October 28 Peace Love Activism
October 28, 1793: Eli Whitney applied for a patent for the cotton gin. It was granted in March 14, 1794. It will change the course of American history as it made the cotton crop a valuable commodity for which thousands of workers--black slaves--would be used.(see February 7, 1817)
Football game broadcast
October 28, 1922: hundreds of young men gathered around radios in Western Union offices, speakeasies and a Princeton University physics lab to hear the first-ever cross-country broadcast of a college football game between Princeton and the Chicago Maroons. Telephone lines carried a play-by-play of the match-up. (NYT article) (see April 15, 1923)
Matilda Josyln Gage
October 28, 1886: Gage joined the New York City Woman Suffrage Association’s protest at the unveiling of the Statue of Liberty. Suffragists called it the greatest hypocrisy of the 19th century that liberty is represented as a woman in a land where not a single woman has liberty. (NYT article)
In 1890: Gage left National Women's Suffragist Association after its merger with the American Woman Suffrage Association and established the Woman’s National Liberal Union, dedicated to maintaining the separation of church and state. (Separation Churchand State, see May 5, 1925 Feminism; see May)
In 1893 Gage published her magnum opus, Woman, Church, and State.
Gage also spoke of organized religion: “The greatest evils to women in all ages have come through the bondage of the Church. Women must think for themselves and realize that the story of the creation with the pair in the garden and the speaking serpent standing on his tail was a myth.” (Feminism, see Nov 7)
in 1895 Gage contributed to Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s The Woman’s Bible, writing interpretations of three Biblical passages pertinent to women. The Woman’s Bible is a major criticism of standard biblical interpretation from a radical feminist point of view. (Gage, see March 18, 1898)
In 1897 New York State Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage founded. (see April 25, 1898)
October 28, 1974: President Gerald Ford on this day signed into law the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, which helped to reduce sex discrimination in access to credit. As a member of the Appropriations Committee, Congresswoman Lindy Boggs (D–Louisiana) helped shape the law. She hand-wrote “sex or marital status” into the text and then passed out new copies of the bill with the phrase included. She suggested sweetly that the omission “must have been an oversight.” The amendment passed. President Gerald Ford signed further amendments to bar discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976 in March 1976. (Feminism, see January 8, 1975; CP, see February 12, 1976)
October 28, 1918: Czech Republic formed marking independence from Austria-Hungary. (see Nov 11)
Cultural Milestone/Volstead Act
October 28, 1919, the day after President Wilson had vetoed the act, the House and Senate override his veto and the Volstead Act was passed, ushering in Prohibition. It went into effect in January 1920. (NYT article) (see January 17, 1920)
October 28, 1947: Dalton Trumbo, a successful Hollywood screenwriter, confronted the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) on this day. All of the “Hollywood Ten” were cited for contempt of Congress, convicted, sentenced to prison, and blacklisted by the film industry.
Contempt of Congress indictments became a heavy weapon against alleged subversives during the Cold War. While it had rarely been used before World War II, HUAC issued 21 contempt citations in 1946, 14 in 1947, and 56 in 1950. All other House Committees in those years issued a total of only 6 contempt citations. (Red Scare, see Oct 30; Hollywood Ten, see November 25, 1956; Trumbo, see March 27, 1957)
October 28, 1962: after much deliberation between the Soviet Union and Kennedy's cabinet, Kennedy secretly agreed to remove all missiles set in southern Italy and in Turkey, the latter on the border of the Soviet Union, in exchange for Khrushchev removing all missiles in Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev announced that he had ordered the removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba. (Cold War, see Oct 30)
October 28 Music et al
October 28, 1961, The Beatles before their US appearance: “My Bonnie” is a success in Germany and eventually heard and released in England. On the same day, according to Beatles legend, a fan named Raymond Jones attempted to purchase the single "My Bonnie" from Brian Epstein's NEMS record store in Liverpool. Brian managed the record shop, which was part of a large department store owned by his father. The legend states that this was the first occasion on which Brian Epstein heard of the single or, indeed, of The Beatles. "Mersey Beat" editor Bill Harry discounts this story as improbable. Harry claims to have discussed The Beatles and other local groups with Epstein well before this date, and he adds that Epstein was already writing record reviews for "Mersey Beat" and selling copies of the paper in his shop. Further, Epstein was selling tickets to Sam Leach's 'Operation Big Beat' concert, and The Beatles' name was at the top of the list of groups that were scheduled to appear at the November 10 event. (see Oct 30)
Beatles/Empire Theatre, Liverpool
October 28, 1962: The Beatles performed at the Empire Theatre, Liverpool. This is a major performance for The Beatles, their first at Liverpool's top theatre. They are part of an eight-act, big-name program that plays to two separate "houses" (two performances for two different audiences, one at 5:40 pm and the other at 8:00 pm). Heading the bill is Little Richard; also appearing is Craig Douglas (for whom The Beatles provide musical backing in addition to their own, separate performance), Jet Harris (ex-Shadows bass player), and Kenny Lynch & Sounds Incorporated. In Liverpudlian terms, The Beatles have hit the big time. (see Nov 23)
October 28 – 29, 1964 filmed over two days at the Santa Monica (Calif.) Civic Auditorium, "The T.A.M.I. Show" (short for Teenage Awards Music International or Teen Age Music International) featured some of the biggest stars in rock and pop music, including The Rolling Stones, James Brown and the Flames, The Supremes, The Beach Boys and Lesley Gore. It was released in theaters in December 1964. (see June 24, 1966)
October 28 – December 1, 1967: Diana Ross and the Supremes Greatest Hits is the Billboard #1 album.
October 28, 1989: a group burned a United States flag belonging to the United States Postal Service. The flag-burning occurred during a political demonstration convened in front of a post office in Seattle, Washington to protest the enactment of the Flag Protection Act of 1989, 18 U.S.C. § 700. That statute, which prohibits flagburning, had taken effect only minutes before defendants' actions against the flag.
Participants were charged with committing two misdemeanors: one count of wilful injury to federal property and one count of knowingly burning a United States flag in violation of the Flag Protection Act. (see March 21, 1990)
October 28, 1992: The Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992 signed. The Act established the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO) within the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). It also mandated that HUD set specific goals for the government-sponsored enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, with regard to low income and underserved housing areas.
In 1996 home ownership totaled 66.3 million American households, the largest number ever. Except for a few historic buildings, Techwood Homes (see August 15, 1936) was demolished in 1996 before the 1996 Summer Olympics.
in 1998 HUD opens Enforcement Center to take action against HUD-assisted multifamily property owners and other HUD fund recipients who violate laws and regulations. Congress approves Public Housing reforms to reduce segregation by race and income, encourage and reward work, bring more working families into public housing, and increase the availability of subsidized housing for very poor families.
In 2000 America's homeownership rate reached a new record-high of 67.7 percent in the third quarter of 2000. A total of 71.6 million American families own their homes - more than at any time in American history. (see July 19, 2013)
October 28, 2002: the City Council in Richmond, the former capital of the Confederacy, …unanimously voted to honor a slave who plotted a revolt. A resolution calling the slave, Gabriel Prosser, an ''American patriot and freedom fighter'' commemorates the 202nd anniversary of his hanging on Oct. 10, 1800, in Richmond. Dozens of conspirators were also executed after two slaves told their masters of the plot. ''This resolution seeks to correct an error in history whereby Gabriel has been seen by many as a criminal,'' Councilman Sa'ad El-Amin told the Council. (BH, see Dec 4; SR, see June 17, 2015)
The Matthew Shepard Act
October 28, 2009: President Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, also known as the Matthew Shepard Act, as a rider to the National Defense Authorization Act for 2010. Conceived as a response to the murders of Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., the measure expands the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability. (Black History, see Nov 15, 2010; Shepard: see September 21, 2011 and April 12, 2012; LGBTQ, see Nov 3)
October 28 Peace Love Activism
October 28, 2013: federal Judge Lee Yeakel of the US District Court in Austin blocked an important part of the state’s restrictive new abortion law, which would have required doctors performing the procedure to have admitting privileges at a nearby hospital. The decision, one day before the provision was to take effect, prevented a major disruption of the abortion clinics in Texas. It was a victory for abortion rights groups and clinics that said the measure served no medical purpose and could force as many as one-third of the state’s 36 abortion clinics to close.
But the court did not strike down a second measure, requiring doctors to use a particular drug protocol in nonsurgical, medication-induced abortions that doctors called outdated and too restrictive.
The decision is widely expected to be appealed to higher courts. Yeakel declared that “the act’s admitting-privileges provision is without a rational basis and places a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus.” (BC, see Oct 31; Texas, see June 27, 2016) (NYT article)
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