September 28 Peace Love Art Activism

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism


September 28 Peace Love Art Activism

September 28, 1842: in New York, the first grand jury indictments in America against publishers of obscene books were issued: People v. Richard Hobbes and People v. Henry R. Robinson. In addition, indictments were issued against the five print shop owners and bookstand operators used by the two publishers.

Titles named in the indictments: Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure; Memoirs of the Life and Voluptuous Adventures of the Celebrated Courtesan Mademoiselle Celestine of Paris; The Cabinet of Venus Unlocked; The Curtain Drawn Up, or The Education of Laura; The Confessions of a Voluptuous Young Lady of High Rank; The Amorous Songster or Jovial Companion; The Lustful Turk; The Amorous History and Adventures of Raymond De B— and Father Andouillard; The Auto-Biography of a Footman.  (see July 19, 1911)

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism


Opelousas Massacre

September 28, 1868:  one of the worst outbreaks of violence during Reconstruction took place in Opelousas, La. The event started with three local members of the KKK-like Knights of the White Camelia beating newspaper editor Emerson Bentley, who had promoted voter registration and education for all. After some African Americans came to his rescue, bands of armed white mobs roamed the countryside and began killing. It is estimated that more than 200 blacks and 30 whites died in the Opelousas Massacre [Black Past article]. (next BH, see January 5, 1869; next Lynching, see August 26, 1874; see Never Forget for expanded 19th century lynching history)

Omaha, Nebraska race revolt

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28, 1919: a major race riot erupted in Omaha, Nebraska. A white mob of about 4,000 people lynched and burned the body of Willie Brown, an African-American who was being held in the county jail. The mayor of Omaha, who was white, was almost lynched by the mob, which set fire to the county courthouse.

The origin of the revolt lay in racial conflict in the extensive city stockyards and meat packing plants. (A similar conflict underlay the East St. Louis race revolt that began on July 2, 1917.)  Rumors that Willie Brown had raped a white woman spurred the lynching. Later reports by the police and U.S. Army investigators determined that the victim had not made a positive identification. The riot lasted for two days, and ended when over 1,200 federal troops arrived to restore order. Although martial law was not formally proclaimed, for all practical purposes it existed, with troops remaining in the city for several weeks. [Black Past article] (next BH, see Oct 1; next Lynching, see Sept 30; for for expanded chronology, see American Lynching 2)

Gary, Indiana integration protests

September 28, 1927: student against integration in Gary, Indiana continued to protest and now numbered over 1300. Family and other local citizen also protested the proposed school integration. City, school, and district officials met with protesters to begin negotiations for bringing the strike to an end. (see Sept 30)

James H Meredith

September 28, 1962: federal marshals, patrolmen from the Texas – Mexico border, and 110 Army engineers with 49 trucks, van, tractor-trailers, and Jeeps loaded with equipment arrived in Memphis, TN in anticipation of a showdown regarding the admission of Meredith. (see September 29, 1962)

Black Panthers

September 28, 1968: a judge sentenced Huey P. Newton to 2 to 15 years in state prison. [PBS story] (BH, see Oct 16; Black Panthers, see “In November”)

Muhammad Ali

September 28, 1976:  Ali defeated Ken Norton in the fifteenth and final round at Yankee Stadium. Though Norton was ahead through the first eight rounds, Ali pulls through to win all but one of the subsequent rounds. As with Frazier the year before, this bout ended the three-fight series between Ali and Norton. (NYT article) (Ali, see February 15, 1978; BH, see Nov 12)

Johnnie Mae Chappell

September 28, 2005:  retired detectives Lee Cody and Don Coleman, who had led the Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office investigation into the 1964 murder of Johnnie Mae Chappell, answered subpoenas sent by the state attorney’s office.

Detective Lee Cody said that in all the years he’d been involved in the Chappell case, it was the first time he’d ever been under oath. Cody and Detective Don Coleman took confessions from the three men, but the charges against them were dropped. (BH & Chappell, see Oct 11)

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism

September 28 Music et al

Hey Jude

September  28 – November 29, 1968, The Beatles after live performances: “Hey Jude” #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. “Hey Jude” was released in August 1968 as the first single from the Beatles’ record label Apple Records. More than seven minutes in length, it was at the time the longest single ever to top the British charts.[1] It also spent nine weeks at number one in the United States, the longest for any Beatles single. “Hey Jude” tied the “all-time” record, at the time, for the longest run at the top of the US charts. The single has sold approximately eight million copies and is frequently included on professional critics’ lists of the greatest songs of all time. (see Oct 18)

see Time Peace: The Rascals Greatest Hits for more

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28 – October 4, 1968: The Rascals’ Time Peace: The Rascals Greatest Hits is the Billboard #1 album.

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism

George Wallace

September 28, 1972: Arthur Bremer’s sentence reduced to 53 years after appeal. (NYT article) (see November 9, 2007)

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism


September 28 Peace Love Art Activism

September 28, 1987: protesters demanded better access to mass transit systems by blocking buses at a transit association convention. The number of arrests in two days rose to at least 54. ”It’s a very emotional issue for disabled people to have to come out here and do this,” said Judy Heumann of the World Institute on Disability, an organization based in Berkeley. (see March 13, 1988)

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism


Violence Against Women Act

September 28, 1994: the House of Representatives passed the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), enhancing states’ ability to respond to domestic violence, stalking, and sexual assault. (see In February 1995)


September 28, 2000: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of mifepristone (RU-486) for the termination of early pregnancy, defined as 49 days or less. (see Nov 7)

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Iraq War II

September 28, 2004:  the same intelligence unit that produced a gloomy report in July 2004 about the prospect of growing instability in Iraq warned the Bush administration about the potential costly consequences of an American-led invasion two months before the war began, government officials said. [NYT article] (see Oct 7)

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism

Trump Impeachment Inquiry

September 28, 2019: House Democrats subpoenaed Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, demanding that he promptly produce a tranche of documents and a slate of witnesses that could shed light on the president’s attempts to pressure Ukraine to help tarnish Joe Biden, Jr..

The subpoena and demands for depositions were the first major investigative actions the House took since it launched impeachment proceedings in light of revelations that Mr. Trump pushed President Volodymyr Zelensky of Ukraine to investigate Biden Jr., possibly using United States aid as leverage. [NYT article] (see TII for expanded chronology)

September 28 Peace Love Art Activism

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History


September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

September 27, 1909: New York shirtwaist strike of 1909, also known as the Uprising of the 20,000, was a labor strike primarily involving Jewish women working in New York shirtwaist factories. Led by Clara Lemlich and supported by the National Women’s Trade Union League of America (NWTUL). [JWA article] (Labor, see Nov 22; Feminism see Jan 2, 1910)

Change to Win

September 27, 2005: the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), the Teamsters, and other activist unions leave the AFL-CIO to form a new labor coalition called Change to Win. The move represents a new emphasis on organizing workers to bring them into a labor movement starved for members. (January 2, 2006)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Emma Goldman

September 27, 1919: Goldman posted bond and was released from federal prison. She left for Rochester, NY, knowing she would soon receive deportation orders. [NYT article] (see Goldman for expanded story)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism


Gary Indiana School Desegregation

September 27, 1927: in Gary Indiana, the crowd swelled to about 800 students. Superintendent Wirt hedged his bets by telling the angry crowd that “possibly when a new black school was erected on the east side, Emerson would be again segregated.” (see Sept 28)

A Philip Randolph

September 27, 1940:  civil rights leader A. Philip Randolph met with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the White House to demand racial integration of the U.S. Armed forces. Congress had created a draft in response to the outbreak of war in Europe, which was to take effect on October 16, 1940. The law contained a provision prohibiting race discrimination, but Randolph felt the military was not honoring it. The meeting with Roosevelt did not go well, and afterwards the administration issued a false report that Randolph had accepted the president’s plan, for which it quickly had to apologize.

U.S. armed forces remained segregated during World War II. Winfred Lynn’s challenge to the segregated draft was unsuccessful (Armed services, see December 4, 1942 &  February 3, 1944). (next BH, see Nov 13)

School Desegregation

SEPTEMBER 27, 1958: following the Supreme Court’s 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, school boards across the country were ordered to draft desegregation plans. The school board in Little Rock, Arkansas, drafted a plan and agreed to implement it during the 1957-1958 school year. When nine black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, made their way to Central High School as part of Arkansas’s gradual desegregation plan, they were met by angry crowds and the Arkansas National Guard blocking their entry. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus encouraged the protesters and did everything in his power to hinder integration. Eventually, President Dwight Eisenhower deployed federal troops to Arkansas and commanded the Arkansas National Guard to escort the students to school.

Not yet through with his attempts to thwart integration, Faubus devised another plan. Following the 1957-1958 school year, the Little Rock School Board petitioned for a delay in the implementation of its desegregation plan. A federal district judge granted a delay until 1961, which the NAACP promptly appealed. The case made its way to the Supreme Court where, on September 12, 1958, the Court ordered immediate integration.

By that time, the Arkansas Legislature had passed a law allowing Governor Faubus to close public schools and later hold a special election to determine public support. Immediately after the Supreme Court released its decision, the governor ordered all four public high schools closed pending a public vote. On September 27, 1958, the people of Arkansas voted overwhelmingly (19,470 to 7561) to keep the schools closed rather than integrate. The schools would remain closed for the entire 1958-1959 academic term, known as “the lost year.” (BH, see Oct 14; SD, see Oct 25)

James H Meredith

September 27, 1962: a fourth attempt to enroll. Meredith in the University of Mississippi was canceled after it became evident that his life would be endangered. (see September 28, 1962)

Medgar Evers

September 27, 1973: New Orleans police arrested Byron De La Beckwith who had a bomb and several rifles in his car. He stated he had come to New Orleans to sell china. Police stated that De La Beckwith intended to blow up the home of A I Botnick, head of the New Orleans chapter of B’nai B’rith. It was the first day of Rosh Hashanah. Botnick had moved his family out of New Orleans several days earlier after receiving threatening calls. (see Oct 11)

Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act

September 27, 2007: the Senate passed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act  as an amendment to another bill. President George W Bush indicated he would veto the legislation if it reached his desk. The amendment was dropped by the Democratic leadership because of opposition from conservative groups and President George Bush, and due to the measure being attached to a defense bill there was a lack of support from antiwar Democrats. (LGBTQ, see Nov 8; BH, see March 26, 2008; Shepard, see April 2, 2009)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Religion and Public Education

September 27, 1948: Circuit Judge Grover Watson ordered the Champaign school board to stop all religious education in all public school buildings. NYT article (see November 20, 1948)

Environmental Issues

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

September 27, 1962: Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring published. The book is widely credited with helping to launch the contemporary American environmental movement. The New Yorker magazine had started serializing Silent Spring in June 1962. Rachel Carson was already a well-known writer on natural history, but had not previously been a social critic. The book was widely read—especially after its selection by the Book-of-the-Month Club and the New York Times best-seller list—and inspired widespread public concerns with pesticides and pollution of the environment. Silent Spring facilitated the ban of the pesticide DDT[3] for agricultural use in 1972 in the United States. NYT article (see Dec 7)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

The Cold War  & Nuclear/Chemical News

September 27, 1962: Soviet Union above ground nuclear test. 10 – 30 megaton. (CW, see Oct 7; NN, see Oct 22)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

JFK Assassination

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1964: the report of the Warren Commission chaired by Chief Justice Earl Warren on the Kennedy assassination was released. The report essentially concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald had acted alone. [text of report] (see October 5, 1966)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism


September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1967: an advertisement headed “A Call To Resist Illegitimate Authority,” signed by over 320 influential people (professors, writers, ministers, and other professional people), appeared in the New Republic and the New York Review of Books, asking for funds to help youths resist the draft.

A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority” was one of the most powerful and important indictments of the Vietnam War by the anti-war movement. It declared that “the war is unconstitutional and illegal. Congress has not declared a war as required by the Constitution.” Additionally, “this war violates international agreements, treaties and principles of law which the United States Government has solemnly endorsed.” The Call was published in the New York Review of Books, The Nation, and other publications. [text] (see Sept 29)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

September 27, 2004: Bishop Thomas Dupre was indicted on child rape charges, becoming the first bishop to face charges in the church sex abuse scandal. Dupree was the head of the Springfield, Mass., diocese, but resigned in February after the allegations came to light. His two alleged victims have said Dupre sexually abused them for years in the 1970s and asked them to keep quiet about the abuse when he was made auxiliary bishop in 1990. (NYT article) (see Nov 15)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Affordable Care Act

September 27, 2017

  • US Senators Cory Booker, Brian Schatz, Chris Murphy, and Elizabeth Warren wrote to Seema Verma, the Administrator for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. In the letter they expressed concern for the Trump administration’s decision to shut down the Affordable Care Act website for 12 hours nearly every Sunday during the upcoming open enrollment. [Star Advertiser article]
  • the Department of Health and Human Services told stated that for the first time it would not be sending its regional directors to help states with planning for the upcoming open enrollment period. [BuzzFeed article]  (see Dec 21)
September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Immigration History

Trump blocked (1)

September 27, 2019: Judge Dolly Gee of Federal District Court for the Central District of California  rejected new regulations that would have allowed the government to hold children and their parents in detention for indefinite periods, one of the Trump administration’s signature efforts to curtail the large number of families arriving from Central America.

Describing the government’s defense of its proposed new policy as “Kafkaesque” in some of its reasoning, Gee said it was up to Congress, not the administration, to supplant a 20-year-old consent decree that requires children to be held in state-licensed facilities and released in most cases within 20 days. [NYT article]

Trump blocked (2)

September 27, 2019: U.S. District Court Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson blocked the Trump administration’s effort to expand use of a process that had fast-tracked undocumented immigrants for deportation without the involvement of immigration courts.

The “expedited removal” procedure had previously been used to quickly send recent border-crossers back to Mexico, with policies limiting its use to individuals apprehended within 100 miles of the U.S. border and who were determined to have crossed into the U.S. illegally in the past two weeks.

Jackson halted the policy shift, declaring that the Trump administration’s decision-making process leading to the change appeared to have violated federal law.   She said the decision seemed arbitrary and faulted officials for failing to carry out a formal notice-and-comment practice required for major changes to federal rules.

Government actors who make policy decisions in their official capacities cannot succumb to whims or passions while rulemaking,” wrote Jackson. “If a policy decision that an agency makes is of sufficient consequence that it qualifies as an agency rule, then arbitrariness in deciding the contours of that rule—e.g., decision making by Ouija board or dart board, rock/paper/scissors, or even the Magic 8 Ball—simply will not do.” (next IH, see Oct 4)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Trump Impeachment Inquiry

September 27, 2019: Kurt Volker, the US special envoy for Ukraine, stepped down, which meant a key player in Trump’s interactions with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky had left the administration. (see TII for expanded chronology)

September 27 Peace Love Art Activism

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums

The following lists and examples show how popular music evolved during the 1960s. More artists began to write and sing their own songs and, of course, the style and content of popular music changed.

Having said that, notice the lack of Grammy awards for the new voices, the new perspectives, particularly of those who would go on to play at the Woodstock Music and Art Fair. They are seldom seen on top lists and rarely recognized with a Grammy.

To view a list, click the green link and a new page will appear. An asterisk (*) next to a song writer indicates the performer wrote the song as well.


List of 1960 #1 songs: 3 of 20 [15%] were written/co-written by the artist.

Grammy Record of the Year and top selling single of the year. The Theme From A Summer Place Percy Faith

Grammy Song of the Year Theme From Exodus Ernest Gold, songwriter.

Grammy Album of the Year The Button-Down Mind Of Bob Newhart Bob Newhart

Billboard #1 album of 1960: Original Cast, The Sound of Music

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1961 #1 songs: 4 of 22 (18%) were written/co-written by the artist.

Grammy Record of the Year & Grammy Song of the Year Moon River Henry Mancini

Top selling single of 1961: Tossin’ and Turnin’  by Bobby Lewis

List of 1961 #1 albums

Grammy Album of the Year Judy At Carnegie Hall Judy Garland

Billboard #1 album of 1961: Original Cast, Camelot

1961 other important albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1962 #1 songs: 5 of 21 (24%) were written/co-written by the artist.

Grammy Record of the Year I Left My Heart In San Francisco Tony Bennett

Grammy Song of the Year What Kind Of Fool Am I Anthony Newley & Leslie Bricusse, songwriters.

Top-selling single of  1962: Acker Bilk, Stranger on the Shore

List of 1962 #1 albums

Grammy Album of the Year  The First Family Vaughn Meader

Billboard #1 album of 1962: Soundtrack, West Side Story

1962 other important albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1963 #1 songs1 of 21(4%) were written/co-written by the  artist.

Grammy Record of the Year & Grammy Song of the Year Days Of Wine And Roses Henry Mancini

Top-selling single of 1963: Jimmy Gillmer and the Fireballs, Sugar Shack

List of 1963 #1 albums

Grammy Album of the  Year The Barbra Streisand Album Barbra Streisand

Billboard #1 album of 1963: Soundtrack, West Side Story

1963 other important albums:

Johnny Hartman & John Coltrane

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1964 #1 songs9 of 24 (37.5 %) were written/co-written by the artist

Grammy Record of the Year The Girl From Ipanema Astrud Gilberto & Stan Getz

Grammy Song of the Year Hello, Dolly! Jerry Herman, songwriter.

Top-selling single of 1964: The Beatles, I Want to Hold Your Hand

List of Billboard #1 albums 1964

Grammy  Album of the Year Getz/Gilberto João Gilberto & Stan Getz

Billboard #1 album of 1964:  Original Cast, Hello Dolly

1964 other important albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1965 #1 songs9 of 27 (33.3 %) were written/co-written by the artist.

Grammy Record of the Year A Taste Of Honey Herb Alpert

Grammy Song of the Year The Shadow Of Your Smile (Love Theme From “The Sandpiper”) Johnny Mandel & Paul Francis Webster, songwriters.

Top-selling single of 1965 (even though it never reached #1): Sam the Sham and the PharaohsWooly Bully

List of 1965 #1 albums

Grammy Album of the Year September Of My Years Frank Sinatra

Billboard #1 album of 1965: Soundtrack, Mary Poppins

1965 other important albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1966 #1 songs10 of 26 (38%) were written/co-written by the artist.

Grammy Record of the Year Strangers In The Night Frank Sinatra

Grammy Song of the Year Michelle John Lennon & Paul McCartney

Top-selling single of 1966: Barry Sadler, Balled of the Green Berets

List of 1966 #1 albums

Grammy Album of the Year A Man And His Music Frank Sinatra

Billboard #1 album of 1966: Herb Albert & the Tijuana Brass, Whipped Cream and Other Delights.

1966 other important albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1967 #1 songs: 8 of 19 (44%) were written/co-written by the artist.

Grammy Record of the Year & Grammy Song of the Year Up, Up And Away 5th Dimension

Top-selling single of 1967: Lulu, To Sir With Love

List of 1967 #1 albums

Grammy Album of the Year Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band Beatles

Billboard #1 album of 1967: The Monkees, More of the Monkees

1967 other important albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1968 #1 songs8 of 16 (50%) were written/co-written by the artist.

Grammy Record of the Year Mrs. Robinson Simon And Garfunkel

Grammy Song of the Year Little Green Apples Bobby Russell, songwriter.

Top-selling single of 1968: The Beatles, Hey Jude

List of 1968 #1 albums

Grammy Album of the Year By The Time I Get To Phoenix Glen Campbell

Billboard #1 album of 1968:  Jimi Hendrix Experience, Are You Experienced?

1968 other important albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums


List of 1969 #1 songs: 8 of 17 (47%) were written/co-written by the artist.

Grammy Record of the Year Aquarius/Let The Sunshine In (the Flesh Failures) 5th Dimension

Grammy Song of the Year Games People Play Joe South

Top-selling single of 1969: The Archies, Sugar, Sugar

List of 1969 #1 albums

Grammy Album of the Year Blood, Sweat And Tears Blood, Sweat And Tears

Billboard #1 album of 1969: Iron Butterfly, In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida 

1969 other important albums

1960s #1 Singles #1 Albums

What's so funny about peace, love, art, and activism?