October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15 Peace Love Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1872:  Virginia Minor tried to register to vote for the upcoming election, but was refused by St. Louis' sixth district registrar, Reese Happersett. Happersett refused to register Minor because she was female, thus provoking a civil suit brought by Virginia and her lawyer husband, Francis Minor. Minor's action was part of a nation-wide pattern of civil disobedience, in which hundreds of women across the country attempted to vote. (see Nov 5)
Against Our Will

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1975:  journalist and historian Susan Brownmiller published Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape. The book addressed social, political, and historical attitudes toward rape as well as the longstanding legal inequalities between men and women. Brownmiller is the first to use the term "date rape." (see Jan 1, 1976)
Roman Catholic Church

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1976: the Roman Catholic Church’s Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a Declaration on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood which concluded that for various doctrinal, theological, and historical reasons, the church "... does not consider herself authorized to admit women to priestly ordination." The most important reasons stated were first, the church's determination to remain faithful to its constant tradition, second, its fidelity to Christ's will, and third, the idea of male representation due to the "sacramental nature" of the priesthood. (see February 2, 1977)
Malala Yousafzai
October 15, 2012: the Pakistani schoolgirl who was shot by the Taliban last week for advocating girls’ education arrived in Britain for emergency specialist care. She was transported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan on an air ambulance sent from the United Arab Emirates to Britain, where she would undergo emergency specialist care. (see November 27)

BLACK HISTORY

Civil Rights Cases
October 15, 1883: in the Civil Rights Cases [a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue] the Supreme Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments.

More particularly, the Court held that the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which provided that "all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude" was unconstitutional.

The 8-1 decision by Justice Joseph P. Bradley,the Court  held that the language of the 14th Amendment, which prohibited denial of equal protection by a state, did not give Congress power to regulate these private acts, because it was the result of conduct by private individuals, not state law or action, that blacks were suffering. (see July 10, 1890) (NYT civil rights decision)
MARTIN LUTHER KING
October 15, 1963: the FBI circulated a report on alleged Communist influence in the civil rights movement that had as its major focus an attack on Dr. Martin Luther King. The report was so biased and racist that it alarmed members of President John Kennedy’s administration, who ordered that all copies be withdrawn two weeks later, on October 28. Assistant Attorney General Burke Marshall later told the Senate Church Committee (January 27, 1975) that the report was “a personal diatribe . . . a personal attack without evidentiary support . . . .” Assistant FBI Director Alan Belmont had described the report as “good reading,” conceding that it “may startle the Attorney General [Robert F. Kennedy].” (BH, see Oct 22; MLK, see Dec 23)
Black Panthers

October 15, 1966: in  the wake of the assassination of Malcolm X (Feb 21, 1965) and of Watts riots (Aug 11- 15, 1965) and at the height of the civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale wrote the first draft of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (BPP) 10 - Point Program.

Point #1:

We Want Freedom. We Want Power To Determine
 The Destiny Of Our Black Community.

We believe that Black people will not be free until we are able to determine our destiny.

(full statement) (BH, see Oct 29; Black Panthers, see  Nov 30)
SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID
October 15, 1989: the government freed eight of the country’s most prominent political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, 77, a mentor to Mr. Mandela and his close friend, in a gesture that was widely seen as a trial run for Mandela’s release. (see February 2, 1990)
Separate Amenities Act
October 15, 1990: South Africa's Separate Amenities Act, which had barred blacks from public facilities for decades, was scrapped. (see June 17, 1991)
1993 Nobel Peace Prize

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1993: Mandela and de Klerk shared the Nobel Peace Prize. The two men accept the award with the strained grace that characterized their relationship, and Mandela declined to repeat his much-quoted assessment of de Klerk as a man of integrity. (see Nov 18)
Murders of Civil Rights Workers Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner
October 15, 2013: the U.S. Supreme Court said it would consider arguments from a former Ku Klux Klansman Edgar Ray Killen who was convicted in the 1964 slayings of three civil rights workers. Killen said he was denied constitutional rights in his Mississippi trial.

He made the same arguments to a federal judge in Mississippi in 2012 and before the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans earlier this year. He lost in both courts. The Mississippi attorney general's office said that it had notified the Supreme Court that no response to Killen's petition would be filed. (BH & Murders, see Nov 4)

US Labor History

October 15, 1914: President Woodrow Wilson signed the Clayton Antitrust Act—often referred to as "Labor’s Magna Carta"—establishing that unions are not "conspiracies" under the law. It for the first time freed unions to strike, picket and boycott employers. In the years that followed, however, numerous state measures and negative court interpretations weakened the law. (see January 12, 1915) (NYT Clayton bill signed)

FREE SPEECH

“Don’ts and Be Carefuls”
October 15, 1927: almost from the time motion pictures appeared there were strong social and political pressures to censure their treatment of sexuality. In the 1920s, Hollywood made several efforts to head off official censorship through voluntary self-censorship efforts. The list of “Don’ts and Be Carefuls,” issued on this day, was one part of that effort. The list prohibited “pointed profanity,” including the use of “God,” “Jesus,” “hell,” “damn,” and others; trafficking in drugs; miscegenation; “suggestive nudity;” scenes of actual child birth; and “willful offense to any nation, race, or creed.” The “be carefuls,” included use of the flag; use of firearms; “attitude toward public characters and institutions;” rape or attempted rape; “first night scenes” [presumably the] first night of marriage; surgical operations; “excessive or lustful kissing;” surgical operations; and others.

The “Don’ts and Be Carefuls” were voluntary and had little impact. Many of the early talkies (which were just beginning to develop in 1927) in the 1930–1933 years were pretty racy. Under pressure from a Catholic-led boycott of “objectionable” films, Hollywood, on June 13, 1934, adopted the infamous 1934 Production Code, which put a heavy hand of censorship on Hollywood until the late 1960s. (see November 25, 1930)
Nazis in America
October 15, 2005: a riot broke out in Toledo, Ohio provoked by the plans of a group of neo-Nazis to march through a predominantly black neighborhood.  CBS News report (see Dec 20)

Japanese Internment Camps

October 15, 1943: at the Tule Lake Segregation Center internment camp in  California – which held over 18,000 Japanese Americans during World War II – a truck carrying agricultural workers tips over, resulting in the death of an internee. Ten days later, the agricultural workers went on strike; the internment camp director fired all of the workers and brought in strikebreakers from other internment camps. After several outbreaks of violence, martial law was declared and 250 internees were arrested and incarcerated in a newly constructed prison within the prison. (see December 17, 1944)

October 15 Music et al

Beatles in recording studio
October 15, 1960: in a small Hamburg recording studio, the Akustik, The Beatles (minus Pete Best) and two members of Rory Storm's Hurricanes (Ringo Starr and Lou "Wally" Walters) recorded a version of George Gershwin's "Summertime", which is cut onto a 78-rpm disc. This was the first session that included John, Paul, George, and Ringo together. Two other songs were recorded, but Ringo played on those without John, Paul, or George. Nine discs were cut, but only one is known to have survived.  (see Nov 1)
Four Tops
October 15 - 28, 1966: “Reach Out I’ll Be There” by the Four Tops #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
October 15, 1967 the first Sacramento Pop Festival took place which featured Spirit, Jefferson Airplane, Nutty Gritty Dirt Band, Strawberry Alarm Clock and Sunshine Company. (see May 18 – 19, 1967)
October 15 Peace Love Activism, 

Vietnam

DRAFT CARD BURNING
October 15, 1965: after draft card burning was made illegal, David Miller, a Catholic pacifist, became the first person to publicly burn his draft card to protest the Vietnam War (although in truth it may well have been simply the first draft card-burning incident to be widely publicized). Anti-war demonstrations were held in 40 cities, with a combined attendance of 100,000 people. (Draft Card, see Oct 18)
Marry Pranksters
October 15, 1965 : among that day’s protests, the Vietnam Day Committee organized a sit in at the San Francisco State College, which saw a performance by Country Joe and the Fish. The Merry Pranksters attended and Ken Kesey spoke. (Vietnam, see Oct 16; LSD see November 21)
Peace Day

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1969: Peace Day. 500,000 protesters nationwide. First Vietnam Moratorium. Pete Seeger sings “Give Peace a Chance,” a song he originally didn’t think much of but afterwards said, “The high point of the afternoon came...when a short phrase from a record by Beatle John Lennon was started up...” (see Oct 19)
October 15 Peace Love Activism

IRAQ

October 15, 1994: Iraq withdrew troops from its border with Kuwait. (see August 31, 1996)

Voting Rights

October 15, 2014:  Arkansas' highest court struck down a state law that required voters to show photo identification before casting a ballot, ruling the requirement unconstitutional.

The state Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling that determined the law unconstitutionally added a requirement for voting. The high court noted that the Arkansas Constitution lists specific requirements to vote: that a person be a citizen of both the U.S. and Arkansas, be at least 18 years old, and be lawfully registered. Anything beyond that amounts to a new requirement and is therefore unconstitutional, the court ruled. (see March 23, 2015)

October 15 Peace Love Activism, October 15 Peace Love Activism, October 15 Peace Love Activism, October 15 Peace Love Activism, October 15 Peace Love Activism, October 15 Peace Love Activism, October 15 Peace Love Activism, October 15 Peace Love Activism, 

October 14 Peace Love Activism

October 14 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Marcus Garvey
October 14, 1919: a man named George Tyler visited Garvey at his office in Harlem. Tyler pulled out a gun and shot Garvey in the right leg and head. Garvey sustained injuries but survived the attack. Tyler was arrested but is reported to have committed suicide the day after his arrest. (NYT article) (Garvey, see January 23, 1920)
 District of Columbia Bar Association
October 14, 1958: the District of Columbia Bar Association voted to accept black lawyers for the first time: attorneys in the District of Columbia were not required to belong to a professional bar association in the 1950s, but the District maintained several voluntary bar associations that lawyers could choose to join. The Bar Association of the District of Columbia became known as the “white bar,” while the Washington Bar Association served as the “black bar.” Washington has a long history of racial separation and in the Jim Crow era, mandatory segregation laws remained in force. While black and white lawyers practiced in the same courtrooms, most other facilities in the District remained separated by race and the bar associations furthered that custom. Even Washington’s law library, located within a federal courthouse, refused to admit African American attorneys.

The Bar Association of the District of Columbia finally desegregated due in a large part to the efforts of Charles S. Rhyne, a white man who ran for president of the organization on a pledge to desegregate. Though he faced intensely hostile reactions from many of his colleagues, Rhyne eventually was able to amend the bar association’s constitution and remove the race-based membership criteria. Several years later, on October 14, 1958, the Bar Association of the District Columbia voted to integrate and begin accepting African American members. The “black” Washington Bar Association nevertheless opted to continue operation, open to all but with a focus on the needs and concerns of black lawyers in Washington. Both associations still exist today. (see Oct 25)
MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR
October 14, 1964: Martin Luther King, Jr., awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. At 35 years of age, King was the youngest person ever to receive the award. (NYT article) (BH, see Oct 31; MLK, see Nov 18)

 
George Whitmore, Jr
October 14, 1965: Richard Robles went on trial before a jury and New York County Supreme Court Justice Irwin D. Davidson for the Wylie-Hoffert murders. (see George Whitmore, Jr)

see News Music to listen

Harry Dixon
Around 1920:  Harry Dixon (1895 – 1965) wrote "This Little Light of Mine" as a gospel song. It became a common one sung during the civil rights gathering of the 1950s and 1960s. It continues to be a song of hope today. (BH, see January 4, 1920)
Fats Waller
In 1929: composed by Fats Waller with lyrics by Harry Brooks and Andy Razaf, Edith Wilson (1896 – 1981) sang "(What Did I Do to Be So) Black and Blue.”. It is a protest song that did not speak of how something should change so much as it spoke of what life was like for those who suffered inequities.
Blind Alfred Reed
In 1929: Blind Alfred Reed (1880 – 1956) wrote “How Can A Poor Man Stand Such Times and Live?” The song describes life during the Great Depression.
Florence Reece
In 1931: Florence Reece (1900-1986) “was a writer and social activist whose song ‘Which Side Are You On?’ became an anthem for the labor movement. Borrowing from the melody of the old hymn ''Lay the Lily Low,'' Mrs. Reece wrote the union song...to describe the plight of mine workers who were organizing a strike in Harlan County, Ky. Mrs. Reece's husband, Sam, who died in 1978, was one of those workers. Pete Seeger, the folk singer, recorded the song in 1941. It has since been used worldwide by groups espousing labor and social issues.” -- New York Times Obituaries, August 6, 1986. (Labor, see March 3; Feminism, see Dec 10)
Brother Can You Spare a Dime
In 1931:  “Brother Can You Spare a Dime” by lyricist E. Y. "Yip" Harburg and composer Jay Gorney., the song asked why the men who built the nation – built the railroads, built the skyscrapers – who fought in the war (World War I), who tilled the earth, who did what their nation asked of them should, now that the work is done and their labor no longer necessary, find themselves abandoned, in bread lines.

Harburg believed that “songs are an anodyne against tyranny and terror and that the artist has historically always been on the side of humanity.” As a committed socialist, he spent three years in Uruguay to avoid being involved in WWI, as he felt that capitalism was responsible for the destruction of the human spirit, and he refused to fight its wars. A longtime friend of Ira Gershwin, Harburg started writing lyrics after he lost his business in the Crash of 1929.
Jimmie Rogers
In 1932: Jimmie Rogers (1897 – 1933) was born in Meridian, Mississippi worked on the railroad as his father did but at the age of 27 contracted tuberculosis and had to quit. He loved entertaining and eventually found a job singing on WWNC radio, Asheville, North Carolina (April 18, 1927). Later he began recording his songs. The tuberculosis worsened and he died in 1933 while recording songs in New York. In 1932 he recorded “Hobo’s Meditation.”
Lead Belly
in 1938: Lead Belly (born Huddie William Ledbetter) (1888 – 1949) sang about his visit to Washington, DC with his wife and their treatment while in the nation’s capitol in his song, “Bourgeois Blues”. (BH, see Nov 22)
Woody Guthrie
In 1939: During the Great Depression, Woody Guthrie (1912-1967) wrote many songs reflecting the plight of farmers and migrant workers caught between the Dust Bowl drought and farm foreclosure. One of the best known of these songs is his  “Do Re Mi.”
Tom Joad
In 1940: Woody Guthrie wrote Tom Joad, a song whose character is based on John Steinbeck’s character in The Grapes of Wrath. After hearing it, Steinbeck reportedly said, “ That f****** little b******! In 17 verses he got the entire story of a thing that took me two years to write.” * (see Feb 23)

Technological Milestone

October 14, 1947: Air Force test pilot Charles E. Yeager became the first person to break the sound barrier when he flew the experimental Bell X-1 rocket plane over Edwards Air Force Base in California. (see December 23, 1947)
 

Cold War

FREE SPEECH
October 14, 1949: eleven top leaders of the American Communist Party were convicted of violating the Smith Act, which made it a crime to advocate the overthrow the government. The guilty verdict was appealed. (Red Scare, see Nov 2; Free Speech, see March 31, 1950; trial appeal, see June 4, 1951)

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14 Peace Love Activism

October 14, 1962: a US Air Force U-2 plane on a photo-reconnaissance mission captured proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba. (see Oct 18)
Nikita Khrushchev
October 14 Peace Love ActivismOctober 14, 1964: Nikita Khrushchev was ousted as both premier of the Soviet Union and chief of the Communist Party after 10 years in power. He was succeeded as head of the Communist Party by his former protégé Leonid Brezhnev, who would eventually become the chief of state as well. (click → NY article)  (see January 23, 1967)

Peace Corps

October 14, 1960: Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy suggested formation of a Peace Corps during a talk at the University of Michigan.

October 14 Peace Love Activism

October 14 Music et al

October 14 – 27, 1967: Bobbie Gentry’s Ode to Billie Joe the Billboard #1 album.

Vietnam

October 14, 1968: U.S. Defense Department officials announced that the Army and Marines woiuld be sending about 24,000 men back to Vietnam for involuntary second tours because of the length of the war, high turnover of personnel resulting from the one year of duty, and the tight supply of experienced soldiers. This decision had an extremely negative impact on troop morale and the combat readiness of U.S. forces elsewhere in the world as troops were transferred to meet the increased personnel requirements in Vietnam. (see Oct 27)

LGBTQ

see Anita Bryant for more
October 14, 1977, LGBTQ  gay rights activists pie Anita Bryant during a press conference in Des Moines, Iowa. (see Nov 8)

October 14 Peace Love Activism
National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights
October 14, 1979: an estimated 75,000 people participate in the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. LGBTQ and straights demanded equal civil rights and urged the passage of protective civil rights legislature. (LGBTQ. see July 9, 1980; Feminism, see July 7, 1981) (NYT article)

Immigration History

October 14, 2010: Derrick M. Donchak, 20, of Shenandoah, and Brandon J. Piekarsky were found guilty on all counts (including hate crimes) in the July 12, 2008 beating death of immigrant Luis Ramirez, .

They had previously been acquitted of murder charges in state court and convicted of simple assault.

"Four people attacked one person because of his race and because they didn't want people like him living in their town," prosecutor Myesha K. Braden said during her closing argument.

Witnesses testified that racist language was used before and during the attack and that Ramirez was kicked in the head repeatedly after falling down. The defendants, they said, didn't want immigrants in their neighborhood and repeatedly ordered Ramirez to leave.

Regarding the cover up, Braden said, "They hatched a plan to leave out the kick, to leave out the race and even to leave out the drinking." (IH and Ramirez, see January 27, 2011)

Women’s Health

October 14, 2014: the Supreme Court blocked a federal appeals court ruling that had forced many abortion clinics in Texas to close. The Supreme Court’s order, which was five sentences long, allowed the clinics to remain open while appeals proceeded. (BC, see Dec 22; Texas, see June 27, 2016) (NYT article)

Sexual Abuse of Children

October 14, 2014: the Diocese of Kansas City-St. Joseph agreed to settle 30 sexual abuse lawsuits for $9.95 million. The agreement resolved all 30 outstanding claims – including some involving priests in Independence – filed from 2010 to early 2014 alleging abuse by priests from the diocese from 20 or more years ago. (see Nov 6)

October 14 Peace Love Activism, October 14 Peace Love Activism, October 14 Peace Love Activism, October 14 Peace Love Activism, October 14 Peace Love Activism, October 14 Peace Love Activism, October 14 Peace Love Activism, 

John Berg Columbia Art Director

John Berg Columbia Art Director

 

John Berg Columbia Art Dirctor

Artists create their works and certainly deserve all the credit for those works, but sometimes it takes someone else's inspiration to select or choose the work and put it into the pubic's eye.
Artists often need art directors
John Berg was that second person. He was an art director at Columbia Records and commissioned or selected the art that graced the album covers. 

According to a Rolling Stone magazine article, "Berg worked on over 5,000 records during his 25-year tenure at Columbia, earning Grammys for his work on Dylan's 1967 Greatest Hits collection, Barbra Streisand's The Barbra Streisand Album, Chicago's Chicago X and Thelonious Monk's Underground."

The article went on to say that, "Berg's innovative covers were as much a product of his own artistic sensibilities as they were indicative of his eye for talent. As art director at Columbia, and later creative director and a vice president by the time he retired in 1985, he commissioned works by noted contemporary designers, illustrators and photographers like Richard Avedon, Paul Davis, Milton Glaser, Edward Sorel, Tomi Ungerer, Jerry Schatzberg and W. Eugene Smith."

Early career

According to the Cooper Union alumni site, "John Berg...was born in Brooklyn January 12, 1932.  He attended Erasmus Hall High School. He drew cartoons for the school newspaper. He attended The Cooper Union School of Art where he graduated in 1953.  After earning his degree, he worked for Doyle Dane Bernbach and Esquire. John Berg was responsible for the design of many popular album covers while he served as the vice president of Art and Design at CBS Records. Berg joined Columbia Records in 1961 as art director of packaging, after working for Gray Advertising, Esquire Magazine, Horizon Magazine, and others.

Don’t dis the director

Not without a sense of humor mixed with a touch of vengeance, Berg designed the cover for an posthumous album by the conductor George Szell. Berg felt put upon and treated poorly by the famed Szell. Berg searched photograph after photograph before deciding upon the right cover for Szell's recording with the Cleveland Orchestra of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.  Appropriate for the album if not for the conductor's face.

John Berg Columbia Art Director

 

The Waxpoetic site put together a (very) partial collection of Berg's most famous covers. Follow this link.

I didn't even know I knew this guy and I bet the same is true for you.
John Berg Columbia Art Director

John Berg Columbia Art Director

NYT obituary

What's so funny about peace, love, art, and activism?