Fred Lipsius

Fred Lipsius

Born November 19, 1943
Woodstock Music & Art Fair alum
Many happy returns

Fred Lipsius

Fred Lipsius

From a 2014 staxshed.com interview:
I’m the only musician in my family. I’m the middle child of three kids. One of my mother’s brothers played piano, but not professionally, and one of my Dad’s brothers played too, but he just read piano sheet music. So I sort of felt like the ‘ugly duckling’ (the ‘different’ one, who chose to be a ‘musician’) out of everyone in my family. I was always deeply moved by music as far as I can remember. It’s always been a very pure thing for me. When I was about seven I saw Louis Armstrong and his band on TV. I didn’t really know what jazz was at that time but I told my mom that I want to do that.

In public school, all of the 4th graders took a music test to see which of us had talent in that area. I passed the test and was put into a special music class in my 5th and 6th grades. I played clarinet and was basically the worst clarinetist of about 20 kids. I only practiced 20 minutes a day (this included putting the clarinet together with cork grease and taking it apart and swabbing it)! Back then, I was more interested in playing basketball. But in the 6th grade, for some reason, I improved and became first or second in my class. I bought a few Benny Goodman records and was able to copy just a few of his licks by ear, although I really didn’t have much of an ear back then. My ear did develop into my teens, from listening to and transcribing solos of my favorite jazz players (mostly saxophone and piano). My favorite alto players were Bird, Sonny Stitt and CannonbalI. I also listened to Rollins and Coltrane on tenor. I still have a copy of all the solos and licks I transcribed. They’re now in a big loose leaf book, neatly re-copied. I show this book to my private students at Berklee to encourage them to do some work like I did.
From his site and his label's sites: 

Born in the Bronx, New York City on November 19,1943, Fred began playing the clarinet at age 9, alto and tenor saxophones in Junior High School, and piano at Music and Art High School in Manhattan. He continued his studies at Berklee School of Music (1961-62), and then went on the road. 

Fred Lipsius was the original saxophonist, arranger and conductor with Blood, Sweat & Tears (1967-71). He also doubled on keyboards. While with the band, he won nine Gold Records plus a Grammy Award for his arrangement of "Spinning Wheel" and a Grammy for 'Album of the Year' as a BS&T band member. Fred also arranged and co-arranged, respectively, the hit singles "Hi-De-Ho" and "You've Made Me So Very Happy." He brought the "jazz" element to the band and the public with his arrangements and solos on sax and piano. In both the Downbeat and Playboy jazz polls he placed in the top ten of the alto sax category. Rock and Roll history books credit him as the first saxophonist to mix jazz and rock styles in his solos.

Fred has composed, arranged and produced radio and TV commercials, including 2 CBS TV logos & themes introducing the season's upcoming shows. In the spring of 1982, he toured with Simon and Garfunkel in Japan and Europe, and was a featured soloist. Fred has authored seven books/CDs on jazz improvisation and jazz reading, published throughout the world. Other published works of his include small combo and big band jazz/fusion arrangements.

He has performed with jazz greats Cannonball Adderley, Thelonious Monk, Zoot Sims, Eddie Gomez, Al Foster, George Mraz, Larry Willis, Randy Brecker, Rodney Jones, plus a number of prominent Berklee College of Music faculty such as Herb Pomeroy, Alan Dawson, Ray Santisi, and Donald Brown. He has written music for and performed on over 30 CDs as both a leader and sideman.

Fred is currently an Associate Professor at Berklee College of Music, where he's been teaching full-time since 1984.
If you've ever visited the Museum at the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts, then "Spinning Wheel"  will sound familiar.

Click for more including about his digital art >>> his site

Fred Lipsius, 

November 19 Peace Love Activism

November 19 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

Joe Hill executed
November 19 Peace Love Activism
Joe Hill quote
November 19, 1915: Joe Hill executed. After a questionable arrest and controversial trial, a Utah jury convicted Joe Hill of murder and a firing squad executed him [legend has it that he yelled “Fire!”.]  Joe Hill wrote his will in verse:
My will is easy to decide,

For there is nothing to divide,

My kin don’t need to fuss and moan-

“Moss does not cling to a rolling stone.”

My body? Ah, If I could choose,

I would to ashes it reduce,

And let the merry breezes blow

My dust to where some flowers grow.

Perhaps some fading flower then

Would come to life and bloom again.

This is my last and final will,

Good luck to all of you, Joe Hill.

His cremated remains were sent to the IWW headquarters in Chicago He had requested that friends spread his ashes in every state except Utah. He "didn’t want to be caught dead there."

From Wikipedia:

  • Hill was memorialized in a tribute poem written about him c. 1930 by Alfred Hayes titled “I Dreamed I Saw Joe Hill Last Night”, sometimes referred to simply as “Joe Hill”. Hayes’s lyrics were turned into a song in 1936 by Earl Robinson, who wrote in 1986, “‘Joe Hill’ was written in Camp Unity in the summer of 1936 in New York State, for a campfire program celebrating him and his songs…”Hayes gave a copy of his poem to fellow camp staffer Robinson, who wrote the tune in 40 minutes.
  • Paul Robeson and Pete Seeger often performed this song and are associated with it, along with Irish folk group The Dubliners, Joan Baez’s Woodstock performance of “Joe Hill” in 1969 (documented on the 1970 documentary and corresponding soundtrack album) is one of the best known recordings. She also recorded the song numerous times, including a live version on her 2005 album Bowery Songs. 
Here is Baez's Woodstock performance:

(Labor History, see Janurary 6, 1916; NM see  News Music)

The Cold War

The Rocky & Bullwinkle Show

November 19

November 19, 1959 The Rocky & Bullwinkle Show began. It comically reflected the cultural Cold War between the USSR and the USA. (see Dec 1)
Richard Helms
November 19, 1963: Kennedy had settled the Cuban crisis, in part, by pledging that the US would not invade Cuba; however that pledge was conditioned on the presumption that Castro would stop trying to encourage other revolutions like his own throughout Latin America. But Castro was furious that Khrushchev had not consulted him before making his bargain with Kennedy to end the crisis — and furious as well that U.S. covert action against him had not ceased. In September 1963, Castro appeared at a Brazilian Embassy reception in Havana and warned, “American leaders should know that if they are aiding terrorist plans to eliminate Cuban leaders, then they themselves will not be safe.” Late on Tuesday, November. 19, 1963 — the evening before President Kennedy’s final full day at the White House — the C.I.A.'s covert action chief, Richard Helms, brought J.F.K. what he termed “hard evidence” that Castro was still trying to foment revolution throughout Latin America.

Helms (who later served as C.I.A. director from 1966 to 1973) and an aide, Hershel Peake, told Kennedy about their agency’s discovery: a three-ton arms cache left by Cuban terrorists on a beach in Venezuela, along with blueprints for a plan to seize control of that country by stopping Venezuelan elections scheduled for 12 days hence.

Standing in the Cabinet Room near windows overlooking the darkened Rose Garden, Helms brandished what he called a “vicious-looking” rifle and told the president how its identifying Cuban seal had been sanded off. (see Cuban Missile Crisis)
Summit conference
November 19, 1985: for the first time in eight years, the leaders of the Soviet Union and the United States held a summit conference. Meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev produced no agreements, however, the meeting boded well for the future, as the two men engaged in long, personal talks and seemed to develop a sincere and close relationship. (see February 28, 1987)

BLACK HISTORY

U of Alabama
November 19, 1963: police investigated a dynamite-bomb explosion in a street four blocks from the University of Alabama dormitory where Vivian Malone lived. (see Dec 22)
BLACK & SHOT
November 19, 2015: Officer Jason Van Dyke, who had been the target of several complaints, turned himself in, the Cook County State’s Attorney’s Office said in a press release. A judge has ordered that he be held without bail. McDonald’s family had settled a lawsuit with the city for $5 million in April. McDonald was holding a knife when he was shot. He was suspected of committing a robbery prior to the shooting, which came at the end of a foot chase.

Van Dyke was the first Chicago police officer to be charged with first-degree murder in an on-duty shooting. (B & S, see Nov 23; Van Dyke, see Dec 2)

November 19 Music et al

Beatles
November 19, 1966: on a return trip from Nairobi, Kenya, Paul McCartney got the idea for the Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Heart Band album. From Many Years From Now by Barry Miles, Paul is quoted: We were fed up with being the Beatles. We really hated that fucking four little mop-top boys approach. We were not boys, we were men. It was all gone, all that boy shit, all that screaming, we didn't want any more, plus, we'd now got turned on to pot and thought of ourselves as artists rather than just performers. There was now more to it; not only had John and I been writing, George had been writing, we'd been in films, John had written books, so it was natural that we should become artists.

Then suddenly on the plane I got this idea. I thought, Let's not be ourselves. Let's develop alter egos so we're not having to project an image which we know. It would be much more free. What would really be interesting would be to actually take on the personas of this different band. We could say, 'How would somebody else sing this? He might approach it a bit more sarcastically, perhaps.' So I had this idea of giving the Beatles alter egos simply to get a different approach; then when John came up to the microphone or I did, it wouldn't be John or Paul singing, it would be the members of this band. It would be a freeing element. I thought we can run this philosophy through the whole album: with this alter-ego band, it won't be us making all that sound, it won't be the Beatles, it'll be this other band, so we'll be able to lose our identities in this. (see Nov 24)

Free As a Bird

You Keep Me Hanging On
November 19 – December 2, 1966: “You Keep Me Hanging On” by the Supremes #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
“Free as a Bird”
November 19, 1995: "Free as a Bird," the first new Beatles single in 25 years, premiered on the televised Beatles Anthology. The song, a 1977 demo by John Lennon completed in 1995 by the three surviving Beatles, reached #6 on the singles chart in early 1996. (see Dec 5)

Cultural Milestone

November 19

November 19, 1975 : Warner Brothers' One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest  opened. Directed by Milos Forman and based on Ken Kesey’s 1962 novel. Jack Nicholson starred. Actor Michael Dougles was a co-producer. The film went on to become the first film in four decades to win in all five of the major Academy Award categories: Best Actor (Nicholson), Best Actress (Louise Fletcher, who played Nurse Ratched), Best Director, Best Screenplay (Adapted) and Best Picture. (see May 31, 1996)

Symbionese Liberation Army

November 19, 1976:  Patty Hearst released on bail pending the appeal of her conviction. (see May 10, 1977)

Iran-Contra Affair

November 19, 1986,: at a press conference, President Ronald Reagan misstated facts in the Iran-Contra affair, which had just been exposed two weeks earlier on November 3, 1986. It was plainly evident that Reagan did not know or understand the details of the complicated affair, and certainly not the legal implications, which involved a number of violations of law. President Reagan and his CIA Director William Casey were fierce anti-communists, determined to fight what they saw as communist threats anywhere in the world. They were both committed to this effort, even if it meant violating the law and established policies, as the Iran-Contra affair revealed. (see Nov 21)

LGBTQ

Richard Lee Bednarski
November 19, 1988,: in Dallas, Texas, Judge Jack Hampton sentenced Richard Lee Bednarski to thirty years imprisonment for murdering Tommy Lee Trimble and John Lloyd Griffin, two gay men.

On the night of the crime, Bednarski and several friends drove to a local gay neighborhood to “gay-bash” or harass gays. Trimble and Griffin approached the group and offered Bednarski a ride, which he accepted. In the car, Bednarski ordered Trimble and Griffin to disrobe. When they refused, Bednarski shoved a pistol into Trimble’s mouth and fired. As Griffin tried to escape, Bednarski shot him. Trimble died immediately and Griffin died five days later.

After the sentencing hearing, in which Judge Hampton rejected the prosecution’s recommendation that Bednarski be sentenced to life imprisonment, a reporter published an interview in which Judge Hampton said he was lenient because, “I put prostitutes and gays at about the same level . . . I’d be hard put to give somebody life for killing a prostitute.” Judge Hampton went on to blame Trimble and Griffin for their own deaths, reasoning that they would not have died “if they hadn’t been cruising the streets picking up teenage boys.” Judge Hampton continued, “I don’t care much for queers running around on weekend picking up teenage boys. I’ve got a teenage boy.”

Following publication of the interview, the Texas Commission on Judicial Conduct investigated and concluded that Judge Hampton was an impartial judge. After many complaints, the commission agreed to censure Hampton but refused to require his removal. Judge Hampton was re-elected by the residents of Dallas in 1990 and 1994, and retired in 1996. Bednarski was released from prison in 2007.(see February 4, 1989)
Montana’s gay marriage ban
November 19, 2014: U.S. District Court Judge Brian Morris judge struck down Montana’s gay marriage ban, one day after an appeals court rejected a request by South Carolina to postpone same-sex nuptials as more states allow gays and lesbians to wed.

"The court hereby declares that Montana’s laws that ban same-sex marriage ... violate plaintiffs’ rights to equal protection of the laws as guaranteed by the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution," wrote Morris, who ordered the state to proceed with same-sex marriage and to recognize those gay weddings performed out-of-state. (see Nov 20)

Technological Milestone

November 19 Peace Love Activism

November 19, 2007:   Amazon.com Inc. introduced the Kindle, an electronic book-reading device.  (see June 12, 2009)
November 19 Peace Love Activism

Religion and Public Education

November 19, 2013:  in a 4-3 decision issued, the Supreme Court of Ohio upheld the termination of John Freshwater. 

The case began in 2008, when a local family accused Freshwater, a Mount Vernon, Ohio, middle school science teacher, of engaging in inappropriate religious activity and sued Freshwater and the district. Based on the results of an independent investigation, the Mount Vernon City School Board voted to begin proceedings to terminate his employment. After thorough administrative hearings that proceeded over two years and involved more than eighty witnesses, the presiding referee issued his recommendation that the board terminate Freshwater's employment with the district, and the board voted to do so in January 2011.

In its decision, the court wrote:  After detailed review of the voluminous record in this case, we hold that the court of appeals did not err in affirming the termination. The trial court properly found that the record supports, by clear and convincing evidence, Freshwater's termination for insubordination in failing to comply with orders to remove religious materials from his classroom. Accordingly, based on our resolution of this threshold issue, we need not reach the constitutional issue of whether Freshwater impermissibly imposed his religious beliefs in his classroom. We affirm the judgment of the court of appeals because there was ample evidence of insubordination to justify the termination decision.(see March 3, 2014)

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November 18 Peace Love Activism

November 18 Peace Love Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights
November 18, 1913: a mass suffrage meeting in Washington, DC, heard an address by the British suffragist leader Emmeline Pethick Lawrence. The meeting was also the occasion to welcome back to Washington leaders of the American Congressional Union, the principal lobby organization for a suffrage amendment to the Constitution. The Congressional Union leaders had just returned from a lobbying trip through western states in the U.S.  

The American Congressional Union was led by Alice Paul, who then led militant suffrage pickets of the White House in 1917, which played a major role on causing President Woodrow Wilson to end his opposition to women’s suffrage. (see Nov 21)
Alice Paul
November 18, 1917:  Alice Paul, leader of the militant protests in front of the White House in support of a constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote, was on this day transferred from the prison to the prison hospital. She and several other supporters had begun a hunger strike in the prison, and after 78 days was force-fed on November 8, 1917. Paul had been confined in the psychopathic ward of the prison, and was so weak from the hunger strike that she was transferred to the prison hospital on a stretcher.         

Paul managed to smuggle out of the prison a hand-written account of her ordeal. She explained that she had been denied letters, books, visitors, and decent food.

Paul had first organized pickets of the White House in early 1913. as Woodrow Wilson became president. The picketing escalated in 1917, and members of Paul’s group were on several occasions attacked by anti-feminists while the police stood by making no arrests. (see Nov 21)
Women’s Health
November 18, 1921: Margaret Sanger gave a speech on “The Morality of Birth Control,” at the Park Theater in New York City five days after the police had closed down an earlier meeting of the first birth control conference in the U.S where she was scheduled to speak.. The New York Times reported that the police intervention on that occasion was “brought about at the instance of Archbishop Patrick J. Hayes of the NY Roman Catholic Archdiocese.”

In 1923 Margaret Sanger successfully opened the first legal Women’s Health clinic in the U.S. with the stated intent of only using contraceptives for medical purposes, such as the prevention of life-threatening pregnancies. (see April 23, 1929)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

Latvia
November 18, 1918:  Latvia independent from Russia. (see Dec 1)
Morocco
November 18, 1956:  Morocco independent from France and Spain. (see March 6, 1957)

Black History

Marcus Garvey
November 18, 1927: President Coolidge commuted Garvey’s sentence. Garvey wass released from the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary and taken to New Orleans for deportation. (see Garvey for full story; )
Sen. Coleman Blease
In 1928, Sen. Coleman Blease (D-SC), a Ku Klux Klan supporter who had previously served as South Carolina's governor, made a third attempt to amend the U.S. Constitution in order to ban interracial marriage in every state. Like its predecessors, it failed. (see June 12)
Martin Luther King, Jr, the FBI
November 18 Peace Love Activism
Albany Movement
November 18, 1962: Martin Luther King, Jr accused agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Albany, Ga., of siding with the segregationists. “One of the great problems we face with the FBI in the South is that the agents are white Southerners who have been influenced by the mores of the community. To maintain their status, they have to be friendly with the local police and people who are promoting segregation. Every time I saw an FBI man in Albany, they were with the local police force.” (BH, see Nov 20; AM, see March 7, 1963)
J. Edgar Hoover
November 18 Peace Love Activism
Martin Luther King, Jr and the FBI
November 18, 1964: FBI director J. Edgar Hoover characterized Martin Luther King Jr as "the most notorious liar in the country." King replied that Hoover "has apparently faltered under the awesome burden, complexities, and responsibilities of his office."

In 2014, on the 50th anniversary of Hoover's characterization the radio show, Democracy Now, had an extended piece on the relationship between Martin Luther King, Jr and the FBI. Martin Luther King, Jr and the FBI(BH, see Nov 18; MLK, see Nov 21)
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing

November 18 Peace Love Activism

November 18, 1977: The NY Times reported: Fourteen years after a dynamite bomb exploded here at the 16th Street Baptist Church and killed four young black girls in one of the worst racial incidents in Southern history, a jury of three blacks and nine whites delivered a murder conviction of Robert  Chambliss. (Robert Chambliss guilty) (BH, see February 1, 1978; Sixteenth Street, see May 1, 2001)
SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID
November 18, 1993: black and white leaders endorsed a new constitution for South Africa that tried to balance majority rule with safeguards to reassure whites and other minorities. But the Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Party and an array of white separatist groups threatened to boycott elections and hint at insurrection. (Apartheid, see January 3, 1994; Mandela, see April 27, 1994)
Trayvon Martin Shooting
November 18, 2013: police arrested George Zimmerman for allegedly pointing a shotgun at his girlfriend and pushing her out of her house as he packed to move out, the Seminole County Sheriff's Office said. Zimmerman barricaded himself in the house Samantha Scheibe rented in Apopka, which he had shared with her since around August, Chief Deputy Dennis Lemma said at a news conference. She gave deputies a key, and they pushed aside furniture he had piled against the door. (see February 24, 2015)
137 SHOTS
November 18, 2014: without any major filings or motions from either side, the city of Cleveland settled a wrongful death suit with the families of Timothy Russell and Marissa Williams (see November 29, 2012)  for $3 million. Police killed Russell and Williams at the end of a car chase that most likely started when a cop mistook the backfire of a car for a gunshot.

Of the 13 officers involved in the fatal shooting one was indicted for involuntary manslaughter. Five others were charged with dereliction of duty for allowing the chase to escalate. They had all pled not guilty. (see Nov 28)

Technological Milestones

November 18

November 18, 1928: the first successful sound-synchronized animated cartoon, Walt Disney's "Steamboat Willie" starring Mickey Mouse, premiered in New York. (see January 31, 1930) 

November 18

November 18, 1963: the advent of the push-button phone, officially introduced in two Pennsylvania communities, Carnegie and Greensburg. (see Nov 22) 

Vietnam

November 18, 1961: President Kennedy sent 18,000 military advisors to South Vietnam. (see Dec 11)

Cold War

November 18, 1963: at the Americana Hotel in Miami President John F. Kennedy told the Inter-American Press Association that only one issue separated the United States from Fidel Castro’s Cuba: Castro’s “conspirators” had handed Cuban sovereignty to “forces beyond the hemisphere” (meaning the Soviet Union), which were using Cuba “to subvert the other American republics.” Kennedy said, “As long as this is true, nothing is possible. Without it, everything is possible.”

That same day, Ambassador William Attwood, a Kennedy delegate to the United Nations, secretly called Castro’s aide and physician, Rene Vallejo, to discuss a possible secret meeting in Havana between Attwood and Castro that might improve the Cuban-American relationship. Attwood had been told by Castro’s U.N. ambassador, Carlos Lechuga, in September 1963, that the Cuban leader wished to establish back-channel communications with Washington.

Kennedy’s national security adviser, McGeorge Bundy, told Attwood that J.F.K. wanted to “know more about what is on Castro’s mind before committing ourselves to further talks on Cuba.” He said that as soon as Attwood and Lechuga could agree on an agenda, the president would tell him what to say to Castro (see Cuban Missile Crisis)

November 18 Music et al

November 18, 1963: NBC’s evening news program, The Huntley-Brinkley Report, aired a four-minute segment on the Beatles. (see Nov 22)

LGBTQ

Anita Bryant
November 18, 1977: a federal judge dismissed a $5 million lawsuit accusing Anita Bryant of conducting a hate campaign against homosexuals. The suit had been filed by the parents of Robert Hillsborough (Hillsborough, see June 21, 1977 ; LGBTQ, see November 27, 1978)
Goodridge v. Department of Public Health
November 18, 2003: the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled in Goodridge v Department of Public Health that the state constitution mandates the freedom to marry for same-sex couples. Three months later, the Court reaffirmed its decision, stating that only marriage - not separate and lesser mechanisms, such as civil union - sufficiently protects same-sex couples and their families. (see February 4, 2004)
Rev Frank Schaefer
November 18, 2013: a 13-member jury convicted the Rev Frank Schaefer, a United Methodist pastor, of breaking church law by officiating his son's same-sex wedding. Schaefer could be defrocked after a high-profile trial that has rekindled debate over the denomination's policy on gay marriage. The Methodist church put  Schaefer on trial in southeastern Pennsylvania, accusing him of breaking his pastoral vows by presiding over the 2007 ceremony in Massachusetts. The jury convicted Schaefer on two charges: that he officiated a gay wedding, and that he showed "disobedience to the order and discipline of the United Methodist Church." (LGBTQ, see Nov 18; Schaefer, see Dec 16)

Ronald Reagan & the Iran–Contra Affair

November 18, 1987: U.S. Senate and House panels released reports charging President Ronald Reagan with 'ultimate responsibility' for the affair. (see March 16, 1988)

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

November 18, 2002: in August 2001, Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore had a 5,280-pound block of granite with the Ten Commandments engraved on it in the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building.

A group of lawyers consisting of Stephen R. Glassroth, Melinda Maddox and Beverly Howard, who felt their clients might not receive fair treatment if they did not share Moore's religious opinion, and that the placement of the monument violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, filed civil suits in Federal Court against Justice Moore in his official capacity as Chief Justice to have the monument removed.

On this date, the District Court held the monument violated the Establishment Clause. The following day, the District Court directed Moore to remove the monument from the building. (see August 22, 2003)

 

Occupy Wall Street

November 18

November 18, 2011: a group of University of California Davis occupy protesters who were sitting passively on the ground with their arms interlocked was pepper sprayed by an campus security guard, an action the university chancellor  called "chilling to us all." (see January 3, 2012
November 18 Peace Love Activism

Stand Your Ground

November 18, 2013: Police arrested George Zimmerman for allegedly pointing a shotgun at his girlfriend and pushing her out of her house as he packed to move out, the Seminole County Sheriff's Office said. Zimmerman barricaded himself in the house Samantha Scheibe rented in Apopka, which he had shared with her since around August, Chief Deputy Dennis Lemma said at a news conference. She gave deputies a key, and they pushed aside furniture he had piled against the door. 

DEATH PENALTY

November 18, 2013: US Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor called for a new look at whether judges should be allowed to overrule juries to impose death sentences, saying that elected judges in Alabama “appear to have succumbed to electoral pressures” in making such decisions. Although three states allow judges to override jury recommendations that a killer receive life in prison — Florida and Delaware are the others — only judges in Alabama are using the power, Sotomayor wrote. (see February 11, 2014)

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What's so funny about peace, love, and activism?