April 22 Peace Love Activism

April 22 Peace Love Activism


April 22 Peace Love Activism

April 22, 1864: Congress authorized the use of the phrase "In God We Trust" on U.S. coins. (see “in 1890”)

Native Americans

April 22 Peace Love Activism

April 22, 1889: the Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889. The land run started at high noon with an estimated 50,000 people lined up for their piece of the available two million acres (see December 15, 1890)


Alien radicals
April 22, 1935: in a telegram to ACLU Director Roger Baldwin, Rep. Hamilton Fish, (R–New York), one of the most vocal anti-communist and anti-radical members of Congress, said he did not believe alien radicals were entitled to freedom of speech. He added that radical aliens who promote “strikes, riots,” and other forms of “unrest” should be deported and their jobs given to “loyal American citizens.” (see Nov 26)
New York Worlds Fair

April 22 Peace Love Activism

April 22, 1964: New York Worlds Fair opened. President Johnson and fair organizers were met with picketers and sit-ins, mostly civil rights organizers.  They managed to heckle Johnson through his entire speech at the Federal Pavilion and sit in at several fair venues.  In particular, protesters camped out in shrubbery outside the pavilion and had to be forcibly removed.  "It was dreadful, dreadful," said one state official.

                By the end of the day, over 300 people had been arrested by police.  The video below doesn't paint the same picture. (see June 22)

Anti-picketing law
April 22, 1968: in 1965 the Supreme Court had remanded the case after a federal district court refused to grant an injunction against the law, which made it unlawful for individuals engaged in picketing “to obstruct or interfere with free ingress or egress to and from any public premises” (see Apr 26) 


Ernst Rothlin
April 22, 1943: after receiving Albert Hofmann's report regarding the effects of LSD-25, professor Ernst Rothlin was the second person to try the drug. Rothlin was Sandoz's chief pharmacologist at the time. Albert Hofmann gave Rothlin a small (60 microgram) dose of LSD about 1/4 of the dose Hofmann had tried.

In a Michael Horowitz interview with Albert Hofmann in 1976, Hoffmann stated: "Professor Ernst Rothlin, head of the Sandoz pharmacological department at the time. Rothlin was dubious about LSD ; he claimed he had a strong will and could suppress the effects of drugs. But after he took 60 micrograms, one quarter of the dose I had taken earlier, he was convinced. I had to laugh as he described his fantastic visions."  (see June 12, 1943)
First International Conference on LSD
April 22 – 24, 1959: the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation held the First International Conference on LSD Therapy 9 in Princeton, NJ. (see  "in 1960")


April 22, 1944: a sit-in on this day, challenging racial discrimination at Thompson’s Restaurant in Washington, D.C., was one of several sit-ins during the mid-1940s and the late 1950s, which have been overshadowed by the famous sit-ins that began February 1, 1960. The sit-in was led by African-American students at Howard University, who had staged an earlier one the year before, on April 17, 1943.

                The sit-ins were eventually quashed by Southerners in Congress who had power of the budget for Washington, D.C. and Howard University. (see June 16)

Nuclear/Chemical News

Yucca Flat
April 22, 1952: for the first time viewers witnessed live the detonation of an atomic bomb at the U.S. testing site in Yucca Flat, Nevada on television, The atomic bomb tested was larger than those dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II. (see “in June”)



Investigating Military
April 22, 1954: Senator Joseph McCarthy began hearings investigating the Army, which he charged with being "soft" on communism. The televised hearings gave the American public their first view of McCarthy in action, and his recklessness, indignant bluster, and bullying tactics quickly resulted in his fall from prominence. (see June 2)

April 22 Music et al


April 22 Peace Love Activism

April 22, 1969: the  first complete performance of The Who's rock opera Tommy during a performance in Dolton, England.


Clark Clifford
April 22, 1968: in a news conference, Defense Secretary Clark Clifford declared that the South Vietnamese have "acquired the capacity to begin to insure their own security [and] they are going to take over more and more of the fighting." (see April 23)
Antiwar demonstrations
April 22, 1972:  antiwar demonstrations prompted by the accelerated U.S. bombing in Southeast Asia draw somewhere between 30,000 to 60,000 marchers in New York; 30,000 to 40,000 in San Francisco; 10,000 to 12,000 in Los Angeles; and smaller gatherings in Chicago and other cities throughout the country. The new bombing campaign was in response to the North Vietnam's massive invasion of South Vietnam in March. As the demonstrations were happening, bitter fighting continued all over South Vietnam. In the Mekong Delta, for example, the fighting was the heaviest it had been in 18 months. (see April 25)
Richard M. Nixon
April 22, 1994, Richard M. Nixon (81), died at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, four days after suffering a stroke.
April 22 Peace Love Activism

Environmental Issues

Earth Day
April 22, 1970: an estimated 20 million people worldwide observed the first Earth Day.  Senator Gaylord Nelson promoted Earth Day, calling upon students to fight for environmental causes and oppose environmental degradation with the same energy that they displayed in opposing the Vietnam War. (see Sept 15)
Pegasus Pipeline oil spill

April 22 Peace Love Activism

April 22, 2013: the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S,. Department of Justice announced that Exxon Mobil Pipeline Co. and Mobil Pipe Line Co. agreed to pay a $5.07 million civil penalty to settle alleged violations of the Clean Water Act and Arkansas state environmental laws in connection with the 2013 crude oil spill from the Pegasus Pipeline in Mayflower, Arkansas. (see Apr 23)


Barbara Walters
April 22, 1976: Barbara Walters accepted a five-year contract as anchorwoman for the evening news with the ABC network. She is the first woman newscaster on U.S. network television.  (see June 28)


Iran–Contra Affair

April 22, 1986: US arrested 10 officials involved in Iran arms sales. (see Oct 5)


David Ritcheson

April 22 Peace Love Activism

April 22, 2006: two white teenagers, David Tuck and Keith Turner, attacked David Ritcheson, a 16-year-old Latino boy at a house party in Spring, Texas. Ritcheson allegedly tried to kiss a white girl at the party. Tuck and Turner knocked Ritcheson unconscious, dragged him outside, and beat him for approximately fifteen minutes while calling him a “beaner” and shouting “white power” and “Aryan nation.” The white teens then stripped Ritcheson naked, and Tuck cut Ritcheson's chest with a knife and burned his stomach and chest 17 times with a cigarette. Next, Turner placed a pole in Ritcheson's rectum and held it in place while Tuck kicked the end of the pole into Ritcheson's rectum. The two teens then poured bleach over Ritcheson's body.

                At least two other white teenagers witnessed the beating but did nothing to help and later went to sleep in the house. The mother of one of the witnesses was home, but claimed she slept through the incident. Medical help was not summoned until hours after the attack, when a witness awoke and found Ritcheson still laying in the backyard.

                After three months in the hospital and more than thirty surgeries, Ritcheson was able to return to school confined to a wheelchair and wearing a colostomy bag. 

Tuck and Keith Turner, 18, eventually were convicted of aggravated sexual assault. Tuck was given a life sentence, Turner 90 years.

Ritcheson jumped to his death from a cruise ship on July 1, 2007. (Terrorism, see May 4; Richeson, see April 7, 2007)


Trayvon Martin Shooting
April 22, 2012: George Zimmerman released on $150,000 bail. (see June 1)

Voting Rights

Crime and Punishment
April 22, 2016: Gov. Terry McAuliffe of Virginia used his executive power to restore voting rights to more than 200,000 convicted felons, circumventing the Republican-run legislature. The action overturned a Civil War-era provision in the state’s Constitution aimed, he said, at disenfranchising African-Americans.

                The sweeping order would enable all felons who have served their prison time and finished parole or probation to register to vote. Most are African-Americans. (VR, see Apr 25, C&P, see Aug 3)

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April 21 Music et al

April 21 Music et al

Roots of Rock

Elvis Presley

April 21 Music et al

April 21, 1956: Elvis Presley had his first number one hit with "Heartbreak Hotel". 

Elvis had recorded the song on January 10, 1956 with his band, The Blue Moon Boys along with guitarist Chet Atkins and pianist Floyd Cramer. His new record label, RCA Records, released it as a single on January 27, 1956. (see May 5)

Good Luck Charm

April 21 Music et al

Exactly six years later, from April 21 – May 4, 1962: “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley became #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. 

Aaron Schroeder and Wally Gold wrote the song. Presley recorded it at RCA Studio B in Nashville, Tennessee (see April 11, 1964)

The Merry Pranksters

April 21 Music et al

April 21, 1965: The Merry Pranksters got a tip that police had a warrant would raid their La Honda (California) camp.   

From Tom Wolfe's Electric Kool Aid Acid Test:  By now the Pranksters had built up so much momentum they begin to feel immune even to a very obvious danger, namely, the cops. The citizens of La Honda were becoming more and more exercised about Kesey and the Pranksters, and so were the San Mateo County sheriff and federal narcotics officials. Not knowing what the hell accounted for the crazy life at Kesey's place, they apparently assumed there was some hard drug use going on—heroin, cocaine, morphine.  Late in 1964 they put Kesey's place under surveillance. The Pranksters knew about it and used to play games with the cops. The main federal narcotics agent in the area was a San Francisco Chinese, Agent William Wong. The Pranksters made a huge sign and put it up on the house: WE'RE CLEAN, WILLIE! It was fun, the cop game. The cops would be out in the woods at night, along the creek, and one of them would step into the creek and get his feet wet and say something. The Pranksters would pick all this up on the remote mikes in the woods, whereupon the voice of Mountain Girl, broadcasting from inside the cabin, would jeer out over an amplifier up in the redwoods: "Hey! Why don't you come in the house and dry off your feet, you cops! Quit playing the cop game and come in and git some nice hot coffee!" The cops were just playing their eternal cop game. That's all it seemed like to the Pranksters. (see April 23)
April 21 Music et al
The Road to Bethel
April 21, 1969: Canned Heat signed ($13,000) (see week of April 28)


April 21 Music et al, April 21 Music et al, April 21 Music et al, April 21 Music et al, April 21 Music et al, April 21 Music et al, April 21 Music et al, April 21 Music et al, April 21 Music et al, 

April 21 Peace Love Activism

April 21 Peace Love Activism


Maryland Toleration Act
April 21, 1649: the Maryland assembly passed the Maryland Toleration Act, which provided for freedom of worship for all Christians: And whereas the inforceing of the conscience in matters of Religion hath frequently fallen out to be of dangerous Consequence in those commonwealthes where it hath been practised, And for the more quiett and peaceable governement of this Province, and the better to preserve mutuall Love and amity amongst the Inhabitants thereof, Be it Therefore also by the Lord Proprietary with the advise and consent of this Assembly Ordeyned and enacted (except as in this present Act is before Declared and sett forth) that noe person or persons whatsoever within this Province, or the Islands, Ports, Harbors, Creekes, or havens thereunto belonging professing to beleive in Jesus Christ, shall from henceforth bee any waies troubled, Molested or discountenanced for or in respect of his or her religion nor in the free exercise thereof within this Province or the Islands thereunto belonging nor any way compelled to the beleife or exercise of any other Religion against his or her consent, soe as they be not unfaithfull to the Lord Proprietary, or molest or conspire against the civill Governement established or to bee established in this Province under him or his heires. (see October 27, 1659)


Comics Code Authority

April 21 Peace Love Activis

April 21, 1954: a U. S. Senate committee held hearings in New York City on the alleged dangers of comic books. The hearings were part of a nationwide panic over comics contributing to juvenile delinquency. Further hearings were held on April 22nd and June 4th. The major result was the Comics Code Authority, an exercise in self-censorship by the major publishers, on October 26, 1954. (see Oct 26)

see: April 21 Music et al

Roots of Rock

Elvis Presley
April 21, 1956: Elvis Presley had his first number one hit with "Heartbreak Hotel". (see May 5)
Good Luck Charm
April 21 – May 4, 1962: “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley #1 Billboard Hot 100. (see April 11, 1964)
The Merry Pranksters
April 21, 1965: The Merry Pranksters got a tip that a warrant had been drawn up and police would raid their camp in La Honda, California. (see April 23)
The Road to Bethel
April 21, 1969: Canned Heat signed ($13,000) (see week of April 28)


Kress store lunch counter

April 21 Peace Love Activism

April 21, 1960: police arrested forty-five students (including Ezell Blair, Jr., Joseph McNeil, David Richmond and 13 Bennett College students) for trespassing as they sat at the Kress store lunch counter. All were released without bail. (BH, see Apr 24; TGF, see "in June")
Milton Olive III

Remove term: April 21 Peace Love Activism April 21 Peace Love Activism

April 21, 1966:  Milton Olive III became the first African American to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Olive and fellow members of the 3d Platoon of Company B had been making their way through the jungles to locate Viet Cong (aka, National Liberation Front) operating in the area. As the soldiers pursued the enemy, a grenade was thrown into the middle of them. Olive grabbed the grenade and fell on it, absorbing the blast with his body. His actions saved the lives of his platoon members. Olive's parents received the medal on his behalf. (see May 13)
Sidney Street
April 21, 1969: after hearing a news report of the attempted murder of James Meredith, Sidney Street, took a 48-star U.S. flag and burned it. Upon being questioned by police, he said, "Yes; that is my flag; I burned it. If they let that happen to Meredith, we don't need an American flag." He was arrested, and a document was prepared that charged him with “the crime of Malicious Mischief in that [he] did willfully and unlawfully defile, cast contempt upon and burn an American Flag, in violation of 1425-16-D of the Penal Law, under the following circumstances: . . . [he] did willfully and unlawfully set fire to an American Flag and shout, "If they did that to Meredith, We don't need an American Flag."

                On this date in Street v New York, the US Supreme Court that a New York state law making it a crime "publicly [to] mutilate, deface, defile, or defy, trample upon, or cast contempt upon either by words or act [any flag of the United States]" was, in part, unconstitutional because it prohibited speech against the flag. The Court left for a later day the question of whether it is constitutional or unconstitutional to prohibit, without reference to the utterance of words, the burning of the flag (FS, see Apr 25; Texas v. Johnson, see June 21, 1989) 
Turner County High School

Remove term: April 21 Peace Love Activism April 21 Peace Love Activism

April 21, 2007: Turner County High School students attended the school's first racially integrated prom. Located in Ashburn, Georgia, a small, rural, peanut-farming town of 4400 residents, the school's racial demographics reflected those of the local community: 55% black and 45% white. The prom theme, "Breakaway," was chosen to signify a break from the tradition of privately-funded, separate "white" and "black" proms sponsored by parent groups.

                The school administration's handbook provided for funding an official school-wide prom but stipulated that the senior class officers and student body had to express genuine support for an integrated event. During the 2006-2007 school year, the school's four senior class officers ? two white and two black ? approached the principal to discuss holding a school-wide prom. Regarding the segregated proms, senior class president James Hall said, "Everybody says that's just how it's always been. It's just the way of this very small town. But it's time for a change."

                Turner County High School's class of 2007 also abandoned the "tradition" of electing both a white and a black homecoming queen. White parents still held a private, whites-only prom one week before the school-wide event and some parents refused to allow their children to attend the integrated prom. Principal Chad Stone, who is white, said he would not make efforts to end private proms for future classes but favored the integrated approach, "We already go to school together ? let's start a tradition so that 20 years from now, this is no big deal at all." (see May 3)


April 21, 1965: the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency report a "most ominous" development: a regiment of the People's Army of Vietnam--the regular army of North Vietnam--division was operating with the Viet Cong (aka, National Liberation Front) in South Vietnam. Prior to this, it was believed that South Vietnam was dealing with an internal insurgency by the Viet Cong only. The report detailed that, in fact, the Viet Cong forces were being joined in the war against the Saigon government by North Vietnamese army units. 

In short, the report revealed that South Vietnam was now involved in a much larger war than originally believed. The situation far outstripped the combat capability of the South Vietnamese forces. In order to stabilize the situation, President Lyndon B. Johnson would have to commit U.S. ground combat units, leading to a much greater American involvement in the war. Indeed, eventually over 500,000 U.S. troops were stationed in South Vietnam. (see May 3)
April 21, 1975:

April 21 Peace Love Activism

  • South Vietnam president, Nguyen Van Thieu, resigned, condemning the United States.
  • Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, fell to the communists. (see April 23)


Mattachine Society

April 21 Peace Love Activism

April 21, 1966: members of the Mattachine Society stage a "sip-in" at the Julius Bar in Greenwich Village, where the New York Liquor Authority prohibits serving gay patrons in bars on the basis that homosexuals are "disorderly." Society president Dick Leitsch and other members announced their homosexuality and were immediately refused service.  Following the sip-in, the Mattachine Society sued the New York Liquor Authority. Although no laws are overturned, the New York City Commission on Human Rights declared that homosexuals have the right to be served. (see May 11)
Domestic partnership
April 21, 2007: Washington state Governor Christine Gregoire signed a domestic partnership bill into law. In the weeks that follow, Oregon Governor Ted Kulongski and New Hampshire Governor John Lynch also signed a domestic partnership law and a civil union law, respectively. (see May 3, 2007)
April 21 Peace Love Activism

Women’s Health

United States v. Vuitch
April 21, 1971: United States v. Vuitch, decided on this day, was the first abortion case heard by the Supreme Court. Dr. Milan Vuitch was prosecuted in the District of Columbia for performing abortions. Vuitch argued that the law permitting abortion when it was necessary for the life or health of the woman was unconstitutionally vague. The District Court agreed and dismissed the indictment. In Vuitch, however, the Supreme Court held that the law was not unconstitutionally vague. Justice Hugo Black’s majority opinion, however, interpreted the law in such way as to make criminal prosecutions extremely difficult. Although technically losing in Supreme Court, Dr. Vuitch said he was pleased with the decision. (see March 22, 1972)

Symbionese Liberation Army

April 21, 1975: four members of the S.L.A. held up the Crocker Bank in Carmichael, California. During the hold up, Emily Harris shot and killed a bystander, Myrna Opsahl. (see Sept 18)

Tiananmen Square

April 21, 1989: Chinese students begin protesting in Tiananmen Square.


April 21, 1992: after an extraordinary bicoastal judicial duel kept his fate in doubt throughout the night, Robert Alton Harris died in San Quentin's gas chamber at sunrise becoming the first person executed in California in 25 years. Harris, 39, was pronounced dead at 6:21 a.m., just 36 minutes after the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the last of four overnight reprieves that delayed his execution by more than six hours. Earlier that day, Harris came within seconds of death but was rescued by a federal judge, who halted the execution even as the acid used to form the lethal gas flowed into a vat beneath the prisoner's seat. That final stay was quickly tossed out by the U.S. Supreme Court, which clearly had had its fill of the Harris case. In an unprecedented ruling that capped a night of coast-to-coast faxes and deliberations the justices voted 7 to 2 to forbid any federal court from meddling further in the execution. (see June 25, 1993)

Oklahoma City Explosion

April 21, 1995: Terry Nichols learned he was wanted for questioning, turned himself in, and consented to a search of his home. The search turned up blasting caps, detonating cords, ground ammonium nitrate, barrels made of plastic similar to fragments found at the bombing site, 33 firearms, anti-government warfare literature, a receipt for ammonium nitrate fertilizer with McVeigh's fingerprints on it, a telephone credit card that McVeigh had used when he was shopping for bomb making equipment, and a hand-drawn map of downtown Oklahoma City. (see May 10)

Immigration History

Luis Ramirez

April 21 Peace Love Activism

April 21, 2009: county charges were dropped against Colin Walsh, 17, one of three teenagers arrested in the beating death of Luis Ramirez because the Walsh entered a guilty plea to charges in federal court. (IH & Ramirez, see May 2)

Fourth Amendment

April 21, 2015: the US Supreme Court ruled that the police may not prolong traffic stops to wait for drug sniffing dogs to inspect vehicles. “A police stop exceeding the time needed to handle the matter for which the stop was made violates the Constitution’s shield against unreasonable seizures,” Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg wrote for the majority. The vote was 6 to 3.

                The case, Rodriguez v. United States, started when a Nebraska police officer saw a Mercury Mountaineer driven by Dennys Rodriguez veer onto the shoulder of a state highway just after midnight. The officer, Morgan Struble performed a routine traffic stop, questioning Mr. Rodriguez and his passenger and running a records check. He then issued Mr. Rodriguez a written warning.

                That completed the stop, Justice Ginsburg wrote. But Officer Struble then had his drug-sniffing dog, Floyd, circle the vehicle. Floyd smelled drugs and led his officer to a large bag of methamphetamine. About eight minutes elapsed between the written warning and Floyd’s alert. (see May 7)

Sexual Abuse of Children

April 21, 2015: three years after Bishop Robert W. Finn became the first Roman Catholic prelate to be convicted of failing to report a pedophile priest, he resigned as head of the Diocese of Kansas City-St. Joseph in northern and western Missouri. (see June 5)

Environmental Issues

April 21 Peace Love Activism

April 21, 2015: (from NYT) abandoning years of official skepticism, Oklahoma’s government embraced a scientific consensus that earthquakes rocking the state are largely caused by the underground disposal of billions of barrels of wastewater from oil and gas wells.

                The state’s energy and environment cabinet introduced a website detailing the evidence behind that conclusion Tuesday, including links to expert studies of Oklahoma’s quakes. The site includes an interactive map that plots not only earthquake locations, but also the sites of more than 3,000 active wastewater-injection wells. The website coincided with a statement by the Oklahoma Geological Survey that it “considers it very likely” that wastewater wells are causing the majority of the state’s earthquakes. (see Apr 22)

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