Tag Archives: Voting Rights

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Slave Revolts
October 1, 1851: citizens of Syracuse, N.Y., broke into the city’s police station and freed William Henry (known as Jerry), a runaway slave who had been working as a barrel-maker. A group of black and white men created a diversion and managed to free Jerry, but he was later rearrested. At his second hearing, a group of men, their skin color disguised with burnt cork, forcibly overpowered the guards with clubs and axes, and freed Jerry a second time. He was then secretly taken over the border to Canada. (Slave Revolts, see Oct 16 – 17, 1959; BH, see March 20, 1852)
Elaine, Arkansas

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1919: a race riot broke out in Elaine, Arkansas. Black sharecroppers were meeting in the local chapter of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America. Planters opposed their efforts to organize for better terms and the sharecroppers had been warned of trouble. A white man intent on arresting a black bootlegger approached the lookouts defending the meeting, and was shot. The planters formed a militia to attack the African-American farmers. In the ensuing riot they killed between 100 and 200 blacks, and five whites also died. (BH, see Oct 11; RR, see May 31 and June 1, 1921; Elaine, see February 19, 1923)
Perez v. Sharp
October 1, 1948: by a 4–3 vote, the California Supreme Court, in Perez v. Sharp, struck down an 1850 state law banning interracial marriage. The case involved Andrea Perez, who was a Mexican-American but classified as “white” by the state at that time, and Sylvester Davis, who was African-American. Reportedly, this was the first time any court in the U.S. had ruled on the issue of racial intermarriage.

The U.S. Supreme Court declared interracial marriage bans unconstitutional in the famous case of Loving v. Virginia on June 12, 1967.

The Court: “In summary, we hold that sections 60 and 69 are not only too vague and uncertain to be enforceable regulations of a fundamental right, but that they violate the equal protection of the laws clause of the United States Constitution by impairing the right of individuals to marry on the basis of race . . . alone and by arbitrarily and unreasonably discriminating against certain racial groups.” (see Dec 10)
James H Meredith

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1962: in the fall of 1962, the University of Mississippi was the scene of violent riots in protest of James Meredith’s attempts to enroll as the segregated school’s first black student. In June 1962, after more than a year of litigation, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ordered the university to admit Meredith. In response, Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett gave a televised speech on September 13, 1962, vowing to resist integration.

Meredith, a 29-year-old Air Force veteran born in Mississippi, sought to enroll at Ole Miss in September 1962. Governor Barnett, a member of the pro-segregation White Citizen’s Council, personally blocked him the first two times he tried, and sent Lt. Governor Paul Johnson to prevent Meredith’s enrollment a third time. On September 28, 1962, the Fifth Circuit unanimously held Barnett in contempt of court for violating his duty to maintain order and allow Meredith to lawfully enroll.

On September 30, 1962, the next date set for Meredith’s enrollment, mobs had formed on campus and riots raged, killing two people and injuring many others. The following day, October 1, 1962, federal marshals sent by President John F. Kennedy successfully escorted Meredith to enroll as the University of Mississippi’s first black student and accompanied him to his first day of classes.

Mississippi Attorney General Joe Patterson soon instructed university students it was their constitutional right to refuse “to socialize or fraternize with an undesirable student” and unrest continued. Meredith suffered ongoing isolation, harassment, and violence. In October, students rioted and broke university cafeteria windows as Meredith ate there; in December, Meredith’s home was struck by shotgun blasts that nearly injured his teenaged sister and a dead raccoon was left on his car. Nevertheless, Meredith remained and on August 18, 1963, he graduated from the University of Mississippi with a degree in political science. (Black History, see Oct 16; Meredith, see January 20, 1963)
Muhammad Ali
October 1, 1975: Ali defeated Joe Frazier in the “Thrilla in Manila.” It is their third fight, each winning once before. Ali had expected an easy bout, but Frazier takes it to the champ. Ali wins the bout in one of the greatest battles in the history of boxing. (BH, see January 22, 1976; Ali, see September 28, 1976)

Medgar Evers
October 1, 1989: sealed documents from the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission revealed that at the same time that the state of Mississippi prosecuted Byron De La Beckwith in 1964 for the murder of NAACP leader Medgar Evers, another arm of the state, the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission, secretly assisted Beckwith’s defense, trying to get him acquitted. The revelation led the district attorney’s office to reopen and re-prosecute the case against Beckwith. It was the first of a series of prosecutions of unpunished killings from the civil rights era. (see December 17, 1990)

US Labor History

October 1, 1910: LA Times Bombing: an ink storage room in the L.A. Timesbuilding was dynamited during a citywide fight over labor rights and organizing.  The explosion was relatively minor, but it set off a fire in the unsafe, difficult-to-evacuate building, ultimately killing 21.  A union member eventually confessed to the bombing, which he said was supposed to have occurred early in the morning when the building would have been largely unoccupied. (Labor, see Nov 26; LA Times, see December 5, 1911)
October 1 Peace Love Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights
October 1, 1918:  U.S. Senate defeated federal woman suffrage amendment by vote of 34 nays to 62 yeas, two votes shy of required two-thirds majority. Amendment’s supporters quickly add it to Senate calendar for reconsideration. (see Oct 7)

The Red Scare, McCarthyism, and the Cold War

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1949: Chairman Mao Zedong declared victory in the Chinese Civil War, creating the Communist People's Republic of China. (see Oct 7)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

October 1, 1960
1) Cyprus independent from United Kingdom

2) Nigeria independent from United Kingdom (see February 25, 1961)

STUDENT ACTIVISIM & FREE SPEECH

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1964: the Free Speech Movement was launched at the University of California at Berkeley. Students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom. (see Dec 2)

October 1 Music et al

Jimi Hendrix
October 1, 1966: Cream was playing a show at London Polytechnic. Hendrix asked Eric Clapton if he could jam with them and did playing “Killing Floor” and amazing the audience as well as the members of Cream. (see Dec 26)

Abbey Road

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1969: US release of Abbey Road. (see Oct 12)
Side One

Side 2

 

Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers

October 1, 1969: Daniel Ellseberg, with his Rand Corporation colleague Anthony Russo, began copying the secret Pentagon Papers in Los Angeles on this day. The Papers, which they had obtained while working at the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, California, had been commissioned by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in 1967 because of his growing doubts about the Vietnam War. The documents in the Papers revealed the secrets surrounding American involvement in Vietnam that led to the escalation of the war. In one of the major controversies of the Vietnam War, The New York Times published the first stories based on the Papers on June 13, 1971. The Nixon Administration obtained an injunction halting publication by the Times on June 15, 1971. In a landmark case on freedom of the press, New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled the injunction unconstitutional on June 30, 1971.

Ellsberg and Russo were prosecuted for taking the Pentagon Papers from the Rand Corporation, but in the middle of the trial, on May 11, 1973, the charges were dismissed because of revelations of government misconduct against Ellsberg. The misconduct included the break-in of the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist on September 9, 1971, by the “Plumbers” unit of President Nixon’s White House. The purpose of the break-in was to find damaging information about Ellsberg.

One consequence of the dismissal of the charges against Ellsberg and Russo was that with respect to Edward Snowden (June 5, 2013) there is no directly relevant precedent for the criminal prosecution of someone who stole and leaked sensitive government documents. (see DE/PP)

Nuclear/Chemical News

October 1, 1979: The Progressive Magazine on this day published an article by Howard Morland on the hydrogen bomb, which the government claimed revealed the “secret” of how to make the bomb. The government enjoined the publication of that issue (March 9, 1979), but after lengthy legal proceedings finally gave up. Morland maintained that the article only discussed the conceptual aspects of the H-Bomb, with no technical engineering details necessary to make one. And no authority has since claimed that the article contains the “secret” to the H-bomb.

The affair echoed an incredible incident nearly 30 years earlier when government officials, on March 31, 1950, seized and burned all 3,000 copies of the respected magazine Scientific American, because they alleged that an article on atomic energy revealed the “secret” to the atomic bomb. Coming at the height of the Cold War, the incident passed with only very limited news coverage and public protest. (see January 2, 1980)

LGBTQ

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger
October 1, 1986: the following excerpt from a letter was delivered by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Prefect [the future Pope Benedictus XVI] and approved and ordered published by Pope John Paul II: "Although the particular inclination of the homosexual person is not a sin, it is a more or less strong tendency ordered toward an intrinsic moral evil; and thus the inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder.Therefore special concern and pastoral attention should be directed toward those who have this condition; lest they be led to believe that the living out of this orientation in homosexual activity is a morally acceptable option. It is not." (see March 10, 1987)
Registered Partnership Act
October 1, 1989, LGBTQ: the Registered Partnership Act went into effect in Denmark. It was the first law in the world that allowed civil unions between homosexual couples. (see February 26, 1990)

STAND YOUR GROUND LAW

October 1, 2005: Florida’s “Stand Your Ground” law goes into effect. (see February 26, 2012)

Occupy Wall Street

October 1, 2011, Occupy Wall Street protesters set out to march across the Brooklyn Bridge. The NY Times reported that more than 700 arrests were made. (see Oct 5)

Voting Rights

October 1, 2014:  a federal appeals court ordered a lower court to block two new voting restrictions in North Carolina, saying there was "no doubt" the measures would disenfranchise minorities. North Carolina would be required to reinstate same-day voter registration, as well as allow voters to cast ballots even if they show up to vote in the wrong precinct.

In a two-to-one ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit ruled that "whether the number is thirty or thirty-thousand, surely some North Carolina minority voters will be disproportionately adversely affected in the upcoming election" and that it was important to act now, since "there could be no do-over and no redress" once the election was over. (VR, see Oct 9; North Carolina, see April 6, 2015)

Environmental Issues

October 1, 2015: the Obama administration unveiled a major new regulation on smog-causing emissions that spew from smokestacks and tailpipes, significantly tightening the current Bush-era standards but falling short of more stringent regulations that public health advocates and environmentalists had urged.

The Environmental Protection Agency et the new national standard for ozone, a smog-causing gas that often forms on hot, sunny days when chemical emissions from power plants, factories and vehicles mix in the air, at 70 parts per billion, tightening the current standard of 75 parts per billion set in 2008. Smog has been linked to asthma, heart and lung disease, and premature death. (see Nov 6)

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September 30 Peace Love Activism

September 30 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

Homestead, PA
September 30, 1892: authorities charge 29 strike leaders  with treason—plotting "to incite insurrection, rebellion & war against the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania"—for daring to strike the Carnegie Steel Co. in Homestead, Pa. Jurors will refuse to convict them. (see March 25, 1893) 
Mother Jones
September 30, 1899: seventy-year-old Mother Jones organized the wives of striking miners in Arnot, Pa., to descend on the mine with brooms, mops, and clanging pots and pans.  They frighten away the mules and their scab drivers.  The miners eventually won their strike. (see May 19, 1902)
National Farm Workers AssociationSeptember 30 Peace Love Activism
September 30, 1962: The first convention of the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) convened with hundreds of delegates assembled in an abandoned movie theater in Fresno. CA. The group's distinctive flag, a black eagle symbol on a white circle in a red field, was unveiled. (see Sept  8, 1965)

FEMINISM & Voting Rights

September 30, 1918:  President Wilson addressed Senate asking for passage of federal woman suffrage amendment. Wilson's words on failed to drum up the necessary votes to pass the amendment. (see Oct 1)

Black History

Elaine, Ark
September 30, 1919: Black farmers meet in Elaine, Ark., to establish the Progressive Farmers and Householders Union to fight for better pay and higher cotton prices.  A group of whites shot at them. (see Oct 1)
Gary, Indiana school integration
September 30, 1927: an agreement was reached: three of the original six black students at Emerson would be transferred, while the remaining three seniors would be allowed to graduate. The 18 black students transferred into Emerson would again be transferred out to other schools. The sum of $15,000 was also allocated for temporary facilities until a new black high school could be constructed. (BH, see Nov 18; SD, see Nov 21)
Emmett Till
September 30, 1955:  Milam and Bryant were released on bond. Kidnapping charges were pending. (BH, see Oct 10; see Emmett Till)
James H Meredith/Paul Guihard/Ray Gunter
September 30, 1962: hundreds of federal marshals and thousands of Army and National Guard troops met a violent mob of segregationists from all over the South and the University of Mississippi campus became a battleground.

Paul Guihard was a French journalist who covered the Civil Rights struggle during the 60's for Agence France-Press. He had arrived in Oxford on September 29 on his day off. Guihard compared the atmosphere on the 30th to that of a carnival, and wrote of spirited singing and speeches of Southern pride and tradition.
As the day wore on, protesters became restless. Marshals arrested several students and protesters responded by shouting and throwing debris. Guihard waded into the crowd, shrugging off warnings of physical danger. Debris rained down on the marshals and they responded with tear gas. The mob fired back with guns and the marshals responded with gunfire of their own. Guihard was found several hundred yards away lying face-up next to some bushes less than an hour later, dying from a gunshot to the back. Help was called but nothing could be done to save him.

Another man, Ray Gunter, a 23-year-old white jukebox repairman who came by out of curiosity, was also killed in what became known as the Battle for Ole Miss. Gunter's death was ruled accidental and investigations concurred that the bullet that killed him was a stray.

A federal investigation was initiated re the Guihard death, but neither killer nor motive was ever found. the second victim was 23-year-old Ray Gunter, a white jukebox repairman who came by out of curiosity. (see October 1, 1962) 
Huey Newton
September 30, 1978: Huey Newton convicted in Oakland, Ca. on weapons charges. (see Nov 3, 1979)
Medgar Evers assassination
September 30, 1991: Nashville, TN. The Tennessee State Supreme Court ruled that Byron de la Beckwith must be extradited to Mississippi to stand trial a third time. Mr. Beckwith's lawyer then took the case to the Federal courts, asking for a temporary restraining order to block the extradition. Tennessee agreed to hold Mr. Beckwith until then. (Evers, see October 3)

FREE SPEECH

September 30, 1942: until the early 1940s, the FBI had not taken much interest in pornography. That changed on this day, when it opened an “Obscene File” and began a decades-long crusade against sexually oriented materials. The federal laws justifying this effort involved use of the mails, interstate commerce and, by the 1970s, the federal RICO (Racketeer influenced and Corrupt Organizations) law. (see June 14, 1943)

Vietnam

September 30 Peace Love Activism

September 30, 1964: University of California at Berkeley students and faculty opposed to the war staged the first large-scale antiwar demonstration in the US. Polls showed that a majority of Americans supported President Lyndon Johnson's war policy. (see Nov 1)
News Music
September 30, 1965: Donovan appears on Shindig! in the U.S. and plays Buffy Sainte-Marie's "Universal Soldier". (V, see Oct 15; NM, see Jan 15, 1966)
Video of Donovan (may or may not be from Shindig!)

Buffy Saint-Marie

LSD

September 30 – October 2, 1966:  Acid Test. San Francisco State College. Whatever It Is Festival. (see Oct 6)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

September 30, 1966: Botswana independent from United Kingdom. (see Oct 4)
September 30 Peace Love Activism

LGBTQ

Oliver W. Sipple
September 30, 1975: Oliver W. Sipple filed a $15-million lawsuit against the press for reporting that he was homosexual. (LGBTQ, see Oct 22; assassination attempt, see Nov 26)

In 1984 the California Supreme Court dismissed Sipple’s suit, which upheld a lower court's finding that the sexual orientaion of Oliver W. Sipple (the former marine who thwarted an assassination attempt on President Gerald R. Ford) had been known to ''hundreds of people'' before the news accounts, but Mr. Sipple's protest spurred a debate among news organizations obout the individual's right to privacy versus freedom of the press. (see November 14, 1985)
Roy S. Moore
September 30, 2016: Alabama’s Court of the Judiciary, a nine-member body made up of selected judges, lawyers and others suspended chief justice of the Alabama Supreme Court, Roy S. Moore for the remainder of his term in office for ordering the state’s probate judges to defy federal court orders on same-sex marriage. While the court did not remove Chief Justice Moore from the bench entirely, as it did in 2003 after he defied orders to remove a giant monument of the Ten Commandments from the state judicial building, it effectively ended his career as a Supreme Court justice. His term would end in 2019, and Chief Justice Moore, 69, will be barred by law from running again at that time because of his age. (see Dec 22)

The Cold War

September 30, 1978: the Belmont Report, issued on this day, was the official report of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Commission had been established by Congress with the National Research Act on July 12, 1974, following revelations of abuse of people in biomedical research. The most notorious case was the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, which involved grotesque abuses of African-Americans in a research study that began in the 1930s. That experiment was exposed on July 26, 1972, and President Bill Clinton issued an official apology to the survivors on May 16, 1997.

The exposé of the Tuskegee Experiment played a major role in forcing Congress to act on human subjects’ protection. The Belmont Report helped establish the current standards for the protection of human subjects.Universities, for example, are required to maintain an Institutional Review Board (IRB) to review and approve research on human subjects. (see Dec 15)

Another of the  notorious experiments on human subjects without informed consent involved the CIA’s MKULTRA project, which it began on April 13, 1953.

Nuclear/Chemical News

September 30, 1999: five people died in an accident at the Mihama power plant (Japan) in the Fukui province. Seven people are also injured when hot water and steam leaks from a broken pipe. Officials insist that no radiation leaked from the plant, and there is no danger to the surrounding area. (see December 13, 2001)

DEATH PENALTY

September 30, 2009: Ohio prison officials executed Kenneth Biros, with a one-drug intravenous lethal injection, a method never before used on a human. The new method, which involved a large dose of anesthetic, akin to how animals are euthanized, had been hailed by most experts as painless and an improvement over the three-drug cocktail used in most states, but it is unlikely to settle the debate over the death penalty.

While praising the shift to a single drug, death penalty opponents argued that Ohio's new method, and specifically its backup plan of using intra-muscular injection, has not been properly vetted by legal and medical experts and that since it has never been tried out on humans before, it is the equivalent of human experimentation. But the United States Supreme Court refused to intervene and the procedure went largely as planned. (see Dec 18)

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