January 25 Peace Love Activism

January 25 Peace Love Activism

January 25 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

UMW

January 25 Peace Love Activism


January 25, 1890:  in Columbus, Ohio,  the Knights of Labor Trade Assembly No. 135 and the National Progressive Miners Union merged to form the United Mine Workers of America. (see July 2)


Harwick mine explosion

January 25, 1904: an explosion at the Harwick mine in Cheswick, Pa killed two hundred miners. Many of the dead lie entombed in the sealed mine to this day. (see Mar 27)


Coppage v. Kansas

January 25, 1915:  the U.S. Supreme Court held that employers could make contracts that forbid employees from joining unions so-called “Yellow-dog” contracts. This case was decided in the era prior to the American Great Depression when the Supreme Court invalidated laws that imposed restrictions on contracts, especially those of employment. During this time, liberty of contract was viewed as a fundamental right, and therefore, only in extreme circumstances, could this right be abridged. (see Mar 3)


César E. Chávez, Dolores Huerta, and the UFW

January 25 Peace Love Activism

January 25, 1972: a double trailer truck driven by a scab driver struck and killed 18-year old Nan Freeman – a college student who responded to appeals for help by striking farm workers at the Talisman Sugar plant near Belle Glade, Florida. Pickets had complained to the police about scab drivers speeding by the picket lines through stop signs at the plant gates to splash rain and mud on the striking workers. César Chávez wrote of Freeman, “…she is a sister who picketed with farm workers in the middle of the night because of her love for justice…to be honored and remembered for as long as farm workers struggle for justice.” (LH, see Apr 1; UFW, see Feb 21)


The Red Scare


January 25, 1956: in a long interview with visiting American attorney Marshall MacDuffie, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev adopted a friendly attitude toward the United States and indicated that he believed President Dwight Eisenhower was sincere in his desire for peace. MacDuffie, a long-time acquaintance of the Soviet leader and a proponent of closer relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, had spent three hours conducting the interview. During the discussion, Khrushchev indicated that it was his desire that “We should have disarmament and we should think how to avoid a new war.” He was critical of some U.S. officials that he accused of making belligerent statements towards the Soviet Union, but he was also quick to point out that he did not hold Eisenhower responsible for those statements. In fact, the Soviet leader praised the president’s leadership, and apparently hoped that Eisenhower might negotiate seriously on a number of issues. (see Mar 8)


January 25 Music et al

The Beatles


January 25, 1963: Vee-Jay record label of Chicago obtained a contract to release limited number of Beatles records in the U.S. for a limited time period. (see Feb 2)

January 25 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Annie Lee Cooper fights back

January 25 Peace Love Activism

January 25, 1965: King led another march of about 250 people to the courthouse. When Sheriff Clark painfully twists the arm of Annie Lee Cooper, 54, and shoved her, she hit him — twice. (BH, see Jan 26; MLK, see Feb 1)


Shirley Chisholm

January 25 Peace Love Activism

January 25, 1972: Shirley Chisholm, the first African American Congresswoman, announced her candidacy for President. (see Feb 28) 


137 SHOTS

January 25, 2016: Cleveland officials said they were firing six police officers involved in a 137-shot barrage that killed two unarmed black people after a high-speed chase.


Those officers included Michael Brelo, a patrolman acquitted of manslaughter charges in May for having fired the last 15 shots of the barrage in East Cleveland on Nov. 29, 2012. The chase began when officers standing outside police headquarters mistook the sound of a beat-up Chevrolet Malibu backfiring as a gunshot.


Six more officers who fired during the barrage face suspensions ranging from 21 to 30 days, said Public Safety Director Michael McGrath, the former police chief. A total of 13 officers had been notified they faced administrative discipline, and one of them has retired, McGrath said. (see August 8, 2017)


Vietnam


January 25, 1969: the first fully attended meeting of the formal Paris peace talks was held. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, the chief US negotiator, urged an immediate restoration of a genuine DMZ as the first “practical move toward peace.” Lodge also suggested a mutual withdrawal of “external” military forces and an early release of prisoners of war. Tran Buu Kiem and Xuan Thuy, heads of the National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese delegations respectively, refused Lodge’s proposals and condemned American “aggression.” (see February 1969)


January 25 Peace Love Activism

Feminism


January 25, 1971: in Phillips v. Martin Marietta the Supreme Court ruled that it is contrary to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for a company to refuse to hire a woman because she has pre-school aged children when it does not impose a similar restriction on hiring men, even where there is no showing of discrimination against women overall.  (next Feminism, see Mar 21)


Charles Manson


January 25, 1971: in Los Angeles, California, cult leader Charles Manson was convicted, along with followers Susan Atkins, Leslie Van Houten, and Patricia Krenwinkle, of the brutal 1969 murders of actress Sharon Tate and six others. (see Mar 29)

DEATH PENALTY

Herrera v. Collins

January 25, 1993: the Supreme Court in Herrera v. Collins held in a 6-3 vote that a death-row inmate was not ordinarily entitled to relief where a claim of innocence was based on newly discovered evidence, unless the claim also includes an independent constitutional violation. The Supreme Court found that there is no due process violation in the execution of someone who was arguably innocent. (see June 28, 1993)


Bill Bailey hung

January 25, 1996: Delaware executed convicted double-murder Bill Bailey  by hanging. Bailey was the third person executed by hanging since the death penalty was reinstated in 1976 and the first hanging in Delaware since 1946. Bailey was the last person executed by hanging in the US.  (see April 24, 1996)


January 25 Peace Love Activism

Nuclear news

Almost Armageddon

January 25, 1995: Russia’s early-warning defense radar detected an unexpected missile launch near Norway, and Russian military command estimated the missile to be only minutes from impact on Moscow. Moments later, Russian President Boris Yeltsin, his defense minister, and his chief of staff were informed of the missile launch. The nuclear command systems switched to combat mode, and the nuclear suitcases carried by Yeltsin and his top commander were activated for the first time in the history of the Soviet-made weapons system. Five minutes after the launch detection, Russian command determined that the missile’s impact point would be outside Russia’s borders. Three more minutes passed, and Yeltsin was informed that the launching was likely not part of a surprise nuclear strike by Western nuclear submarines. These conclusions came minutes before Yeltsin and his commanders should have ordered a nuclear response based on standard launch on warning protocols. Later, it was revealed that the missile, launched from Spitzbergen, Norway, was actually carrying instruments for scientific measurements. Nine days before, Norway had notified 35 countries, including Russia, of the exact details of the planned launch. The Russian Defense Ministry had received Norway’s announcement but had neglected to inform the on-duty personnel at the early-warning center of the imminent launch. The event raised serious concerns about the quality of the former Soviet Union’s nuclear systems. (see May 11)


US/India agreement

January 25 Peace Love Activism

January 25, 2015: President Barack Obama and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled plans to unlock billions of dollars in nuclear trade and to deepen defense ties, steps they hoped would establish an enduring strategic partnership.


The two countries reached an understanding on two issues that, despite a groundbreaking 2006 agreement, had stopped U.S. companies from setting up reactors in India and had become one of the major irritants in bilateral relations.


“We are committed to moving towards full implementation,” Obama told a joint news conference with Modi. “This is an important step that shows how we can work together to elevate our relationship.”


The new deal resolved differences over the liability of suppliers to India in the event of a nuclear accident and U.S. demands on tracking the whereabouts of material supplied to the country, U.S. ambassador to India Richard Verma told reporters.


Jeffrey A. Sterling convicted

January 25, 2015: Jeffrey A. Sterling, a former Central Intelligence Agency officer, was convicted of espionage on charges that he told a reporter for The New York Times about a secret operation to disrupt Iran’s nuclear program.


The case revolved around a C.I.A. operation in which a former Russian scientist provided Iran with intentionally flawed nuclear component schematics. Mr. Risen revealed the operation in his 2006 book, “State of War,” describing it as a mismanaged, potentially reckless mission that may have inadvertently aided the Iranian nuclear program. (see Mar 9)

January 25 Peace Love Activism

CLINTON IMPEACHMENT

January 25, 1998: Lewinsky lawyer Ginsburg saids she will “tell all” in exchange for immunity. Clinton political adviser James Carville said “a war” will be waged between Clinton supporters and Kenneth Starr over Starr’s investigation tactics.


January 25, 1999: Senators hear arguments about dismissing the charges against President Clinton and then deliberate in secret. (see Clinton for expanded story)


Occupy Wall Street


January 25, 2012: recalling the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago, Adbusters published an ad calling for fifty thousand protesters to Occupy the G8 summit scheduled for May 2012. (see Sept 15)


Americans With Disabilities Act


January 25, 2013: Education Department stated that students with disabilities must be given the opportunity to play on a traditional sports team or have their own leagues. Disabled students who want to play for their school could join traditional teams if officials can make “reasonable modifications” to accommodate them. If those adjustments would fundamentally alter a sport or give the student an advantage, the department is directing the school to create parallel athletic programs that have comparable standing to traditional programs. (see Nov 7)


TERRORISM


January 25, 2014: an attorney for Steven Joshua Dinkle notified a judge that Dinkle intended to plead guilty at a court hearing. Prosecutors said Dinkle conspired with another person to burn a 6-foot cross in a black neighborhood in an attempt to intimidate its residents. Dinkle was also accused of lying to investigators. Dinkle said that he withdrew from the KKK months before the cross burning.


Dinkle was charged with conspiracy to violate housing rights, criminal interference with the right to fair housing, using fire to commit a federal felony and two counts of obstruction of justice. He will be sentenced in May. (DoJ article) (see Feb 3)


January 25 Peace Love Activism

Crime and Punishment

Death-in-prison sentences for juveniles

January 25, 2016: the United States Supreme Court decided that states must retroactively apply the ban on mandatory death-in-prison sentences for juveniles.


On June 24,  2012, the US Supreme Court had struck down automatic life-without-parole sentences for children in Miller v. Alabama. Most state courts applied Miller retroactively to people already serving the banned sentence and granted them a new sentencing hearing, but states including Louisiana and Alabama refused to do so.


This  Montgomery v. Louisiana decision required all states to apply Miller retroactively, which meant that hundreds of people in Louisiana, Alabama, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and several other states which had sentenced people to die in prison for crimes committed as children were entitled to a new sentencing hearing. 


Solitary confinement for juveniles

January 25, 2016: President Obama announced a ban on solitary confinement for juveniles in the federal prison system, a practice he said is “increasingly overused . . . with heartbreaking results.”


In a Washington Post op-ed, the president wrote that solitary confinement can have “devastating, lasting psychological consequences,” including an increased risk of suicide, especially for juveniles and people with mental illnesses.  (Washington post article) (see Mar 23)


Women’s Health


January 25, 2016: the U.S. Supreme Court refused to review North Dakota’s ban on abortion as early as six weeks of pregnancy—allowing a July 2015 ruling from an appellate court striking the measure to stand.


The U.S. Supreme Court had consistently held—first in Roe v. Wade and again in Planned Parenthood v. Casey—that women have a constitutional right to decide whether to end or continue a pregnancy and states cannot ban abortion prior to viability.   The Supreme Court refused to review a decision permanently blocking Arizona’s ban on abortion at 20 weeks of pregnancy in 2013, and courts in Idaho and Georgia have also blocked similar pre-viability bans. (see Mar 4)


Immigration History

January 25, 2017: President Trump signed an order to start building a border wall with Mexico and planned to indefinitely block Syrian refugees from entering the United States and to institute a temporary halt on all refugees from the rest of the world. The refugee policies were part of an executive order he was expected to issue on January 26.


The order required tougher vetting of foreigners fleeing persecution and placed a month-long ban on allowing any person into the United States from Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia or Yemen. Refugee admissions would be halted for 120 days while a review of screening procedures was completed. Upon resumption, the program would be far smaller, with the total number of refugees resettled in the United States more than halved to 50,000 from 110,000.


The mayors of American cities large and small reacted with outrage to the  order which said he would halt funding to municipalities that did not cooperate with federal immigration officials. The defiant officials — from New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and smaller cities, including New Haven; Syracuse; and Austin, Tex., said they were prepared for a protracted fight.


“We’re going to defend all of our people regardless of where they come from, regardless of their immigration status,” Mayor Bill de Blasio of New York said at a news conference with other city officials. (BBC article)  (see Jan 26)


January 25 Peace Love Activism

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