On November 9, 1961 The Beatles performed at the Cavern Club at lunchtime. That night they appeared at Litherland Town Hall, Liverpool (their final performance at that venue). This was a major day for The Beatles, although they are unaware of it at the time--in the audience at the Cavern Club show was Brian Epstein, dressed in his pin-stripe suit and seeing The Beatles for the first time. Accompanying Epstein was his assistant Alistair Taylor. Epstein will recall his first impressions in a 1964 interview: "They were fresh and they were honest, and they had:star quality. Whatever that is, they had it, or I sensed that they had it." Over the next few weeks, Epstein becomes more and more interested in possibly managing The Beatles and he does a lot of research into just exactly what that would entail. When he speaks with the group's embittered ex-manager Allan Williams, he is told, "Brian, don't touch 'em with a fucking bargepole." Nonetheless, Epstein invited The Beatles to a meeting at his record store on December 3.
Five years later…
Yoko Ono @ The Indica Gallery
November 9, 1966: John Lennon visited the Indica Gallery in London where he met Yoko Ono who was displaying her art. The Indica Gallery was in the basement of the Indica Bookshop in Mason's Yard, just off Duke Street in Mayfair, London and co-owned by John Dunbar, Peter Asher, and Barry Miles, and was supported in its early years by Paul McCartney.
November 9 Music Beatles James Brown
Say It Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud
November 9, 1968: singer James Brown gave support to the civil rights movement with his song, "Say It Loud — I'm Black and I'm Proud (Part 1)," which hit number one on the R & B charts for a record sixth straight week.
From schmoop.com: ...the song was also – more of a rarity for the Godfather of Soul – deeply political. "Say It Loud (I'm Black and I'm Proud)" was almost a revolutionary statement in 1968, and one laced with more than a little bit of irony. Brown said he recorded the tune as a kind of children's song, hoping to instill pride in the younger generation. But many whites heard it only as militant and angry, costing Brown a good chunk of his interracial crossover audience. And those kids happily shouting out the chorus, "I'm black and I'm proud"? In another ironic twist, most of them were actually white or Asian schoolchildren.
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October 28, 1793: Eli Whitney applied for a patent for the cotton gin. It was granted in March 14, 1794. It will change the course of American history as it made the cotton crop a valuable commodity for which thousands of workers--black slaves--would be used.(see February 7, 1817)
Football game broadcast
October 28, 1922: hundreds of young men gathered around radios in Western Union offices, speakeasies and a Princeton University physics lab to hear the first-ever cross-country broadcast of a college football game between Princeton and the Chicago Maroons. Telephone lines carried a play-by-play of the match-up. (NYT article) (see April 15, 1923)
Matilda Josyln Gage
October 28, 1886: Gage joined the New York City Woman Suffrage Association’s protest at the unveiling of the Statue of Liberty. Suffragists called it the greatest hypocrisy of the 19th century that liberty is represented as a woman in a land where not a single woman has liberty. (NYT article)In 1890: Gage left National Women's Suffragist Association after its merger with the American Woman Suffrage Association and established the Woman’s National Liberal Union, dedicated to maintaining the separation of church and state. (Separation Churchand State, see May 5, 1925 Feminism; see May)In 1893 Gage published her magnum opus, Woman, Church, and State.Gage also spoke of organized religion: “The greatest evils to women in all ages have come through the bondage of the Church. Women must think for themselves and realize that the story of the creation with the pair in the garden and the speaking serpent standing on his tail was a myth.” (Feminism, see Nov 7)in 1895 Gage contributed to Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s The Woman’s Bible, writing interpretations of three Biblical passages pertinent to women. The Woman’s Bible is a major criticism of standard biblical interpretation from a radical feminist point of view. (Gage, see March 18, 1898)
In 1897 New York State Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage founded. (see April 25, 1898)
October 28, 1974: President Gerald Ford on this day signed into law the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, which helped to reduce sex discrimination in access to credit. As a member of the Appropriations Committee, Congresswoman Lindy Boggs (D–Louisiana) helped shape the law. She hand-wrote “sex or marital status” into the text and then passed out new copies of the bill with the phrase included. She suggested sweetly that the omission “must have been an oversight.” The amendment passed. President Gerald Ford signed further amendments to bar discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976 in March 1976. (Feminism, see January 8, 1975; CP, see February 12, 1976)
October 28, 1918: Czech Republic formed marking independence from Austria-Hungary. (see Nov 11)
Cultural Milestone/Volstead Act
October 28, 1919, the day after President Wilson had vetoed the act, the House and Senate override his veto and the Volstead Act was passed, ushering in Prohibition. It went into effect in January 1920. (NYT article) (see January 17, 1920)
October 28, 1947: Dalton Trumbo, a successful Hollywood screenwriter, confronted the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) on this day. All of the “Hollywood Ten” were cited for contempt of Congress, convicted, sentenced to prison, and blacklisted by the film industry.Contempt of Congress indictments became a heavy weapon against alleged subversives during the Cold War. While it had rarely been used before World War II, HUAC issued 21 contempt citations in 1946, 14 in 1947, and 56 in 1950. All other House Committees in those years issued a total of only 6 contempt citations. (Red Scare, see Oct 30; Hollywood Ten, see November 25, 1956; Trumbo, see March 27, 1957)
October 28, 1962: after much deliberation between the Soviet Union and Kennedy's cabinet, Kennedy secretly agreed to remove all missiles set in southern Italy and in Turkey, the latter on the border of the Soviet Union, in exchange for Khrushchev removing all missiles in Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev announced that he had ordered the removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba. (Cold War, see Oct 30)
October 28 Music et al
October 28, 1961, The Beatles before their US appearance: “My Bonnie” is a success in Germany and eventually heard and released in England. On the same day, according to Beatles legend, a fan named Raymond Jones attempted to purchase the single "My Bonnie" from Brian Epstein's NEMS record store in Liverpool. Brian managed the record shop, which was part of a large department store owned by his father. The legend states that this was the first occasion on which Brian Epstein heard of the single or, indeed, of The Beatles. "Mersey Beat" editor Bill Harry discounts this story as improbable. Harry claims to have discussed The Beatles and other local groups with Epstein well before this date, and he adds that Epstein was already writing record reviews for "Mersey Beat" and selling copies of the paper in his shop. Further, Epstein was selling tickets to Sam Leach's 'Operation Big Beat' concert, and The Beatles' name was at the top of the list of groups that were scheduled to appear at the November 10 event. (see Oct 30)
Beatles/Empire Theatre, Liverpool
October 28, 1962: The Beatles performed at the Empire Theatre, Liverpool. This is a major performance for The Beatles, their first at Liverpool's top theatre. They are part of an eight-act, big-name program that plays to two separate "houses" (two performances for two different audiences, one at 5:40 pm and the other at 8:00 pm). Heading the bill is Little Richard; also appearing is Craig Douglas (for whom The Beatles provide musical backing in addition to their own, separate performance), Jet Harris (ex-Shadows bass player), and Kenny Lynch & Sounds Incorporated. In Liverpudlian terms, The Beatles have hit the big time. (see Nov 23)
October 28 – 29, 1964 filmed over two days at the Santa Monica (Calif.) Civic Auditorium, "The T.A.M.I. Show" (short for Teenage Awards Music International or Teen Age Music International) featured some of the biggest stars in rock and pop music, including The Rolling Stones, James Brown and the Flames, The Supremes, The Beach Boys and Lesley Gore. It was released in theaters in December 1964. (see June 24, 1966)
October 28 – December 1, 1967: Diana Ross and the Supremes Greatest Hits is the Billboard #1 album.
October 28, 1989: a group burned a United States flag belonging to the United States Postal Service. The flag-burning occurred during a political demonstration convened in front of a post office in Seattle, Washington to protest the enactment of the Flag Protection Act of 1989, 18 U.S.C. § 700. That statute, which prohibits flagburning, had taken effect only minutes before defendants' actions against the flag.Participants were charged with committing two misdemeanors: one count of wilful injury to federal property and one count of knowingly burning a United States flag in violation of the Flag Protection Act. (see March 21, 1990)
October 28, 1992: The Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 signed. The Act established the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO) within the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). It also mandated that HUD set specific goals for the government-sponsored enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, with regard to low income and underserved housing areas.
In 1996 home ownership totaled 66.3 million American households, the largest number ever. Except for a few historic buildings, Techwood Homes (see August 15, 1936) was demolished in 1996 before the 1996 Summer Olympics.
in 1998 HUD opens Enforcement Center to take action against HUD-assisted multifamily property owners and other HUD fund recipients who violate laws and regulations. Congress approves Public Housing reforms to reduce segregation by race and income, encourage and reward work, bring more working families into public housing, and increase the availability of subsidized housing for very poor families.
In 2000 America's homeownership rate reached a new record-high of 67.7 percent in the third quarter of 2000. A total of 71.6 million American families own their homes - more than at any time in American history. (see July 19, 2013)
October 28, 2002: the City Council in Richmond, the former capital of the Confederacy, …unanimously voted to honor a slave who plotted a revolt. A resolution calling the slave, Gabriel Prosser, an ''American patriot and freedom fighter'' commemorates the 202nd anniversary of his hanging on Oct. 10, 1800, in Richmond. Dozens of conspirators were also executed after two slaves told their masters of the plot. ''This resolution seeks to correct an error in history whereby Gabriel has been seen by many as a criminal,'' Councilman Sa'ad El-Amin told the Council. (BH, see Dec 4; SR, see June 17, 2015)
The Matthew Shepard Act
October 28, 2009: President Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, also known as the Matthew Shepard Act, as a rider to the National Defense Authorization Act for 2010. Conceived as a response to the murders of Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., the measure expands the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability. (Black History, see Nov 15, 2010; Shepard: see September 21, 2011 and April 12, 2012; LGBTQ, see Nov 3)
October 28 Peace Love Activism
October 28, 2013: federal Judge Lee Yeakel of the US District Court in Austin blocked an important part of the state’s restrictive new abortion law, which would have required doctors performing the procedure to have admitting privileges at a nearby hospital. The decision, one day before the provision was to take effect, prevented a major disruption of the abortion clinics in Texas. It was a victory for abortion rights groups and clinics that said the measure served no medical purpose and could force as many as one-third of the state’s 36 abortion clinics to close.But the court did not strike down a second measure, requiring doctors to use a particular drug protocol in nonsurgical, medication-induced abortions that doctors called outdated and too restrictive.The decision is widely expected to be appealed to higher courts. Yeakel declared that “the act’s admitting-privileges provision is without a rational basis and places a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus.” (BC, see Oct 31; Texas, see June 27, 2016) (NYT article)
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October 1692: Governor William Phipps of Massachusetts ordered the Court of Oyer and Terminer dissolved and replaced with the Superior Court of Judicature, which forbade the type of sensational testimony allowed in the earlier trials. Executions ceased, and the Superior Court eventually released all those awaiting trial and pardoned those sentenced to death. The Salem witch trials, which resulted in the executions of 19 innocent women and men, had effectively ended. (DP, see April 30, 1790)
“Of Husband and Wife”
1776 – 1830: state laws rather than federal law governed women’s rights in the early Republic and most of those laws were based on Sir William Blackstone’s 1769 "Of Husband and Wife" in his Commentaries on the Laws of England. In “Of Husband and Wife” he explained the legal concept of Coverture, whereby, upon marriage, a woman's legal rights were subsumed by those of her husband. He explained:By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in law: that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection, and cover, she performs every thing; and is therefore called in our law-French a feme-covert; is said to be covert-baron, or under the protection and influence of her husband, her baron, or lord; and her condition during her marriage is called her coverture. Upon this principle, of a union of person in husband and wife, depend almost all the legal rights, duties, and disabilities, that either of them acquire by the marriage. I speak not at present of the rights of property, but of such as are merely personal. For this reason, a man cannot grant any thing to his wife, or enter into covenant with her: for the grant would be to suppose her separate existence; and to covenant with her, would be only to covenant with himself: and therefore it is also generally true, that all compacts made between husband and wife, when single, are voided by the intermarriage. (see May 20, 1782)
October 16, 1916: birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S. on this day in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. She opened it with her sister, Ethel Byrne, who was a registered nurse. More than 100 women and about 20 men were lined up outside the two-room office on Amboy Street when Sanger opened the door. The clinic served 448 people that first day. (see Oct 26)
October 16 - 17, 1859: with a group of slaves and white abolitionists, John Brown led an capture a federal armory and arsenal in Harper’s Ferry,VA . A local militia under the leadership of Robert E Lee put down the insurrection. The raid hastened the advent of the Civil War, which started two years later. (see Oct 25 – Nov 2)
Booker T. Washington
October 16, 1901: President Theodore Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington, founder of the Tuskegee Institute and the most prominent African American of his time, to a meeting in the White House. When the meeting went long, the President asked Washington to stay for dinner, the first African American to do so. The President’s act drew harsh criticism from some Southerners. (see February 18, 1903)
MARTIN LUTHER KING
October 16, 1962: Martin Luther King meets with President John F. Kennedy to discuss the issues King was involved with. (BH, see Nov 18; MLK see Nov 27)
Olympic Project for Human Rights
October 16, 1968: African American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos placed first and third in the 200-meter dash at the Olympic Games in Mexico City, Mexico. As the national anthem played during the medal ceremony, rather than hold their hands over their hearts and face the American flag, the two men bowed their heads and raised black gloved fists in a silent protest against racial discrimination in the United States. Both men wore black socks with no shoes and Smith also wore a black scarf around his neck. At a press conference following the demonstration, Smith explained he had raised his right fist to represent black power in America, while Carlos had raised his left fist to represent black unity. Smith said the black scarf represented black pride and the black socks without shoes were intended to signify black poverty in America.The demonstration was supported by Australian silver medalist Peter Norman, who wore a patch representing the Olympic Project for Human Rights, an organization established in 1967 that had urged athletes to boycott the Olympics to protest racial segregation in the United States, South Africa, and in sports generally. Two days after their gesture of protest, Smith and Carlos were expelled from the Olympic Village for allegedly violating the principles of the Olympic spirit.Despite their medal-winning performances, the two athletes faced intense criticism and received death threats upon returning home. At the time, their protest was largely perceived as a show of disrespect directed toward the American flag and national anthem, though supporters praised their bravery. Gradually, the symbolic importance of their protest came to be more widely recognized. Today, the image of the two men with fists and heads bowed is one of the most enduring symbols of the American civil rights struggle. (see Oct 18)
October 16, 1984: South African activist Bishop Desmond Tutu awarded Nobel Peace Prize. (see February 10, 1985)
The Million Man March
October 16, 1995: The Million Man March was held in Washington, D.C. The event was conceived by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. (see January 8, 1996)
Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial
October 16, 2011: the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial was formally dedicated in Washington, D.C. (see February 24, 2012)
October 16, 1918: the 1918 Immigration Act, passed in the middle of anti-radical hysteria during World War I, amended the restrictive 1903 Immigration Act (passed on March 3, 1903) to expand the definition of, and restrictions on, anarchists. The new law barred the entry into the U.S., and allowed the deportation of, anarchists, who were defined as anyone teaching opposition to organized government, teaching the violent overthrow of government, or were members of organizations that advocated those ideas. It also repealed the provision in the 1903 law that had exempted from deportation immigrants who had lived in the U.S. for five years or longer.In the years ahead, additional restrictive immigration laws were passed. The 1924 Immigration Act, passed on May 26, 1924, imposed a national origins quota system that discriminated against people from Southern and Eastern Europe seeking to come to the U.S. The 1952 McCarran-Walter Act, effective June 27, 1952, was a Cold War measure that excluded alleged “subversives” from the U.S. and allowed the government to deport alleged “subversive” immigrants already in the U.S. The 1965 Immigration Act, which President Lyndon Johnson signed into law on October 3, 1965, abolished the 1924 national origins quota system in favor of a non-discriminatory policy. (Anarchism, see Nov 11; Immigration, see May 19, 1921)
October 16 Peace Love Activism
October 16, 1964: China tested an atomic weapon for the first time thus becoming fifth nation with nuclear weapon capability joining the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France. (see Feb 18, 1965) (NYT article)
October 16, 1965: anti-war rallies occur in 40 American cities and in international cities including London and Rome. (see Oct 30)(NYT article)
October 16 Music et al
Rock Venues #1
October 16, 1965: from Professor Poster Facebook page: … back in 1965…this rare "Poster From The Past" handbill advertised the very FIRST event promoted by the Family Dog at The Longshoreman’s Hall in San Francisco. Ellen Harmon, one of the four original partners in the Family Dog collective, was an avid reader of Marvel comic books and she helped dedicate the first dance to “Dr. Strange,” Master of the Mystic Arts. The comic book theme continued through the next two dances, known as “A Tribute to Sparkle Plenty” and “A Tribute to Ming the Merciless,” both 1940s comic book characters. Alton Kelley, also an original Family Dog founder/partner, created the artwork for all three handbills and went on to do numerous others which are documented in the MANY poster that we love so much.Jefferson Airplane teamed up with first-time promoters, the Family Dog (Chet Helms, who would join later). They decided that the Longshoreman's Hall was a venue large enough to be filled with dancing bodies. Along with the Charlatans, the Marbles, and Great Society, Jefferson Airplane played the very first Family Dog concert. In the crowd, people dressed up in costumes happily danced along to the music. From this initial Family Dog concert, the San Francisco music scene would change forever. This handbill, measuring 8 1/2" x 11" is an extremely rare flyer printed on thin yellow/white paper. Because it comes from the earliest Family Dog show, it has become extremely sought after and VERY expensive!. This is a VERY SPECIAL and historic handbill that marks the very Beginning of what became a real movement here. (see Nov 6)
Paul McCartney/The Family Way
October 16, 1966: United Artists announced that the film was to be retitled All In Good Time, and that Lennon and McCartney would be writing the soundtrack together. It was eventually released as The Family Way and Lennon had no involvement in the music. (see Nov 7)
October 16, 1968: release of the Jimi Hendrix Experience’s 'Electric Ladyland' album. It was also made available as two albums with changed artwork after complaints about the naked women who were pictured on the inner sleeve. The female models were paid for the photo shoot and double if they posed completely naked. Hendrix was displeased with both. He had wanted one of the band and himself in NYC’s Central Park on an Alice in Wonderland statue. (see Nov 16 – 29)
Rock Venues #2
October 16, 2006: CBGB, the legendary New York punk club credited with discovering Patti Smith and Ramones, closed after a final gig by Smith herself. Blondie and Talking Heads also found fame after performing at the club, which helped launch US punk music. The venue first opened in December 1973, its full name CBGB OMFUG standing for "country, bluegrass, blues and other music for uplifting gormandizers".
October 16, 1967: Oakland CA police arrested thirty-nine people, including singer-activist Joan Baez, for blocking the entrance of that city's military induction center.
October 16, 1973: the Gulf Six (Iran, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar) unilaterally raise the posted price of Saudi Light marker crude 17 percent from $3.12 to $3.65 per barrel and announce production cuts. (NYT article)
October 16, 1987: an Iranian Silkworm missile launched from the Iranian occupied Al-Faw Peninsula strikes the ship Sea Isle City. The missile struck the wheel house and crew quarters of the ship which was not carrying oil at the. A total of 18 crew members were wounded. (see Oct 19)
October 16, 1998: David Trimble and John Hume were named recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize for brokering the Northern Ireland peace accord. (see November 29, 1999)
October 16, 2002: President George W. Bush signed a congressional resolution authorizing war against Iraq. (see Nov 27)
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