November 4

November 4

DEATH PENALTY
SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
 November 4
November 4, 1646:  the Massachusetts General Court approved a law requiring all members of the colony to recognize the Bible as the Word of God, under penalty of death.

November 4, 1890, BLACK HISTORY: Benjamin Ryan Tillman was elected governor of South Carolina. An outspoken white supremacist, Tillman advocated for violence against African American voters and staunchly opposed educational access for black people.

                Tillman’s political career catapulted to success after his involvement in the 1876 Hamburg Massacre, where white men rioted and killed nine people in a predominantly African American town in South Carolina. In his gubernatorial campaign, Tillman promised to keep the state’s African American population in a position of permanent inferiority. In his inaugural address and throughout his administration, he emphasized white supremacy and the necessity to revoke African Americans’ rights. Concerning the education of African Americans, Tillman argued, “when you educate a Negro, you educate a candidate for the penitentiary or spoil a good field hand.”

                He served two terms as governor and played a critical role in the 1895 South Carolina Constitutional Convention. In order to vote under the revised constitution, a man had to own property, pay a poll tax, pass a literacy test, and meet certain educational standards. The 1895 constitution disenfranchised African American voters and served as a model for other southern states.

                Tillman was elected United States Senator for South Carolina in 1895, and he served in this capacity for twenty-four years. Throughout his tenure, he opposed African American equality, women’s suffrage, and any federal interference in state government. Tillman’s philosophy helped shape the era of oppression and abuse of African Americans throughout the South. A statue honoring Tillman still stands on the grounds of South Carolina’s State Capitol. 

November 4, 1922, BLACK HISTORY: the National Equal Rights League presented a petition signed by thousands of people from fifteen States calling for Congress to consider the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill. 

Bob Dylan, Carnegie Chapter Hall

November 4

November 4, 1961: Dylan played a concert at Carnegie Chapter Hall, a smaller room than the famous bigger room. There are varying reports on how many people attended the concert. The number ranges between 47 and 53, pretty much all friends and family.
The Beatles before their US appearance
Royal Variety Show
November 4
The Beatles greet the Queen Mother
November 4, 1963: The Beatles performed their legendary Royal Command Performance at the Prince of Wales Theatre, London, before the Queen Mother and Princess Margaret. Technically The Beatles were 7th on a 19-act bill, but there was no doubt that they were, in fact, the main attraction. The Beatles called upon their masterful showmanship to put on a stunning four-song performance. They began playing their first song, "From Me to You", before the curtain opened. John and Paul, at the end of the first song, moved their microphones nearer to the audience. After playing their second song, "She Loves You", The Beatles bowed to the audience. A nervous Paul cracked a joke about Sophie Tucker being The Beatles' favorite American group, then they performed "Till There Was You". At the end of that song, Paul and John moved their microphone stands back to their original position. After waiting for the applause to die down, John introduced "Twist and Shout", requesting that persons in the cheaper seats join in by clapping their hands, while everyone else should just "rattle your jewelry". At the end of "Twist and Shout", Ringo came down from his drum kit and joined the others; as the curtain closed behind them, they bowed to the audience, then they bowed to the royal box, and then they ran off the stage to thunderous applause.

                The show was taped for later broadcast on both television and radio. Their entire performance was broadcast on television, by ATV, on November 10. BBC radio broadcast all but "She Loves You", also on November 10. The Beatles were a sensation all across Britain, the Royal Command Performance being a huge triumph for them. The Beatles were the entertainment kings in the UK; soon they would be ready to tackle America and the rest of the world. Three of the performances ("She Loves You", "Till There Was You", and "Twist and Shout") are included on "The Beatles Anthology 1" (Disc 2, Tracks 1-3). ."

November 4, 1964, FREE SPEECH: comedian Lenny Bruce was arrested for obscenity in New York City. He was arrested many times in his career on charges of obscenity (October 4, 1961). His style of humor, radical for its time, savagely attacked American hypocrisy on sex, religion and race. Many believe that his arrests were provoked more by his attacks on the Catholic Church than for the dirty words in his routines. 
November 4, 1965, BLACK HISTORYTERRORISM: Federal Judge William Herlands sentenced Robert Collier to 5 years in prison; Walter Bowe received a three-year sentence; and Khaleel Sayyed received an 18-month sentence.

Iran hostage crisis, Terrorism

November 4
Iranian students climb over the wall of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran on November 4,
November 4, 1979, : Iran hostage crisis begins: 3,000 Iranian radicals, mostly students, invade the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and take 90 hostages (53 of whom are American). They demand that the United States send the former Shah of Iran back to stand trial. (click >>> NYT article re Students invade embassy)

November 4

November 4, 1980: Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent President Jimmy Carter, exactly 1 year after the beginning of the Iran hostage crisis. (click >>> "After the celebrations over Ronald Reagan's spectacular victory, come the hangovers.")

November 4, 1986, DEATH PENALTY, California Chief Justice Rose Bird and two other 'liberal' members of the state supreme court were ousted in a retention election. The election followed a bitter campaign that centered on the three justices' records in death penalty cases. 

USS Cole

November 4
November 4
Qaed Salim Sinan al-Hareth
November 4, 2002: Qaed Salim Sinan al-Harethi, a suspected al-Qaeda operative, who is believed to have planned the USS Cole attack, was killed by the CIA using an AGM-114 Hellfire missile launched from an MQ-1 Predator drone. (click >>> NYT article)
Black History, Barak H Obama
Marijuana
Gay marriage
November 4
Barak H Obama and family
November 4, 2008:  Barak Obama elected President. First Black American elected President of the US. (click for transcript of Obama's victory speech >>> Victory speech)

November 4

No on Prop 8 posterNovember 4, 2008: California voters approved a ban on same-sex marriage called Proposition 8. The attorney general of California, Jerry Brown, asked the state's Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of Proposition 8. The ban threw into question the validity of the more than 18,000 marriages already performed, but Attorney General Brown reiterated in a news release that he believed the same-sex marriages performed in California before November 4 should remain valid and the California Supreme Court, which upheld the ban in May 2009, agreed, allowing those couples married under the old law to remain that way; also, voters in Arizona, and Florida approved the passage of measures that ban same-sex marriage. Arkansas passed a measure intended to bar gay men and lesbians from adopting children. (click for article re day before California vote >>> Rush to marry)

"Sixty-three percent of Michigan voters approved Proposal 1 (the law took effect on December 4, 2008). It removed state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who possess written documentation from their physicians authorizing the medical use of marijuana."

November 4, 2013, Birth Control:  the US Supreme Court left intact a state court decision invalidating an Oklahoma law that effectively banned the so-called abortion pill RU-486. 
November 4, 2013, BLACK HISTORY & Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers: the U.S. Supreme Court rejected an appeal from Edgar Ray Killen, convicted of manslaughter in 2005 for the 1964 slayings of three civil rights workers in what became known as the "Mississippi Burning" case. The decision means the justices won't review lower-court rulings that found no violations of Killen's constitutional rights during his trial in Mississippi. 
November 4, 2014, Marijuana:   
  • Oregon voters approved Measure 91, a proposal which would legalize the possession of up to eight ounces of cannabis, a limit that was eight times higher than that of Washington and Colorado. The initiative would also allow everyone 21 and older to cultivate up to four plants, and purchase cannabis from state-licensed outlets, which would open by 2016.
  • In Alaska, Ballot Measure 2 was approved with 52% of the vote. This initiative legalized the possession of up to an ounce of cannabis, as well as the private cultivation of up to six plants. The proposal also allowed for cannabis retail outlets. (see February 24, 2015)
  • In Washington D.C voters approved Initiative 71. Once it takes effect – after a 30-day congressional review period – the proposal would legalize the possession of up to two ounces of cannabis for those 21 and older, in addition to allowing for the private cultivation of up to six plants. Although the initiative did not allow for cannabis retail outlets, the district’s Council was considering legislation to change that.
  • In California, voters approved Proposition 47, a proposal which removed felony charges for numerous nonviolent crimes such as drug possession and petty theft. The initiative, which would free up prison space and save the state hundreds of millions of dollars annually, was approved with 57% of the vote.
  • In Florida, Amendment 2 (legalization of medical cannabis ) was defeated, failing to garner the 60% required to be passed into law.
  • In Michigan, voters gave approval to cannabis decriminalization initiatives in the cities of Saginaw, Huntington Woods, Pleasant Ridge, Port Huron, Mount Pleasant and Berkley. These initiatives removed criminal penalties within the city for the possession, use and transfer of up to an ounce of cannabis. Similar initiatives were voted down in Clare, Frankford, Harrison, Lapeer and Onaway counties.
  • In Maine, voters in South Portland passed an initiative to legalize up to an ounce of cannabis, joining Portland which approved a similar initiative last year. A legalization initiative was rejected in Lewiston 
N

 

November 3

November 3

BLACK HISTORY, Race Riots

November 3, 1883: Black history: riots occurred in Danville, Va. White conservatives seized control of the local government, killing four African Americans in the process.

Native Americans, Elk v. Wilkins

November 3, 1884, the question was whether an Indian, born a member of one of the Indian tribes within the US was, merely by reason of their birth within the US, and of their afterward voluntarily separating themselves from the tribe and taking up residence among citizens, a citizen of the US, within the meaning of the first section of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. The Court decided that although “Indian tribes, being within the territorial limits of the United States, were not, strictly speaking, foreign states,” “they were alien nations, distinct political communities,” with whom the United States dealt with through treaties and acts of Congress. Native Americans were not US citizens.

US Labor History

November 3, 1921: striking milk drivers dump thousands of gallons of milk on New York City streets 
Nuclear and Chemical Weapons
November 30, 1950:  President Harry S. Truman announced that he was prepared to authorize the use of atomic weapons in order to achieve peace in Korea. At the time of Truman's announcement, communist China had joined North Korean forces in their attacks on United Nations troops, including U.S. soldiers, who were trying to prevent communist expansion into South Korea. 
Space Race, Sputnik 2

November 3

November 3, 1957: Sputnik 2 carried Laika, a female dog, into space. Although the satellite will remain in orbit for 162 days, scientists plan to put Laika to sleep after a week because there is no way to return her to Earth safely. Later reports indicate that Laika died soon after liftoff, from stress and high temperatures inside the capsule.
FREE SPEECH
November 3, 1960, : an Alabama State Court jury awarded Police Commisioner L.B. Sullivan a libel judgment of $500,000 against The New York Times and four Alabama Negro ministers. 
Lyndon B Johnson, Election of 1964

November 3

November 3, 1964: Lyndon Johnson elected president in a landslide over Barry Goldwater. Johnson wins 486-52 in the electoral vote. Residents of the District of Columbia cast their ballots in a presidential election for the first time. (click on link for LBJ's victory speech >>> NYT)
Vietnam,  President Richard Nixon

November 3

November 3, 1969: President. Nixon addresses the nation on television and radio, asking the "silent majority" to join him in solidarity with the Vietnam War effort, and to support his policies. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew denounces the President's critics as 'an effete corps of impudent snobs' and 'nattering nabobs of negativism'.

Feminism, Bella Abzug
bella abzug
Bella Abzug
November 3, 1970:  representing Manhattan on a feminist and anti-war platform, Bella Abzug, a lawyer specializing in civil rights, won a Congressional seat. (click >>> NYT re Bella Abzug)
Symbionese Liberation Army
November 3, 1974: after months without hearing from Patty, Randolph Hearst withdrew his offer of a $50,000 reward for her safe return.
BLACK HISTORY, Greensboro Massacre
November 3, 1979: five protest marchers were shot and killed by members of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party. The protest was the culmination of attempts by the Communist Workers Party to organize mostly black industrial workers in the area. Five Klansmen were charged with murder. None were convicted. (click >>> NYT article)
Iran–Contra Affair; Sale of arms to Iran
November 3, 1986: the Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reported that the United States had been selling weapons to Iran in secret, in order to secure the release of 7 American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon. (click on link for more >>> NYT re Iran)

Bill Clinton, Election of 1992

November 3, 1992: Bill Clinton is elected the 42nd President of the United States. (click on link for more >>> NYT article)
BLACK HISTORY, Feminism

November 3

November 3, 1992: Carol Moseley Braun, a Democrat from Illinois, became the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate. (click on link for more >>> NYT article)
Medical Marjuana

November 3

November 3, 1998, Marijuana: Alaska, Arizona Oregon, Nevada, and Washington legalize medical marijuana. (click on link for more >>> NYT article)
Physician-assisted Suicide
November 3, 1998, Michigan voters reject a proposal to legalize physician-assisted suicide for the terminally ill. (click on link for more >>> NYT article)
LGBTQ, Gay marriage denied
November 3, 1998: Anti-gay forces succeed in amending the Hawaii Constitution so as to prevent the courts from ending the exclusion of same-sex couples; under the Amendment, only the legislature could change that discrimination, notwithstanding the Equal Protection Clause. On the same day, anti-gay forces in Alaska pass Ballot Measure 2, which amended the state constitution to restrict marriage to different-sex couples. (click on link for more >>> NYT article)

November 3

LGBT, Gay marriage denied

November 3, 2009: anti-gay forces in Maine pushed through an anti-gay ballot measure to overturn the freedom to marry in the state and restrict marriage to different-sex couples.  (click on link for more >>> NYT article)
US Labor History
November 3, 2009: nearly 5,000 transit workers represented by Transport Workers Union Local 234 begin a strike in Philadelphia over wages, pensions, and benefits. The strike shut down the city’s bus, subway, and trolley service and after six days, a five-year contract deal was reached that provided pay and benefit increases.

 

 

November 2

November 2

Black History, The Mississippi Plan of 1875

November 2, 1875, Black History: The Mississippi Plan of 1875, which included violence against African Americans to keep them from voting, resulted in huge victories for white Democrats across the state. John R. Lynch, the last African-American congressman for Mississippi until the 1986 election of Mike Espy, wrote: “It was a well-known fact that in 1875 nearly every Democratic club in the State was converted into an armed military company.” A federal grand jury concluded: “Fraud, intimidation, and violence perpetrated at the last election is without a parallel in the annals of history.”

Blowin’ in the Wind, Peter, Paul and Mary

Bob Dylan

p p & m
Album cover
 November 2 – December 6, 1963: Peter, Paul, and Mary’s Blowin’ In the Wind  is the Billboard #1 album. The best-known cover of Bob Dylan’s song. In the liner notes to Dylan’s original release, Nat Hentoff calls the song "a statement that maybe you can say to make yourself feel better... as if you were talking to yourself." The song was written around the time that Suze Rotolo indefinitely prolonged her stay in Italy. The melody is based on an older song, "Who's Gonna Buy Your Chickens When I'm Gone". The melody was taught to Dylan by folksinger Paul Clayton, who had used the melody in his song "Who's Gonna Buy Your Ribbons When I'm Gone?"

 

Vietnam Protest

Vietnam protest
The Sun headline
November 2, 1965: Quaker Norman Morrison set himself on fire outside The Pentagon to protest United States involvement in the Vietnam War. (click >>> Baltimore Sun article)

Black History, Tom Bradley & Colman Young elected

November 2

November 2

November 2, 1971: Coleman Young elected first African American mayor of Detroit; Tom Bradley elected first Black mayor of Los Angeles.

Jimmy Carter elected President

November 2

November 2, 1976: Jimmy Carter defeated incumbent Gerald Ford, becoming the first candidate from the Deep South to win since the Civil War.
Black History, Martin Luther King, Jr

November 2

November 2, 1983: President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating the Martin Luther King, Jr federal holiday on the third Monday of every January.

Medical marijuana

November 2

November 2, 2004, Marijuana: Sixty-two percent of voters in Montana approved Initiative 148. The law took effect that same day. It removed state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who possess written documentation from their physicians authorizing the medical use of marijuana. The law established a confidential state-run patient registry that issues identification cards to qualifying patients.

November 2

November 2, 2010, Marijuana:  Arizona became the 15th state to legalize medical marijuana when Proposition 203, the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act, passes by a margin of 4,341 votes out of 1,678,351 votes cast in the Nov. 2, 2010 election. The law allows registered qualifying patients to obtain marijuana from a registered nonprofit dispensary, and to possess and use medical marijuana to treat the condition.
in November 2011, Marijuana: "States that legalize medical marijuana saw fewer fatal car accidents, according to a study in part because people may be substituting marijuana smoking for drinking alcohol...Comparing traffic deaths over time in states with and without medical marijuana law changes, the researchers found that fatal car wrecks dropped by 9% in states that legalized medical use — which was largely attributable to a decline in drunk driving....The authors also found that in states that legalized medical use, there was no increase in marijuana smoking by teenagers — a finding seen in other studies as well. But, in many cases, the laws were linked with an increase in marijuana smoking among adults in their 20s; this rise was accompanied by a reduction in alcohol use by college age youth, suggesting that they were smoking weed instead..."

Gay marriage

November 2

November 2

November 2, 2004, LGBT: marshaled by Karl Rove, anti-gay forces in eleven states push through constitutional amendments to deny same-sex couples the freedom to marry. In Mississippi, Montana, and Oregon the amendments restrict marriage to different-sex couples. In the other states - Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Michigan, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Ohio, and Utah - the amendments deny all forms of family recognition or status, including civil union and domestic partnership. A similar amendment banning marriage was passed in Missouri in August 2004. (click >>> NYT article)

What's so funny about peace, love, and activism?