Tag Archives: Vietnam

October 14 Peace Love Activism

October 14 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Marcus Garvey
October 14, 1919: a man named George Tyler visited Garvey at his office in Harlem. Tyler pulled out a gun and shot Garvey in the right leg and head. Garvey sustained injuries but survived the attack. Tyler was arrested but is reported to have committed suicide the day after his arrest. (NYT article) (Garvey, see January 23, 1920)
 District of Columbia Bar Association
October 14, 1958: the District of Columbia Bar Association voted to accept black lawyers for the first time: attorneys in the District of Columbia were not required to belong to a professional bar association in the 1950s, but the District maintained several voluntary bar associations that lawyers could choose to join. The Bar Association of the District of Columbia became known as the “white bar,” while the Washington Bar Association served as the “black bar.” Washington has a long history of racial separation and in the Jim Crow era, mandatory segregation laws remained in force. While black and white lawyers practiced in the same courtrooms, most other facilities in the District remained separated by race and the bar associations furthered that custom. Even Washington’s law library, located within a federal courthouse, refused to admit African American attorneys.

The Bar Association of the District of Columbia finally desegregated due in a large part to the efforts of Charles S. Rhyne, a white man who ran for president of the organization on a pledge to desegregate. Though he faced intensely hostile reactions from many of his colleagues, Rhyne eventually was able to amend the bar association’s constitution and remove the race-based membership criteria. Several years later, on October 14, 1958, the Bar Association of the District Columbia voted to integrate and begin accepting African American members. The “black” Washington Bar Association nevertheless opted to continue operation, open to all but with a focus on the needs and concerns of black lawyers in Washington. Both associations still exist today. (see Oct 25)
MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR
October 14, 1964: Martin Luther King, Jr., awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. At 35 years of age, King was the youngest person ever to receive the award. (NYT article) (BH, see Oct 31; MLK, see Nov 18)

 
George Whitmore, Jr
October 14, 1965: Richard Robles went on trial before a jury and New York County Supreme Court Justice Irwin D. Davidson for the Wylie-Hoffert murders. (see George Whitmore, Jr)

see News Music to listen

Harry Dixon
Around 1920:  Harry Dixon (1895 – 1965) wrote "This Little Light of Mine" as a gospel song. It became a common one sung during the civil rights gathering of the 1950s and 1960s. It continues to be a song of hope today. (BH, see January 4, 1920)
Fats Waller
In 1929: composed by Fats Waller with lyrics by Harry Brooks and Andy Razaf, Edith Wilson (1896 – 1981) sang "(What Did I Do to Be So) Black and Blue.”. It is a protest song that did not speak of how something should change so much as it spoke of what life was like for those who suffered inequities.
Blind Alfred Reed
In 1929: Blind Alfred Reed (1880 – 1956) wrote “How Can A Poor Man Stand Such Times and Live?” The song describes life during the Great Depression.
Florence Reece
In 1931: Florence Reece (1900-1986) “was a writer and social activist whose song ‘Which Side Are You On?’ became an anthem for the labor movement. Borrowing from the melody of the old hymn ''Lay the Lily Low,'' Mrs. Reece wrote the union song...to describe the plight of mine workers who were organizing a strike in Harlan County, Ky. Mrs. Reece's husband, Sam, who died in 1978, was one of those workers. Pete Seeger, the folk singer, recorded the song in 1941. It has since been used worldwide by groups espousing labor and social issues.” -- New York Times Obituaries, August 6, 1986. (Labor, see March 3; Feminism, see Dec 10)
Brother Can You Spare a Dime
In 1931:  “Brother Can You Spare a Dime” by lyricist E. Y. "Yip" Harburg and composer Jay Gorney., the song asked why the men who built the nation – built the railroads, built the skyscrapers – who fought in the war (World War I), who tilled the earth, who did what their nation asked of them should, now that the work is done and their labor no longer necessary, find themselves abandoned, in bread lines.

Harburg believed that “songs are an anodyne against tyranny and terror and that the artist has historically always been on the side of humanity.” As a committed socialist, he spent three years in Uruguay to avoid being involved in WWI, as he felt that capitalism was responsible for the destruction of the human spirit, and he refused to fight its wars. A longtime friend of Ira Gershwin, Harburg started writing lyrics after he lost his business in the Crash of 1929.
Jimmie Rogers
In 1932: Jimmie Rogers (1897 – 1933) was born in Meridian, Mississippi worked on the railroad as his father did but at the age of 27 contracted tuberculosis and had to quit. He loved entertaining and eventually found a job singing on WWNC radio, Asheville, North Carolina (April 18, 1927). Later he began recording his songs. The tuberculosis worsened and he died in 1933 while recording songs in New York. In 1932 he recorded “Hobo’s Meditation.”
Lead Belly
in 1938: Lead Belly (born Huddie William Ledbetter) (1888 – 1949) sang about his visit to Washington, DC with his wife and their treatment while in the nation’s capitol in his song, “Bourgeois Blues”. (BH, see Nov 22)
Woody Guthrie
In 1939: During the Great Depression, Woody Guthrie (1912-1967) wrote many songs reflecting the plight of farmers and migrant workers caught between the Dust Bowl drought and farm foreclosure. One of the best known of these songs is his  “Do Re Mi.”
Tom Joad
In 1940: Woody Guthrie wrote Tom Joad, a song whose character is based on John Steinbeck’s character in The Grapes of Wrath. After hearing it, Steinbeck reportedly said, “ That f****** little b******! In 17 verses he got the entire story of a thing that took me two years to write.” * (see Feb 23)

Technological Milestone

October 14, 1947: Air Force test pilot Charles E. Yeager became the first person to break the sound barrier when he flew the experimental Bell X-1 rocket plane over Edwards Air Force Base in California. (see December 23, 1947)
 

Cold War

FREE SPEECH
October 14, 1949: eleven top leaders of the American Communist Party were convicted of violating the Smith Act, which made it a crime to advocate the overthrow the government. The guilty verdict was appealed. (Red Scare, see Nov 2; Free Speech, see March 31, 1950; trial appeal, see June 4, 1951)

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14 Peace Love Activism

October 14, 1962: a US Air Force U-2 plane on a photo-reconnaissance mission captured proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba. (see Oct 18)
Nikita Khrushchev
October 14 Peace Love ActivismOctober 14, 1964: Nikita Khrushchev was ousted as both premier of the Soviet Union and chief of the Communist Party after 10 years in power. He was succeeded as head of the Communist Party by his former protégé Leonid Brezhnev, who would eventually become the chief of state as well. (click → NY article)  (see January 23, 1967)

Peace Corps

October 14, 1960: Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy suggested formation of a Peace Corps during a talk at the University of Michigan.

October 14 Peace Love Activism

October 14 Music et al

October 14 – 27, 1967: Bobbie Gentry’s Ode to Billie Joe the Billboard #1 album.

Vietnam

October 14, 1968: U.S. Defense Department officials announced that the Army and Marines woiuld be sending about 24,000 men back to Vietnam for involuntary second tours because of the length of the war, high turnover of personnel resulting from the one year of duty, and the tight supply of experienced soldiers. This decision had an extremely negative impact on troop morale and the combat readiness of U.S. forces elsewhere in the world as troops were transferred to meet the increased personnel requirements in Vietnam. (see Oct 27)

LGBTQ

see Anita Bryant for more
October 14, 1977, LGBTQ  gay rights activists pie Anita Bryant during a press conference in Des Moines, Iowa. (see Nov 8)

October 14 Peace Love Activism
National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights
October 14, 1979: an estimated 75,000 people participate in the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. LGBTQ and straights demanded equal civil rights and urged the passage of protective civil rights legislature. (LGBTQ. see July 9, 1980; Feminism, see July 7, 1981) (NYT article)

Immigration History

October 14, 2010: Derrick M. Donchak, 20, of Shenandoah, and Brandon J. Piekarsky were found guilty on all counts (including hate crimes) in the July 12, 2008 beating death of immigrant Luis Ramirez, .

They had previously been acquitted of murder charges in state court and convicted of simple assault.

"Four people attacked one person because of his race and because they didn't want people like him living in their town," prosecutor Myesha K. Braden said during her closing argument.

Witnesses testified that racist language was used before and during the attack and that Ramirez was kicked in the head repeatedly after falling down. The defendants, they said, didn't want immigrants in their neighborhood and repeatedly ordered Ramirez to leave.

Regarding the cover up, Braden said, "They hatched a plan to leave out the kick, to leave out the race and even to leave out the drinking." (IH and Ramirez, see January 27, 2011)

Women’s Health

October 14, 2014: the Supreme Court blocked a federal appeals court ruling that had forced many abortion clinics in Texas to close. The Supreme Court’s order, which was five sentences long, allowed the clinics to remain open while appeals proceeded. (BC, see Dec 22; Texas, see June 27, 2016) (NYT article)

Sexual Abuse of Children

October 14, 2014: the Diocese of Kansas City-St. Joseph agreed to settle 30 sexual abuse lawsuits for $9.95 million. The agreement resolved all 30 outstanding claims – including some involving priests in Independence – filed from 2010 to early 2014 alleging abuse by priests from the diocese from 20 or more years ago. (see Nov 6)

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October 13 Peace Love Activism

October 13 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Poll tax
October 13, 1942: the U.S. House passed legislation abolishing poll taxes in national elections, but in the Senate, Southern senators filibustered, blocking the bill. Over the next several years, the House continued to pass the legislation — only to be blocked again by the Senate. (see Oct 20)
Vivian Malone Jones
October 13, 2005: Vivian Malone Jones died in Atlanta. She was 63. Her husband, Mack Jones, had died in 2004. (Black History, see February 2006; U of A, see Jan 17, 2013)

Cold War

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

October 13 Peace Love Activism, 

October 13, 1952:  the US Supreme Court announced that it had declined to grant certiorari in the appeal of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, condemned to death for conspiracy to commit atomic espionage for the Soviet Union. (RS, see Oct 17; Nuclear, see Nov 1; Rosenbergs, see June 19, 1953)
Nixon/Kennedy debates
October 13, 1960, Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy participated in the third televised debate of the presidential campaign, with Nixon in Hollywood, Calif., and Kennedy in New York.

October 13 Music et al

Beatles

October 13 Peace Love Activism, 

October 13, 1963: although The Beatles' popularity had been growing steadily and to increasingly frantic heights throughout 1963, their appearance at the London Palladium catapulted them into the attention of the mainstream media.

Sunday Night At The London Palladium was a variety entertainment program that regularly drew huge British TV audiences of up to 15 million people. Competition to appear was fierce, and The Beatles were taking no chances, having spent the previous evening rehearsing.

On the night they appeared briefly at the beginning of the show, before compère Bruce Forsythe told the audience, "If you want to see them again they'll be back in 42 minutes." And indeed they were. The Beatles topped the bill that night, closing the hour-long show. They began with From Me To You, followed by I'll Get You, which was introduced by Paul McCartney with some jovial interjections from John Lennon. Their most recent hit, She Loves You, was next, announced collectively by Lennon, McCartney and George Harrison. Then came the finale. Paul McCartney attempted to announce it, but was drowned out by the screams from the frenzied audience. Lennon told them to "shut up", a gesture which was applauded by the older members in the audience. McCartney then asked them all to clap and stamp their feet, and they began Twist And Shout.

The Beatles' appearance featured on the ITN news, complete with footage from the group's dressing room. The following day, meanwhile, newspaper reporters wrote front-page stories about the screaming fans. (see Oct 17)

Bob Dylan
October 13, 2016: the Nobel Prize committee announced it had awarded Dylan the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".(see Nov 16)

Vietnam

DRAFT CARD BURNING

October 13 Peace Love Activism, 

October 13, 1966: the conviction of David J Miller, the first person arrested in the country for burning his draft card (see previously Oct 15, 1965) was upheld by the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. The court held that Congress had the right to enact a law against destroying a draft card so long as it did not infringe on a constitutional right. (DCB, see December 12, 1966)
Robert S. McNamara

October 13 Peace Love Activism, 

October 13, 1966: Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara declared at a news conference in Saigon that he found that military operations have "progressed very satisfactorily since 1965." (see Oct 24)

Feminism

October 13, 1967: President Lyndon B. Johnson had issued Executive Order 11246, establishing affirmative action in employment for all federal agencies and contractors on September 24, 1965. He deliberately did not include women in the order, however, despite the fact that sex discrimination was specifically prohibited by Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act (signed on July 2, 1964). Although he was deeply committed to the civil rights movement, LBJ had no similar commitment to the women’s rights movement that emerged in the mid-1960s. Leaders of the reinvigorated women’s rights movement protested Johnson’s omission of women from his first E.O., and on this day, Johnson issued Executive Order 11375 to include women in affirmative action.

The pressure came from the revived feminist movement in the 1960s. See the publication of Betty Friedan’s influential book, The Feminine Mystique (and the critical review by the New York Times on April 7, 1963), and the founding of the National Organization for Women (NOW) on June 30, 1966. (see January 15, 1968)
October 13 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

Columbia University strike
October 13, 1985: more than 1,100 office workers strike Columbia University in New York City. The mostly female and minority workers win union recognition and pay increases. (see June 19, 1986)
National Basketball Association
October 13, 1998: the National Basketball Association canceled regular season games for the first time in its 51-year history, during a player lockout.  Player salaries and pay caps were the primary issue.  The lockout lasted 204 days. (see July 14, 1999)

LGBTQ

Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell
October 13, 2010: A federal judge ordered the United States military to stop enforcing the “don’t ask, don’t tell” law that prohibited openly gay men and women from serving.

Judge Virginia A. Phillips of Federal District Court for the Central District of California issued an injunction banning enforcement of the law and ordered the military to immediately “suspend and discontinue” any investigations or proceedings to dismiss service members.

In language much like that in her Sept. 9 ruling declaring the law unconstitutional, Judge Phillips wrote that the 17-year-old policy “infringes the fundamental rights of United States service members and prospective service members” and violates their rights of due process and freedom of speech. 

The federal government appealed the ruling. (NYT article) (see Oct 19)

Native Americans

October 13 Peace Love Activism, 

October 13, 2014: Seattle’s Mayor Ed Murray signed a proclamation recognizing Indigenous Peoples’ Day and by so doing the city of Seattle no longer celebrated the “Columbus Day” holiday. (see February 21, 2015)

Nuclear/Chemical News

October 13, 2017: President Trump declared his intention not to certify Iran’s compliance with the nuclear deal agreement of 2015. By doing so, he left it to Congress to decide whether and when to reimpose sanctions on Iran, which would end the agreement.

The Administration made it clear that it wanted to leave the accord intact, for the moment. Instead, it asked Congress to establish “trigger points,” which would prompt the United States to reimpose sanctions on Iran if it crossed  thresholds set by Congress.

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October 12 Peace Love Activism

October 12 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

TERRORISM
October 12, 1871: founded by former Confederate Army officers in December 1865, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) operated as a secret vigilante group targeting black people and their allies with violent terrorism to resist Reconstruction and re-establish a system of white supremacy in the South.

KKK violence was so intense in South Carolina after the Civil War that United States Attorney General Amos Akerman and Army Major Lewis Merrill traveled there to investigate. In York County alone they found evidence of 11 murders and more than 600 whippings and other assaults. When local grand juries failed to take action, Akerman urged President Ulysses S. Grant to intervene, describing the counties as “under the domination of systematic and organized depravity.” Merrill said the situation was a “carnival of crime not paralleled in the history of any civilized community.”

On April 20, 1871, President Grant had signed the Ku Klux Klan Act, which made it a federal crime to deprive American citizens of their civil rights through racial terrorism. On October 12, 1871, President Grant warned nine South Carolina counties with prevalent KKK activity that martial law would be declared if the Klan did not disperse. The warning was ignored. (see Oct 17)
Jonny Gammage
October 12, 1995: Jonny Gammage, cousin and business partner of Pittsburgh Steelers football player Ray Seals, was detained during a traffic stop while driving Mr. Seals’s Jaguar in the working-class suburb of Brentwood on the morning of October 12, 1995. According to testimony, Lt. Milton Mullholland pulled Mr. Gammage over for tapping his breaks and called Officer John Votjas for backup. The officers later claimed that Mr. Gammage, who was 5'6" and 165 pounds, pointed an object at the officers – which turned out to be a cell phone – and struggled. Mullholland and Votjas, along with Officer Michael Albert, Sgt. Keith Henderson, and Officer Sean Patterson, ultimately pinned Mr. Gammage face-down on the pavement; he asphyxiated and died after several minutes.

On November 27, 1995, Mulholland, Votjas were charged with third degree murder, and Albert was charged with involuntary manslaughter. The charges against Mullholland and Votjas, were later reduced to involuntary manslaughter. Henderson and Patterson were not charged in the incident.

Officer Votjas was acquitted by an all-white jury and, a year later, promoted to sergeant; Judge Joseph McCloskey dismissed charges against Mulholland and Albert after two trials resulted in mistrials. In January 1996, Brentwood police chief Wayne Babish, who had called for a complete investigation into Mr. Gammage’s death, was fired by the Brentwood City Council for failing to support the charged officers.

Multiple public protests were held in Pittsburgh and elsewhere, calling for “Justice for Jonny” and federal intervention. However, in 1999 the Department of Justice declined to file civil rights charges, stating that there was not enough evidence that unreasonable force had been used. (Fact Sheet on the Murder of Jonny Gammage)(see Oct 16)

Pledge of Allegiance

October 12 Peace Love ActivismOctober 12, 1892: during Columbus Day observances organized to coincide with the opening of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, the pledge of allegiance was recited for the first time. Francis Bellamy, a Christian Socialist, had initiated the movement for such a statement and having flags in all classrooms. His pledge was: I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

In 1923: the National Flag Conference called for the words "my Flag" to be changed to "the Flag of the United States," so that new immigrants would not confuse loyalties between their birth countries and the United States. The words "of America" were added a year later. (see June 22, 1942)

October 12 Music et al

Sugar Shack
October 12 – November 15, 1963,  “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

see Robert A. Moog and Herbert A. Deutsch for more

October 12 Peace Love Activism

October 12 – 16, 1964: Robert A. Moog and Herbert A. Deutsch introduced and demonstrated their music synthesizer at the convention of the Audio Engineering Society in NYC. (TM, see April 9, 1965; CM, see April 27, 1965)
Cheap Thrills

October 12 – November 15, 1968: Big Brother and the Holding Company’s Cheap Thrills is the Billboard #1 album.
One of the greatest first 10 seconds of any song ever.

“I buried Paul”
October 12, 1969: a DJ on Detroit's WKNR radio station received a phone call telling him that if you play The Beatles 'Strawberry Fields Forever' backwards, you hear John Lennon say the words "I buried Paul." This started a worldwide rumor that Paul McCartney was dead. (see Oct 20)

Space Race

October 12 Peace Love Activism

October 12, 1964: Soviets V. M. Komarov, K. P. Feoktistov and B. B. Yegorov all flew on Voskhod 1, the first mission to send multiple men into space.

INDEPENDENCE DAY

October 12 Peace Love Activism

October 12, 1968: Equatorial Guinea independent from Spain. (see June 4, 1970)
October 12 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

Kent State Killings and Aftermath
October 12, 1970: President Nixon announced the pullout of 40,000 more American troops in Vietnam by Christmas. (NYT article) (Kent State, see January 4, 1979; Vietnam, Nov 9)
Race Revolts
October 12,1972: en route to the Gulf of Tonkin, a fight broke out involving more than 200 sailors aboard the United States Navy aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk; 40 persons were injured and 28 sailors arrested, all but one black. (NYT pdf) (Vietnam, see Oct 26; BH & RR see Nov 23)
WAR POWERS ACT
October 12, 1973: House approved joint conference committee’s resolution 238 – 123. (see Oct 24)
Watergate Scandal
October 12, 1973: following the October 10 resignation of vice president Sprio Agnew, Nixon nominated House Minority Leader Gerald R. Ford, R-Mich., to succeed Agnew as vice president. (see Oct 20)

Crime and Punishment

October 12 Peace Love Activism
October 12, 1984: The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 was enacted. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan. Among its constituent parts and provisions was the Armed Career Criminal Act. The ACCA provided sentence enhancements for felons who committed crimes with firearms, if convicted of certain crimes three or more times.

If a felon has been convicted more than twice of a "violent felony" or a "serious" drug crime, the Act provided a minimum sentence of fifteen years, instead of the ten-year maximum prescribed under the Gun Control Act. The Act provided for a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. (see October 27, 1986)

Irish Troubles

October 12, 1984:  The Provisional Irish Republican Army attempts to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the British Cabinet in the Brighton hotel bombing. (see Feb 28, 1985)

LGBTQ

see Matthew Shepard murder for more
October 12, 1998: Shepard died at Poudre Valley Hospital in Fort Collins, Colorado. (see Oct 17)
Alaska ban on gay marriage overruled
October 12, 2014: U.S. District Judge Timothy Burgess released his 25-page decision that struck down Alaska's first-in-the-nation ban on gay marriages. Five gay couples had asked the state of Alaska to overturn a constitutional amendment approved by voters in 1998 that defined marriage as being between one man and one woman.

The lawsuit filed in May sought to bar enforcement of Alaska's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. It also called for barring enforcement of any state laws that refused to recognize gay marriages legally performed in other states or countries or that prevent unmarried gay couples from marrying.

 Burgess had heard arguments the previous Friday afternoon and promised a quick decision. (NYT article) (see Oct 25)

 TERRORISM

October 12 Peace Love Activism
October 12, 2000: in Aden, Yemen, the USS Cole was badly damaged by two Al-Qaeda suicide bombers, who place a small boat laden with explosives alongside the United States Navy destroyer, killing 17 crew members and wounding at least 39. (see Dec 19)

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