Category Archives: Peace Love Art and Activism

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

Equal Rights Party

September 20, 1884: a group of American suffragists formed the Equal Rights Party in San Francisco, dedicated to “equal and exact justice to every class of our citizens, without distinction of color, sex, or nationality” and in support of the proposition that “the laws of the several states be so amended that women will be recognized as voters, and their property-rights made equal with that of the male population, to the end that they may become self-supporting – rather than a dependent class.”

The party nominated and ran Belva Ann Lockwood for President that year. (see March 1886)

“Battle of the Sexes”

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

September 20, 1973:  in a highly publicized “Battle of the Sexes” tennis match, top women’s player Billie Jean King, 29, beat Bobby Riggs, 55, a former No. 1 ranked men’s player. Riggs (1918-1995), a self-proclaimed male chauvinist, had boasted that women were inferior, that they couldn’t handle the pressure of the game and that even at his age he could beat any female player. The match was a huge media event, witnessed in person by over 30,000 spectators at the Houston Astrodome and by another 50 million TV viewers worldwide. King made a Cleopatra-style entrance on a gold litter carried by men dressed as ancient slaves, while Riggs arrived in a rickshaw pulled by female models. Legendary sportscaster Howard Cosell called the match, in which King beat Riggs 6-4, 6-3, 6-3. King’s achievement not only helped legitimize women’s professional tennis and female athletes, but it was seen as a victory for women’s rights in general. [NYT pdf: King defeats Riggs] (see Nov 12)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

US Labor History

September 20, 1891:  African American sharecroppers affiliated with the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and Union go on strike for higher wages and an end to peonage in Lee County, Arkansas. By the time a white mob – led by the local sheriff – put down the strike, more than a dozen people had been killed. [TSHA article] (BH, see March 9, 1892; Labor, see Oct 31)

Emmett Till

September 20, 1955:  Judge Curtis Swango recesses the court to allow more witnesses to be found. It is the first time in Mississippi history that local law enforcement, local NAACP leaders and black and white reporters team up to locate sharecroppers who saw Milam’s truck and overheard Emmett being beaten. (see Emmett Till)

see Martin Luther King, Jr assassination attempt for more

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

September 20, 1958: Dr Aubre de L Maynard, chief of surgery at Harlem Hospital, removed a letter opener from the chest of Martin Luther King, Jr. King. Izola Ware Curry had stabbed King with a steel letter opener while he signed copies of his book, Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story.  Curry also carried a fully loaded .25-calibre automatic.

In 1968, the day before he was assassinated, King spoke to a group and referred to this incident:

It came out in the New York Times the next morning, that if I had merely sneezed, I would have died. Well, about four days later, they allowed me, after the operation, after my chest had been opened, and the blade had been taken out, to move around in the wheel chair in the hospital. They allowed me to read some of the mail that came in, and from all over the states and the world, kind letters came in. I read a few, but one of them I will never forget. I had received one from the President and the Vice-President. I’ve forgotten what those telegrams said. I’d received a visit and a letter from the Governor of New York, but I’ve forgotten what that letter said. But there was another letter that came from a little girl, a young girl who was a student at the White Plains High School. And I looked at that letter, and I’ll never forget it. It said simply,

Dear Dr. King,

I am a ninth-grade student at the White Plains High School.”

And she said,

While it should not matter, I would like to mention that I’m a white girl. I read in the paper of your misfortune, and of your suffering. And I read that if you had sneezed, you would have died. And I’m simply writing you to say that I’m so happy that you didn’t sneeze.

 And I want to say tonight — I want to say tonight that I too am happy that I didn’t sneeze. Because if I had sneezed, I wouldn’t have been around here in 1960, when students all over the South started sitting-in at lunch counters. And I knew that as they were sitting in, they were really standing up for the best in the American dream, and taking the whole nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the Founding Fathers in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. (BH, see  Sept 27; MLK, see January 24, 1960; Curry, see March 7, 2015) (PDF NYT article: MLK stabbed)

James H Meredith

September 20, 1962: defying orders of the Federal courts, Mississippi Governor Ross R Barnett denied Meredith admission to the University of Mississippi. The Justice Department immediately obtained contempt of court citations against Dr J D Williams, university chancellor; Dr Robert B Ellis, registrar, and Dean Anthony B Lewis. (see September 25, 1962)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

September 20, 1965: eleven U.S. warplanes were shot down over North and South Vietnam. (see Sept 25)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

September 20 Music et al

Beatles break-up

September 20, 1969: John Lennon announced to the others that he was leaving the band. (see Sept 26)

Blind Faith

September 20, 1969 – October 3, 1969: Blind Faith’s Blind Faith is the Billboard #1 album. (article about cover)

“Sugar, Sugar”

September 20 – October 17, 1969: “Sugar, Sugar” by The Archies #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. This was the most successful song in the bubblegum rock genre. There was no actual Archies group  but a group of studio musicians who played behind the animated Archie TV characters.

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

Calvin Graham

September 20, 1976: Graham again requested an honorable discharge from the Navy. (see Calvin Graham)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

East Beirut, Lebanon

September 20 Peace Love Activism

September 20, 1984:  the Shi’a Islamic militant group Hezbollah, with support and direction from the Islamic Republic of Iran, carried out a suicide car bombing targeting the U.S. embassy annex in East Beirut, Lebanon. The attack killed 24 people. including 2 U.S. military. [NYT article] (see Dec 4)

Oklahoma City Explosion

September 20, 1994:  Terry Nichols and Timothy McVeigh rented a storage shed and began gathering supplies for the truck bomb they would use in Oklahoma City.(see April 19, 1995)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

Native Americans

September 20, 1998: California made Native American Day an official state holiday. [Day’s site]  (see March 22, 1999)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

Japanese Internment Camps

September 20 Peace Love Activism

September 20, 2006: The Heart Mountain Relocation Center, which had held almost 11,000 Japanese-Americans interned during World War II, was designated a National Historic Landmark on this day, to be maintained by the National Park Service. The closest town to the Heart Mountain Relocation Center is Ralston, Wyoming, with a population of less than 300 people, about 76 miles from Billings, Montana. [HM site] (see Dec 21)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

September 20, 2011: the US military officially ended its policy of “Don’t ask, don’t tell” allowing gay and lesbian personal to publicly declare their sexual orientation. [HRC article]  (see Sept 29)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

Environmental Issues

September 20, 2014: hundreds of thousands of demonstrators from around the world turned out for the massive People’s Climate March, filling the streets of midtown Manhattan with demands for global leaders take action to avert catastrophic climate change. [Huff Post article] (see Dec 17)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism

 FREE SPEECH & Colin Kaepernick

September 20, 2016: in support of Colin Kaepernick’s protest against racial injustice, several members of Oakland Unified School District’s Honor Band took a knee while playing “The Star-Spangled Banner.” It happened toward the end of the song.

Band director Zack Pitt-Smith said he didn’t know until rehearsal that the band was going to kneel, saying that the idea originally came from a few students and eventually spread around. John Sasaki, a spokesperson for the school district, stated that the organization was “proud” of its students for making the decision to kneel:

“They knew that this was a controversial issue across our nation, and yet they decided to go ahead with their protest knowing it would not be well-received by some Americans.”

That evening, during his appearance on Conan, Marshawn Lynch was asked about his thoughts on Kaepernick kneeling during the national anthem. Lynch said he’d rather see Kaepernick “take a knee than stand up, put his hands up, and get murdered.”  [East Bay Times article] (FS & CK, see Sept 21)

September 20 Peace Love Art Activism
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September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

Anarchism in the US

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

September 19, 1892: Andrew Berkman is sentenced to twenty-two years in prison for the attempt on steel magnate Henry Clay Frick’s life on July 23, 1892.  [1970 NY Review article] (see June 1893)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

September 19, 1955:  the kidnapping (only) trial of J W Milam and Roy Bryant opened in Sumner, Mississippi, the county seat of Tallahatchie County. Jury selection begins and, with blacks and white women banned from serving, an all-white, 12-man jury made up of nine farmers, two carpenters and one insurance agent was selected.

Emmett’s mother, Mamie Till Bradley, departed from Chicago’s Midway Airport to attend the trial. (see Emmett Till)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

Nuclear/Chemical News

Operation Plumbbob

September 19, 1957: the US detonated a 1.7 kiloton nuclear weapon in an underground tunnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a 1,375 square mile research center located 65 miles north of Las Vegas. The test, known as Rainier, was the first fully contained underground detonation and produced no radioactive fallout. A modified W-25 warhead weighing 218 pounds and measuring 25.7 inches in diameter and 17.4 inches in length was used for the test. Rainier was part of a series of 29 nuclear weapons and nuclear weapons safety tests known as Operation Plumbbob that were conducted at the NTS between May 28, 1957, and October 7, 1957. (related NYT article) (see Sept 29)

Cuban Missile Crisis

September 19, 1962:  the United States Intelligence Board (USIB) approved a report on the Soviet arms buildup in Cuba. Its assessment, stated that some intelligence indicates the ongoing deployment of nuclear missiles to Cuba. The Soviet Union above ground nuclear test. 1.5 – 10 megaton. (CW/NN, see Sept 25; see Cuban Missile Crisis for expanded story)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

The Cold War

No Disneyland for Krushchev 

September 19 Peace Love Activism

September 19, 1959: Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had arrived in the US on September 15 for a summit meeting with President Eisenhower. The Soviet leader indicated a desire to see Hollywood. September 19 began pleasantly enough, with a tour of the Twentieth Century Fox Studios. Khrushchev was taken to the sound stage for the movie “Can-Can” and was immediately surrounded by the cast of the film, including Shirley MacLaine and Juliet Prowse. The cast members performed a number from the film. Frank Sinatra was brought in to serve as an unofficial master of ceremonies later lunched with an obviously delighted Khrushchev. (see Disneyland for more)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

Teenage Culture

September 19 – 25, 1960: “The Twist” by 18-year-old Chubby Checker #1 Billboard Hot 100 (see January 1962). The song was written by Hank Ballard and originally the B-side of Hank Ballard & the Midnighters’ “Teardrops on Your Letter” in 1959.

Checker was born Ernest Evans. His boss nicknamed him Chubby. He made a private recording, “The Class,” on which he imitated many singers of the time including Fats Domino. The record was given to Dick Clark whose wife, after Ernest Evans said his nickname was Chubby, asked, “As in Checker?” referring to Fats Domino. The name stuck. (see March 1963)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

September 19, 1969: President Nixon announced the cancellation of the draft calls for November and December. He reduced the draft call by 50,000 (32,000 in November and 18,000 in December). This move accompanied his twin program of turning the war over to the South Vietnamese concurrent with U.S. troop withdrawals and was calculated to quell antiwar protests by students returning to college campuses after the summer. (see Sept 23)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

September 19, 1973: a judge sentenced Aubran W Martin, one of the three gunmen convicted  in the 1969 Yablonski family murders, to die in the electric chair. [Pittsburgh Post Gazette story on murders] (Yablonski, see April 8, 1974; Labor, see Nov 12)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAY

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

September 19, 1983: Saint Kitts and Nevis independent of the United Kingdom. [NYT article]  (see January 1, 1984)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

Sexual Abuse of Children

September 19, 2002: the Boston Archdiocese reached a $10m settlement with victims of John Geoghan, retracting a previous settlement of $30m which the Church said would have bankrupted the archdiocese. (NYT article) (see Oct 7)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

Hurricane Katrina

September 19 Peace Love Activism

September 19, 2005: Louisiana’s official death toll stood at 973. (see Katrina for expanded story)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

Don’t ask, don’t tell

September 19 Peace Love Activism

September 19, 2011: the US military’s “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy officially ended.  [Washington Post article] (see September 20,  2011)

Don’t Ask Don’t Tell/Year 1

September 19, 2012: the one-year anniversary of the end of the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy passed with little notice because the policy had been so quickly implemented with so little disruption. Gay, lesbian and bisexual service members were thought to make up at least 2 percent of the military’s 2.2 million forces on active duty, in the reserves, and the National Guard. (see October 18, 2012)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism

FREE SPEECH & Colin Kaepernick

September 19, 2016: four Philadelphia Eagles raised their fists during the anthem

Prior to the game, Malcolm Jenkins said the Eagles would protest during the anthem. Jenkins was joined by Steven Means, Ron Brooks and Marcus Smith in raising a fist while standing during the anthem. [Washington Post article] FS & CK, see Sept 20)

September 19 Peace Love Art Activism
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September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Fugitive Slave Act

September 18, 1850: Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slave-holding interests and Northern Free-Soilers. This was one of the most controversial acts of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a “slave power conspiracy”. It declared that all runaway slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters. Abolitionists nicknamed it the “Bloodhound Law” for the dogs that were used to track down runaway slaves. (Britanica article) (Slave Revolts and Black History, see Apr 3)

School Desegregation

September 18, 1945: in Gary, Indiana, mounting pressure from civic groups such as the League of Women Voters, YWCA, and Gary Teacher’s Union to desegregate schools pushed district officials to make another attempt (see September, 1927) at integration. Again, white students took to the streets en masse in an effort to curb integration. [NPR story re Frank Sinatra and Gary desegregation] (BH & SD, see Nov 1)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

September 18, 1950:  Harvard Law School admitted women for the first time. Thirteen female students were admitted. [Harvard Law article]

Jo Ann Robinson

In 1953: Jo Ann Robinson (of Montgomery’s Women’s Political Council) and other local black leaders met with the three commissioners of Montgomery. Robinson’s group complained that the city did not hire any black bus drivers, said that segregation of seating was unjust, and that bus stops in black neighborhoods were farther apart than in white ones, although blacks were the majority of the riders. The commissioners refused to change anything. Robinson and other WPC members met with bus company officials on their own. The segregation issue was deflected, as bus company officials said that segregation was city and state law. The WPC achieved a small victory, as the bus company officials agreed to have the buses stop at every corner in black neighborhoods, as was the practice in white neighborhoods. [Black Past article]  (BH, see June 8; Feminism, see May 18, 1954; Montgomery, see March 2, 1955)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

September 18 Music et al

Bobby Vee

September 18 – October 8, 1961:  “Take Good Care of My Baby” by Bobby Vee #1 Billboard Hot 100.

Judy Garland

September 18 – December 17, 1961: Judy Garland’s Judy at Carnegie Hall Billboard #1 album.

Jimi Hendrix

September 18 Peace Love Activism

September 18, 1970: Hendrix, age 27, died in London. (NYT article) (see Oct 4)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

see Symbionese Liberation Army for more

September 18 Peace Love Activism

September 18, 1975: S.L.A. members Patty Hearst, Bill and Emily Harris and Wendy Yoshimura arrested in San Francisco. When asked for her occupation while being booked, Hearst says, “urban guerrilla.” [FBI report] (see March 11, 1976)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

September 18, 1998: over Democrats’ objections, the House Judiciary Committee agreed to release President Clinton’s videotaped grand jury testimony and more than 3,000 pages of supporting material from the Starr report, including sexually explicit testimony from Monica Lewinsky. (see Clinton for expanded story)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

September 18 2001: the 2001 anthrax attacks commenced as letters containing anthrax spores are mailed from Princeton, New Jersey to ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, the New York Post, and the National Enquirer. 22 in total are exposed; 5 of them die. [NPR story] (Terrorism, see Oct 26; Anthrax, see April 11, 2007)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

September 18, 2012: the Chicago Teachers Union agreed to end its strike allowing 350,000 children to return to classes. The terms, which appeared to provide some victories for both sides, gave annual raises to teachers, lengthened the school day,  and allow ed teachers to be evaluated, in part, with student test scores. The school system would also aim to guide laid-off teachers with strong ratings into at least half of any new job openings in the schools. [NYT article] (see January 26, 2014)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

September 18, 2014: the US Air Force reversed its policy requiring new recruits and those reenlisting to conclude a swearing-in oath with “So help me God.”

The trouble for the Air Force had started when a Tech. Sgt. at Creech Air Force Base in Nevada with 10 years’ service wanted to reenlist. As an atheist, he didn’t see why he had to swear an oath to a deity he didn’t believe in. It seemed to violate the religious establishment clause of the US Constitution. No other branches of the US military required it, nor did the honor code at the US Air Force Academy.

The sergeant had scratched out that last line in the Air Force enlistment/reenlistment document, which read in full: “I, [insert name], do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. So help me God.”  [Guardian article] (see Oct 6)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

 FREE SPEECH & Colin Kaepernick

September 18, 2016: more San Francisco 49ers joined Kaepernick, Dolphins continued protest

Kaepernick’s teammates Antoine Bethea, Eli Harold, Jaquiski Tartt and Rashard Robinson joined in protesting during the national anthem by raising their right fists ahead of San Francisco’s game vs. the Carolina Panthers.

Meanwhile in Foxboro three of the same Miami Dolphins players continued their protest. Arian Foster, safety Michael Thomas and wide receiver Kenny Stills all kneeled during the anthem. [USA Today article] (FS & CK, see Sept 19)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

September 18, 2018: a district court in Minnesota issued a ruling that said, “The marriage is declared to be in all respects valid.”

“The ruling was a long time coming, but I knew the courts would eventually rule in our favor,” said Baker. “Over the years, many legal scholars have reviewed our case and concluded that the law was on our side.” (next LGBTQ, see Oct 4; Baker/McConnell, see February 16, 2019)

September 18 Peace Love Art Activism

 

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