July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Technological Milestone

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

July 27, 1866: the first permanent transatlantic telegraph cable was successfully completed, stretching from Valentia Island, Ireland, to Heart’s Content, Newfoundland. (EDN dot com article) (see Dec 6)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Race revolts

July 27, 1919: an African American teenager Eugene Williams was swimming in Lake Michigan with four friends when they drifted toward the unofficial “whites-only” section of Lake Michigan Beach in Chicago, Illinois. Enraged at the encroachment, a white man on the shore threw stones at the black teenagers and struck Eugene in the head. He lost consciousness and drowned. When police responded, Eugene’s friends identified the assailant but a white police officer refused to arrest him.

News of the racially-charged incident spread quickly. White crowds were misinformed that a black teenager had thrown a rock and caused a white man to drown, while black crowds were misinformed that the police had prevented swimmers from rescuing Eugene before he drowned. Both groups erupted in violence that left an African American man and a police officer shot and many more injured.

Racial tension spilled over onto the streets of the Black Belt, a predominantly African American neighborhood in Chicago, in one of the worst riots in American history. (Chicago Tribune article)  (see July 31)

Albany Movement

July 27, 1962: ten demonstrators in front of Albany’s City Hall are arrested. After they are arrested a group of 17 demonstrators appear and they too are arrested. (see Albany for expanded story)

Kerner Commission

July 27, 1967: in the wake of urban rioting, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of  the violence. (full text of report) (see July 30)

Sean Bell

July 27, 2009: a settlement was reached in the Sean Bell civil lawsuit. NYC agreed to pay Sean Bell’s family $3.25 million. Joseph Guzman, 34, who uses a cane and a leg brace and has four bullets lodged in his body and Trent Benefield, 26, two passengers in Bell’s car who attended his bachelor party and were wounded in the shooting, received $3 million and $900,000 respectively in the settlement, for a total of $7.15 million. (B & S see October 17, 2010; Sean Bell, see March 24, 2012)

Muhammad Ali

July 27, 2012: Ali participated in the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games in London, England. (BH, see Sept 26; Ali, see June 3, 2016)

Freddie Gray

July 27, 2016: in Maryland, the state’s attorney dropped all remaining charges against three city police officers awaiting trial in the death of Freddie Gray, closing the book on one of the most closely watched police prosecutions in the nation without a single conviction — and few answers about precisely how the young man died.

The announcement ended a sweeping, deeply polarizing prosecution that began last spring, as National Guard troops rumbled through the streets, with Baltimore under curfew and residents tense after looting and riots that broke out after Mr. Gray sustained a fatal spinal cord injury in police custody. [2017 Rolling Stone magazine article] (B & S, see Sept 16; Gray, see September 12, 2017)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

US Labor History

July 27, 1935: President Roosevelt signed the National Labor Relations Act, known as the Wagner Act. The law safeguarded union organizing efforts and authorized the National Labor Relations Board to assure fairness in union elections and during collective bargaining with employers. (NLRB site) (see Nov 9)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

Red Scare

July 27, 1953: the Korean War armistice was signed at Panmunjom, ending three years of fighting. (RS, see Aug 12). The geographical division of Korea was seen as a potential model for Vietnam. (2010 CNN article) (Vietnam, see March 13, 1954; Red Scare, see Aug 12)

Increased troops

July 27, 1964: the U.S. announced that it would send 5,000 more military advisers to South Vietnam, bringing the total number of US forces in Vietnam to 21,000. (see July 30)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

July 27 Music et al

Herb Albert

July 27 – August 9, 1968: Herb Albert’s The Beat of the Brass the Billboard #1 album.

John Lennon

July 27, 1976: John Lennon was granted a green card for permanent residence in US. (NYT article) (see Sept 19)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Watergate Scandal

July 27, 1974: House Judiciary Committee passed the first of three articles of impeachment, charging obstruction of justice. (see Watergate for expanded story)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Iran hostage crisis

July 27, 1980:  Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, deposed Shah of Iran, died in Cairo. (Washington Post article) (see Dec 24)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

 Women’s Health

July 27, 1996:  Eric Rudolph detonated bomb at Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta during the 1996 Summer Olympics. The blast killed a spectator and wounded 111 others.(ATF article) (see Nov 29)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

July 27, 1998: the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that attorney-client privilege does not protect presidential confidant Bruce Lindsey from answering all questions put to him before the Lewinsky grand jury. (see Clinton for expanded story)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

TERRORISM

July 27, 2008: anthrax attacks: prime suspect Bruce Ivins killed himself with an overdose of acetaminophen. (2009 CNN article) (see Aug 6)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

Marijuana & AIDS

July 27, 2010: medical marijuana legal in the District after the Democrat-controlled Congress declined to overrule a D.C. Council bill that allowed the city to set up as many as eight dispensaries where chronically ill patients can purchase the drug. The law allows patients with cancer, glaucoma, HIV/AIDS and other chronic ailments can possess up to four ounces of the drug…

The law capped a years-long struggle to act on a 1998 referendum in which 69 percent of District residents voted for to allow medical marijuana. Until last year, Congress blocked the city from enacting the referendum. (Marijuana, see Nov 2; AIDS, see May 14, 2014 )

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

BSA

July 27, 2015: the Boy Scouts of America ended its ban on openly gay adult leaders but the new policy allowed church-sponsored units to choose local unit leaders who share their precepts, even if that means restricting such positions to heterosexual men.

Despite this compromise, the Mormon Church said it might leave the organization anyway. Its stance surprised many and raised questions about whether other conservative sponsors, including the Roman Catholic Church, might follow suit. (NYT article) (LGBTQ, see July 28; BSA, see January 30, 2017)

Transgender in military

July 27, 2017:  Pentagon leaders, scrambling to clarify the confusion surrounding President Trump’s abrupt announcement, announced that transgender people can continue to serve in the military.

In a letter to the military service chiefs, Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr., the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said that the policy on who is allowed to serve would not change until the White House sends the Defense Department new rules and the secretary of defense issues new guidelines.

“In the meantime, we will continue to treat all of our personnel with respect,” General Dunford said in the letter. [NYT article] (LGBTQ & Transgender, see Aug 25)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism

June 27, 2015: the Oklahoma Supreme Court again ordered the removal of a statue of the Ten Commandments from the state capitol grounds after denying an appeal. The nine justices turned down an appeal from the Oklahoma Capitol Preservation Commission to rehear the case less than one month after the court originally ordered for the monument to be taken down.

The court said the Oklahoma Constitution — in Article 2, Section 5 — banned the use of public property “for the benefit of any religious purpose.” Even though the Ten Commandments monument was paid for with private funding, the court said it is on public property and benefits or supports a system of religion and is therefore unconstitutional. (Politico article) (see Dec 14)

July 27 Peace Love Art Activism
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July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Black History

Liberia

July 26, 1847: the settlers of Liberia issued a Declaration of Independence and promulgated a constitution, which, based on the political principles denoted in the United States Constitution, created the independent Republic of Liberia.

In 1820, the American Colonization Society (ACS) had begun sending Black volunteers to the Pepper Coast (west central coast of Africa) to establish a colony for freed American blacks. These free African Americans came to identify themselves as Americo-Liberian, developing a cultural tradition infused with American notions of racial supremacy, and political republicanism. The ACS, a private organization supported by prominent American politicians such as Abraham Lincoln, Henry Clay, and James Monroe, believed repatriation was preferable to emancipation of slaves. Similar organizations established colonies in Mississippi-in-Africa and the Republic of Maryland, which were later annexed by Liberia. (PBS article) (BH, see January 31, 1848; ID, see May 20, 1902)

Race Revolts

July 26, 1918: after the U.S. entered World War I on April 6, 1917, the country was beset by mob violence against alleged “disloyal” people and also racial violence, especially the East St. Louis race riot that erupted on July 2, 1917. Despite pleas that he speak out, President Woodrow Wilson refused to publicly denounce mob violence. On this day, he finally he released a statement to the media condemning mob violence. Significantly, however, he did not make a public speech, which would have had far more impact on public attitudes. (Today in Civil Liberties article)  (BH, see July 29; RR, see Aug 31)

Executive Order 9981

July 26, 1948: President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981. It abolished racial discrimination in the armed forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services. The last all-black unit wasn’t disbanded until 1954.

It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. This policy shall be put into effect as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time required to effectuate any necessary changes without impairing efficiency or morale. (full text) (see Oct 1)

Greensboro Four

July 26, 1960: F.W. Woolworth desegregated. By August 1961, more than 70,000 people had participated in sit-ins, which resulted in more than 3,000 arrests. Sit-ins at “whites only” lunch counters inspired subsequent kneel-ins at segregated churches, sleep-ins at segregated motel lobbies, swim-ins at segregated pools, wade-ins at segregated beaches, read-ins at segregated libraries, play-ins at segregated parks and watch-ins at segregated movies. (BH, see July 31; see Greensboro for expanded story)

Albany Movement

July 26, 1962: WG Anderson, president of the Albany Movement, warned that the group would give a “lesson” to white officials who had spurned repeated requests for negotiations over demands for desegregation of public facilities. (see Albany for expanded story)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Emma Goldman

July 26, 1892: the New York Times reports that “Emma Goldman who is reported to have been in this city [Pittsburg] Saturday Night, and with whom Berkmann lived at one time, could not be found yesterday. It is believed by many that she knew of Berkmann’s trip to Pittsburgh, and furnished him money to go with.” (see Goldman for expanded story)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Separation of Church and State

July 26, 1925: five days after the Scopes trial ends, William Jennings Bryan died in his sleep in Dayton. [Peenie Wallie dot com article on WJB] (see Scopes for expanded story)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Feminism

National Women’s Party

July 26, 1937,: after five years, NWP successfully attains repeal of Section 213 of Legislative Appropriations Act of 1932 (Economy Act), prohibiting spouses of federal employees from also working for federal government. (NWP site)(see October 9, 1938)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Cold War

National Security Act

July 26, 1947: President Truman signed the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (text) (see Oct 20)

Fidel Castro

July 26, 1953: Fidel Castro began his revolt against Fulgencio Batista with an unsuccessful attack on an army barracks in eastern Cuba. (2016 Atlantic article on Castro) (see July 27)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Vietnam

July 26, 1950:  United States provided  $15 million to French forces in Vietnam. Aid increased rapidly as the war progressed. (see Sept 3)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

July 26 Music et al

1963 Newport Folk Festival

July 26 – 28, 1963: festival included Phil Ochs, Pete Seeger, and Joan Baez who introduced Bob Dylan as her guest. (see Aug 17)

Road to Bethel

July 26, 1969: a committee of Bethel residents began circulating petition that opposed festival. (see Chronology for expanded story)

Blood, Sweat and Tears

July 26 – August 22 , 1969: Blood, Sweat, and Tears’ Blood, Sweat, & Tears again the Billboard #1 album.

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Independence Day

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

July 26, 1965:  Maldives independent from United Kingdom. [2015 article] (see Aug 9)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

Space Race

July 26 – August 7, 1971: Apollo 15 lands on the moon with a four-wheel drive lunar rover. Crew: David R Scott, Commander; James B Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M Worden, Command Module Pilot. [NASA article] (see April 16 – 27, 1972)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

DEATH PENALTY

July 26, 1983: in a 6-3 vote the Supreme Court upheld in Barefoot v. Estelle expedited federal review procedures in death penalty appeals and also upheld the prosecution’s right to present psychiatric evidence regarding a defendant’s future dangerousness during the penalty phase of a capital trial. (Oyez article) (see June 26, 1986)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

AIDS

July 26, 1990: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that a young woman – later identified as Kimberly Bergalis of Florida – had been infected with the AIDS virus, apparently by her dentist. (NYT obiturary) (see Aug 18)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

ADA

Act signed

July 26, 1990: with Justin Dart,  its “founding father,” alongside,  President George H W Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA is considered the most important civil rights law since Title 504 and has cross-disability support, bringing disability-specific organizations, advocates, and supporters all together for the same cause.  (ADA article)

Paul Hearne

In 1995: Paul Hearne, a longtime leader in the disability community, achieved his dream of creating a national association to give people with disabilities more consumer power and a stronger public voice, with the creation of the American Association of People with Disabilities. (AAPD site) (see October 17, 1995)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

John Kerry

July 26 – 29, 2004: Democratic National Convention in Boston, nominated John Kerry and John Edwards for President and Vice President. Barack Obama, candidate for the US Senate from Illinois, makes keynote speech. (Center for Presidential History article)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism

LGBTQ

July 26, 2017: President Trump announced that the United States will not “accept or allow” transgender people in the United States military, saying American forces “must be focused on decisive and overwhelming victory” and could not afford to accommodate them.

Trump made the surprise declaration in a series of posts on Twitter, saying he had come to the decision after talking to generals and military experts, whom he did not name.

“After consultation with my generals and military experts, please be advised that the United States government will not accept or allow transgender individuals to serve in any capacity in the U.S. military,” Mr. Trump wrote. “Our military must be focused on decisive and overwhelming victory and cannot be burdened with the tremendous medical costs and disruption that transgender in the military would entail.”  (Guardian article) (LGBTQ & Transgender, see July 27)

July 26 Peace Love Art Activism
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