted to leave, but 25 demonstrators crowded around his automobile so that it could not move. Police intervened and escorted McNamara from the campus. (click >>>Harvard) (see Nov 15)
Draft deferments cancelled
November 7, 1967: the Selective Service Commission announced that college students arrested in anti-war demonstrations would lose their draft deferments. (click >>> draft) (see Nov 11)
WAR POWERS ACT
November 7, 1973: both the House and Sentate passed the War Powers Act, overriding President Nixon's veto.
IRAQ War I
November 7, 1991: the last oil well fire in Kuwait is extinguished. (see April 14 - 16, 1993)
November 7, 2000: the Presidential election ended without a clear winner. Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first First Lady of the United States to win public officeFifty-four percent of voters in Colorado approved Amendment 20, which amended the state’s constitution to recognize the medical use of marijuana. The law took effect on June 1, 2001. It removed state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who possess written documentation from their physician. The law established a confidential state-run patient registry that issues identification cards to qualifying patients... Sixty-five percent of voters in Nevada approved Question 9, which amended the states' constitution to recognize the medical use of marijuana. The law took effect on October 1, 2001. The law removed state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who have 'written documentation' from their physician... The law establishes a confidential state-run patient registry that issues identification cards to qualifying patients." (election, see Nov 26; Feminism, see Jan 22, 2001; Marijuana, see May 14, 2001)
November 7 Peace Love Activism
Initiative Measure 416
November 7, 2000: anti-gay forces in Nebraska push through the discriminatory Initiative Measure 416 at the ballot, constitutionally prohibiting the state from respecting any form of family status or recognition for same-sex couples. (see Nov 27)
Briggs Initiative defeated
November 7, 1978: Voters rejected the Briggs Initiative by more than a million votes John Briggs had dropped out of the California governor's race, but received support for Proposition 6, also known as the Briggs Initiative, a proposal to fire any teacher or school employee who publicly supported gay rights. Harvey Milk campaigned against the bill and attended every event hosted by Briggs. In the summer, attendance had greatly increased at Gay Pride marches in San Francisco and Los Angeles, partly in response to Briggs. President Jimmy Carter, former Governor Ronald Reagan, and Governor Jerry Brown speak out against the proposition. (see April 1, 2001)
Same-sex marriage denied
November 7, 2006: constitutional amendments denying same-sex couples the freedom to marry passed in seven more states - Colorado, Idaho, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Arizona becomes the first state to reject an anti-gay marriage amendment at the ballot. (see Dec 14, 2006)
slowly but surely things changed…
November 7, 2013: the US Senate approved a ban on discrimination in the workplace based on sexual orientation and gender identity, voting 64 to 32 in a bipartisan show of support that was rare for any social issue. It was the first time in the institution’s history that it had voted to include gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people in the country’s nondiscrimination law. (see Nov 15)
November 7, 1893: passage of a referendum made Colorado the first state to grant women the right to vote.(F, see Dec 8)
In 1897 Josephine Dodge founded the New York State Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage. Dodge was the first president, the NAOWS believed that woman suffrage would decrease women’s work in communities and their ability to effect societal reforms. Active on a state and federal level, the group also established a newsletter, Woman’s Protest( reorganized as Woman Patriot in 1918), that was a bellwether of anti-suffrage opinion. In 1918 the NAOWS moved its headquarters to Washington, D.C., where it operated until its disbandment following the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. Woman Patriot continued to be published through the 1920s, generally opposing the work of feminists and liberal women’s groups.(Feminism, see March 18, 1898; VR, see April 25, 1898)
November 7, 1922: Oregon voters approved the Compulsory Education Act, a Ku Klux Klan-sponsored initiative, which required children between the ages of 8 and 16 to attend public schools. The law was motivated by KKK anti-Catholic bias and would have effectively closed down parochial schools in the state. In the 1920s the Klan was a major force in many states outside of the South, and was particularly active with regard to anti-Catholic bias. On June 1, 1925, in Pierce v. Society of Sisters, the Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional because it interfered with the right of parents to control the education of their children.(T, see June 14, 1924; Oregon, see June 1, 1925)
November 7, 1957: the final report from a special committee called by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to review the nation's defense readiness indicated that the US was falling far behind the Soviets in missile capabilities, and urged a vigorous campaign to build fallout shelters to protect American citizens.(see Nov 17)
November 7 Music et al
November 7 – December 11, 1960: The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart comedy album returns to Billboard #1.
Sexual Abuse of Children
November 7, 2002: U.S. Roman Catholic bishops picked Kathleen McChesney , the FBI's top-ranking woman, to head a new office charged with making sure American church leaders adhere to clerical sex abuse policy. McChesney was named director of the Office for Child and Youth Protection, a critical post as the bishops try to re-establish their credibility. (see Nov 13)
November 7, 2013: Jesse M. Furman of Federal District Court in Manhattan ruled that New York City had violated the rights of about 900,000 of its residents with disabilities by failing to accommodate for their needs during emergencies, Furman found that the city, through “benign neglect,” was in violation of the Americans With Disabilities Act. (see Nov 8)
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October 23, 1783: Deborah Sampson honorably discharged from the Army after a year and a half of service. (see Deborah Sampson)
October 23, 1915: twenty-five thousand women marched in Manhattan, demanding the right to vote in all 48 states. (see Dec 4) (NYT article)
October 23, 1991: despite the sexual misconduct allegations of Anita Hill on October 11, Clarence Thomas sworn in as the 106th U.S. Supreme Court Justice. (see January 28, 1992)
October 23, 1947: Ronald Reagan, then president of the Screen Actors Guild, appeared before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) as a “friendly” witness on this day. He testified to his opposition to Communism, and his testimony on this occasion was fairly mild anti-Communist rhetoric. (see Oct 27)
October 23, 1947: the NAACP filed formal charges with the United Nations, accusing the U.S. of racial discrimination. "An Appeal to the World," edited by W.E.B. DuBois, was a study of the denial of the right to vote that included details of other discrimination. (see Oct 29) (NYT article)
Vietnam & South Vietnam Leadership
October 23, 1955: Ngo Dinh Diem held an election. He reportedly received 98.2% of the votes, a difficult winning percentage to believe which was further supported by the fact that the total number of votes for exceeded the number of registered voters by over 380,000. (see Oct 26)
Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency
October 23, 1956: The Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency was approved by the Conference on the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which was held at the Headquarters of the United Nations. (see In April 1957)
October 23, 1961: Soviet Union above-ground nuclear test. 12.5 megaton. (see Oct 30) (NYT article)
October 23, 1961: Kenneth Gelpey wearing protective clothing as he emerged from a fallout shelter in Medford, Massachusetts with a Geiger counter in hand to "test for radiation". Gelpey and his family spent the weekend in the shelter to test their equipment. (see Oct 30)
Cuban Missile Crisis
October 23, 1962: evidence presented by the U.S. Department of Defense, of Soviet missiles in Cuba. This low level photo of the medium range ballistic missile site under construction at Cuba's San Cristobal area. A line of oxidizer trailers is at center. Added since October 14, the site was earlier photographed, were fuel trailers, a missile shelter tent, and equipment. The missile erector now lies under canvas cover. Evident also is extensive vehicle trackage and the construction of cable lines to control areas. (see Cuban Missile Crisis for full story)
October 23 Music et al
October 23 – November 5, 1961: “Runaround Sue” by Dion & the Belmonts #1 Billboard Hot 100. Cool video:
October 23, 1963: Dylan recorded 'The Times They Are A-Changin' at Columbia Recording Studios in New York City. Dylan wrote the song as a deliberate attempt to create an anthem of change for the time, influenced by Irish and Scottish ballads. (see Nov 2 – Dec 6)
October 23, 1966: The Jimi Hendrix Experience recorded their first single 'Hey Joe', at De Lane Lea studios in London. The earliest known commercial recording of the song is the late-1965 single by the Los Angeles garage band the The Leaves; the band then re-recorded the track and released it in 1966 as a follow-up single which became a hit. (see Dec 26)
October 23, 1973: Nixon agreed to turn White House tape recordings requested by the Watergate special prosecutor over to Judge John J. Sirica (see Nov 17) (NYT article)
October 23 Peace Love Activism
October 23, 1983: Shiite suicide bombers explode truck near U.S. military barracks at Beirut airport, killing 241 marines. Minutes later a second bomb killed 58 French paratroopers in their barracks in West Beirut. (see Dec 12) (NYT article)
BBC report on Ethiopia
October 23, 1984, BBC News TV reported that a famine was plaguing Ethiopia and thousands of people had already died of starvation and as many as 10,000,000 more lives are at risk. (see Nov 25)
October 23, 1991: Kevokian attended the deaths of Marjorie Wantz, a 58-year-old Sodus, Michigan, woman with pelvic pain, and Sherry Miller, a 43-year-old Roseville, Michigan, woman with multiple sclerosis. The deaths occur at a rented state park cabin near Lake Orion, Michigan. Wantz dies from the suicide machine's lethal drugs, Miller from carbon monoxide poisoning inhaled through a face mask. (see Nov 20)
Dr. Barnett Slepian assassinated
October 23, 1998, Women’s Health: James Charles Kopp leaned against a tree behind the suburban home of Dr. Barnett Slepian, who performed abortions as part of his practice, and followed Slepian through the scope of a high-powered rifle.Slepian, the married father of four young sons, entered the kitchen after returning home from a memorial service for his father, put a bowl of soup in a microwave oven and walked to a desk in the corner of the kitchen where he routinely put his keys, wallet and pager. With that, Mr. Kopp, a longtime opponent of abortion whose beliefs earned him the nickname Atomic Dog among like-minded people, squeezed the trigger and fired.The single shot broke the kitchen window and struck Dr. Slepian under his left shoulder blade, tore through his chest and exited from his right shoulder, then ricocheted past his wife and two of their sons, finally lodging in the fireplace of the living room, where a third son was watching television.About an hour later, the 52-year-old doctor was declared dead. (see March 29, 2001) (NYT article)
October 23, 2012: The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago upheld the core portion of a lower court order that said Indiana cannot enforce a state law barring abortion providers from collecting Medicaid funds for any medical services, i.e., Indiana can't cut off funding for Planned Parenthood just because the organization provides abortions, a federal appeals. (NYT article) (see October 23)
October 23, 2012: the issue of pregnancies resulting from rape rattled another campaign for the Senate when Indiana’s Republican Senate nominee, Richard Mourdock, said a life conceived by rape “is something that God intended to happen” and must be protected. (NYT article) (see December 4)
October 23, 2001: Apple Computer Inc. introduced the iPod portable digital music player. (see April 25, 2003).
October 23, 2012: New York’s highest court declined to hear a challenge to the state’s gay-marriage law, ending the only significant legal threat to same-sex weddings in the state. The Court of Appeals rejected a motion by a conservative group, New Yorkers for Constitutional Freedoms, which had accused the State Senate of violating the state’s Open Meetings Law in its deliberations before it voted last year to allow gay men and lesbians to marry. The court did not provide an explanation of its decision.(see November 28) (NYT article)
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