Tag Archives: voting rights

November 7 Peace Love Activism

November 7 Peace Love Activism

Black History

Abolitionist Elijah P Lovejoy murdered
November 7 Peace Love Activism
Wood engraving of the November 1837 pro-slavery riot in which Elijah Lovejoy was murdered.
November 7, 1837: abolitionist, clergyman and editor Elijah P. Lovejoy was killed by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Ill., as he defended his newly delivered printing press. Lovejoy was a Presbyterian minister, journalist, and news editor first established a newspaper called the St. Louis Observer in St. Louis, Missouri but was eventually run out of town for his critical editorials about slavery and other religions. He established a new newspaper in Alton, Illinois called the Alton Observer. On three occasions a pro-slavery mob destroyed his printing press for his strongly abolitionist views. When they attempted to destroy the final printing press, Lovejoy tried to intervene but was shot five times by the angry mob who were armed with shotguns. Lovejoy then was viewed as a martyr for the abolitionist movement and inspired antislavery ideas in the North. No one was ever convicted for his murder. (see Feb 6)
Successful Slave revolt
November 7, 1841: a slave revolt occurred on a slave trader ship, the 'Creole,' which was en route from Hampton, Va., to New Orleans, La.,. Slaves overpowered crew and sailed vessel to Bahamas where they were granted asylum and freedom. (Slave Revolts, see December 26, 1848; Black History, see August 1842)
Scottsboro Tavesty
November 7, 1932: in Powell v. Alabama by a vote of 7 -2, Supreme Court reversed the convictions. The Court ruled that the defendants were denied the right to counsel, which violated their right to due process under the Fourteenth Amendment. The cases were remanded to the lower court. (Scottsboro, see Scottsboro; Right to counsel, see May 23, 1938)
Mayor and City Council of Baltimore City v. Dawson
November 7, 1955: a per curiam order by the US Supreme Court affirming an order by theUS Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit that enjoined racial segregation in public beaches and bathhouses. The case arose from a challenge to segregation at Sandy Point State Park in Maryland. (see ff)
Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company
November 7, 1955: the Interstate Commerce Commission, in response to a bus segregation complaint filed in 1953 by a Women's Army Corps private named Sarah Louise Keys, broke with its historic adherence to the Plessy v. Ferguson separate but equal doctrine and interpreted the non-discrimination language of the Interstate Commerce Act as banning the segregation of black passengers in buses traveling across state lines. (see Nov 9)
Cleveland’s first Black mayor
November 7 Peace Love Activism
Carl Stokes
November 7, 1967: Carl B. Stokes elected mayor of Cleveland becoming the first African American mayor of a major US city. (see Dec 29)
Nixon/Jordan/Young
November 7, 1972: Nixon reelected in one of the largest landslides in American political history, taking more than 60 percent of the vote and crushing the Democratic nominee, Sen. George McGovern of South Dakota. Also, Barbara Jordan of Houston and Andrew Young of Atlanta, become the first African Americans from the south elected to Congress since Reconstruction. (BH, see Nov 23; Nixon, see January 8, 1973)
NYC’s first Black mayor; Virginia’s first Black governor
November 7 Peace Love Activism November 7 Peace Love Activism
November 7, 1989: David Dinkins elected first African American mayor of New York City; Douglas Wilder wins the Virginia governor's race, becoming the first elected African American governor. (see Dec 7)
Interracial marriage legal in Alabama
November 7, 2000: Alabama became the last state to officially legalize interracial marriage. By November 2000, interracial marriage had been legal in every state for more than three decades after the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Loving v. Virginia (1967) - but the Alabama State Constitution still contained an unenforceable ban in Section 102: "The legislature shall never pass any law to authorise or legalise any marriage between any white person and a Negro or descendant of a Negro." The Alabama State Legislature clung to the old language as a symbolic statement of the state's views on interracial marriage; as recently as 1998, House leaders successfully killed attempts to remove Section 102. When voters finally had the opportunity to remove the language, the outcome was close: although 59% of voters supported removing the language, 41% favored keeping it. Interracial marriage remained controversial in the Deep South, where a 2011 poll found that a plurality of Mississippi Republicans still support anti-miscegenation laws. (Alabama results) (see Dec 16)
University of Missouri football
November 7, 2015: dozens of black University of Missouri football players said that they would boycott all football-related activities — including games — until the university’s president, Timothy M. Wolfe, steps down or was removed. At issue, the players and other student activists said, were recent instances of racism directed at black students and a lack of action from administrators that the students contend have combined to create an intolerable atmosphere on campus. Wolfe resigned on November 9.

Vietnam

Harvard protests
November 7, 1966: Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara faced a student protest when he visited Harvard University to address a small group of students. As he left a dormitory, about 100 demonstrators shouted at him and demanded a debate. When McNamara tried to speak, supporters of the Students for a Democratic Society shouted him down. McNamara then attempted to leave, but 25 demonstrators crowded around his automobile so that it could not move. Police intervened and escorted McNamara from the campus. (click >>>Harvard) (see Nov 15)
Draft deferments cancelled
November 7, 1967: the Selective Service Commission announced that college students arrested in anti-war demonstrations would lose their draft deferments. (click >>> draft) (see Nov 11)
WAR POWERS ACT
November 7, 1973: both the House and Sentate passed the War Powers Act, overriding President Nixon's veto.

IRAQ War I

November 7, 1991:  the last oil well fire in Kuwait is extinguished. (see April 14 - 16, 1993)

Medical marijuana/Feminism

November 7, 2000: the Presidential election ended without a clear winner. Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first First Lady of the United States to win public office

Fifty-four percent of voters in Colorado approved Amendment 20, which amended the state’s constitution to recognize the medical use of marijuana. The law took effect on June 1, 2001. It removed state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who possess written documentation from their physician. The law established a confidential state-run patient registry that issues identification cards to qualifying patients...

 Sixty-five percent of voters in Nevada approved Question 9, which amended the states' constitution to recognize the medical use of marijuana. The law took effect on October 1, 2001. The law removed state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who have 'written documentation' from their physician... The law establishes a confidential state-run patient registry that issues identification cards to qualifying patients." (election, see Nov 26; Feminism, see Jan 22, 2001; Marijuana, see May 14, 2001)

November 7 Peace Love Activism

LGBTQ

Initiative Measure 416
November 7, 2000: anti-gay forces in Nebraska push through the discriminatory Initiative Measure 416 at the ballot, constitutionally prohibiting the state from respecting any form of family status or recognition for same-sex couples. (see Nov 27)
Briggs Initiative defeated
November 7, 1978: Voters rejected the Briggs Initiative by more than a million votes John Briggs had dropped out of the California governor's race, but received support for Proposition 6, also known as the Briggs Initiative, a proposal to fire any teacher or school employee who publicly supported gay rights. Harvey Milk campaigned against the bill and attended every event hosted by Briggs. In the summer, attendance had greatly increased at Gay Pride marches in San Francisco and Los Angeles, partly in response to Briggs. President Jimmy Carter, former Governor Ronald Reagan, and Governor Jerry Brown speak out against the proposition. (see April 1, 2001)
Same-sex marriage denied
November 7, 2006: constitutional amendments denying same-sex couples the freedom to marry passed in seven more states - Colorado, Idaho, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Arizona becomes the first state to reject an anti-gay marriage amendment at the ballot. (see Dec 14, 2006)
slowly but surely things changed…
November 7, 2013: the US Senate approved a ban on discrimination in the workplace based on sexual orientation and gender identity, voting 64 to 32 in a bipartisan show of support that was rare for any social issue. It was the first time in the institution’s history that it had voted to include gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people in the country’s nondiscrimination law. (see Nov 15)

Voting rights

November 7, 1893:  passage of a referendum made Colorado the first state to grant women the right to vote.(F, see Dec 8)
November 7 Peace Love Activism

In 1897 Josephine Dodge founded the New York State Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage. Dodge was the first president, the NAOWS believed that woman suffrage would decrease women’s work in communities and their ability to effect societal reforms. Active on a state and federal level, the group also established a newsletter, Woman’s Protest( reorganized as Woman Patriot in 1918), that was a bellwether of anti-suffrage opinion. In 1918 the NAOWS moved its headquarters to Washington, D.C., where it operated until its disbandment following the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. Woman Patriot continued to be published through the 1920s, generally opposing the work of feminists and liberal women’s groups.(Feminism, see  March 18, 1898;  VR, see April 25, 1898)

Domestic terrorism

November 7, 1922: Oregon voters approved the Compulsory Education Act, a Ku Klux Klan-sponsored initiative, which required children between the ages of 8 and 16 to attend public schools. The law was motivated by KKK anti-Catholic bias and would have effectively closed down parochial schools in the state. In the 1920s the Klan was a major force in many states outside of the South, and was particularly active with regard to anti-Catholic bias. On June 1, 1925, in Pierce v. Society of Sisters, the Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional because it interfered with the right of parents to control the education of their children.(T, see June 14, 1924; Oregon, see June 1, 1925)

Cold War

November 7, 1957: the final report from a special committee called by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to review the nation's defense readiness indicated that the US was falling far behind the Soviets in missile capabilities, and urged a vigorous campaign to build fallout shelters to protect American citizens.(see Nov 17)

November 7 Music et al

November 7 – December 11, 1960: The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart comedy album returns to Billboard #1.

Sexual Abuse of Children

November 7, 2002:  U.S. Roman Catholic bishops picked Kathleen McChesney , the FBI's top-ranking woman, to head a new office charged with making sure American church leaders adhere to clerical sex abuse policy. McChesney was named director of the Office for Child and Youth Protection, a critical post as the bishops try to re-establish their credibility. (see Nov 13)

ADA

November 7, 2013: Jesse M. Furman of Federal District Court in Manhattan ruled that New York City had violated the rights of about 900,000 of its residents with disabilities by failing to accommodate for their needs during emergencies, Furman found that the city, through “benign neglect,” was in violation of the Americans With Disabilities Act. (see Nov 8)

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October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15 Peace Love Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1872:  Virginia Minor tried to register to vote for the upcoming election, but was refused by St. Louis' sixth district registrar, Reese Happersett. Happersett refused to register Minor because she was female, thus provoking a civil suit brought by Virginia and her lawyer husband, Francis Minor. Minor's action was part of a nation-wide pattern of civil disobedience, in which hundreds of women across the country attempted to vote. (see Nov 5)
Against Our Will

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1975:  journalist and historian Susan Brownmiller published Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape. The book addressed social, political, and historical attitudes toward rape as well as the longstanding legal inequalities between men and women. Brownmiller is the first to use the term "date rape." (see Jan 1, 1976)
Roman Catholic Church

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1976: the Roman Catholic Church’s Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a Declaration on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood which concluded that for various doctrinal, theological, and historical reasons, the church "... does not consider herself authorized to admit women to priestly ordination." The most important reasons stated were first, the church's determination to remain faithful to its constant tradition, second, its fidelity to Christ's will, and third, the idea of male representation due to the "sacramental nature" of the priesthood. (see February 2, 1977)
Malala Yousafzai
October 15, 2012: the Pakistani schoolgirl who was shot by the Taliban last week for advocating girls’ education arrived in Britain for emergency specialist care. She was transported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan on an air ambulance sent from the United Arab Emirates to Britain, where she would undergo emergency specialist care. (see November 27)

BLACK HISTORY

Civil Rights Cases
October 15, 1883: in the Civil Rights Cases [a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue] the Supreme Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments.

More particularly, the Court held that the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which provided that "all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude" was unconstitutional.

The 8-1 decision by Justice Joseph P. Bradley,the Court  held that the language of the 14th Amendment, which prohibited denial of equal protection by a state, did not give Congress power to regulate these private acts, because it was the result of conduct by private individuals, not state law or action, that blacks were suffering. (see July 10, 1890) (NYT civil rights decision)
MARTIN LUTHER KING
October 15, 1963: the FBI circulated a report on alleged Communist influence in the civil rights movement that had as its major focus an attack on Dr. Martin Luther King. The report was so biased and racist that it alarmed members of President John Kennedy’s administration, who ordered that all copies be withdrawn two weeks later, on October 28. Assistant Attorney General Burke Marshall later told the Senate Church Committee (January 27, 1975) that the report was “a personal diatribe . . . a personal attack without evidentiary support . . . .” Assistant FBI Director Alan Belmont had described the report as “good reading,” conceding that it “may startle the Attorney General [Robert F. Kennedy].” (BH, see Oct 22; MLK, see Dec 23)
Black Panthers

October 15, 1966: in  the wake of the assassination of Malcolm X (Feb 21, 1965) and of Watts riots (Aug 11- 15, 1965) and at the height of the civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale wrote the first draft of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (BPP) 10 - Point Program.

Point #1:

We Want Freedom. We Want Power To Determine
 The Destiny Of Our Black Community.

We believe that Black people will not be free until we are able to determine our destiny.

(full statement) (BH, see Oct 29; Black Panthers, see  Nov 30)
SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID
October 15, 1989: the government freed eight of the country’s most prominent political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, 77, a mentor to Mr. Mandela and his close friend, in a gesture that was widely seen as a trial run for Mandela’s release. (see February 2, 1990)
Separate Amenities Act
October 15, 1990: South Africa's Separate Amenities Act, which had barred blacks from public facilities for decades, was scrapped. (see June 17, 1991)
1993 Nobel Peace Prize

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1993: Mandela and de Klerk shared the Nobel Peace Prize. The two men accept the award with the strained grace that characterized their relationship, and Mandela declined to repeat his much-quoted assessment of de Klerk as a man of integrity. (see Nov 18)
Murders of Civil Rights Workers Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner
October 15, 2013: the U.S. Supreme Court said it would consider arguments from a former Ku Klux Klansman Edgar Ray Killen who was convicted in the 1964 slayings of three civil rights workers. Killen said he was denied constitutional rights in his Mississippi trial.

He made the same arguments to a federal judge in Mississippi in 2012 and before the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans earlier this year. He lost in both courts. The Mississippi attorney general's office said that it had notified the Supreme Court that no response to Killen's petition would be filed. (BH & Murders, see Nov 4)

US Labor History

October 15, 1914: President Woodrow Wilson signed the Clayton Antitrust Act—often referred to as "Labor’s Magna Carta"—establishing that unions are not "conspiracies" under the law. It for the first time freed unions to strike, picket and boycott employers. In the years that followed, however, numerous state measures and negative court interpretations weakened the law. (see January 12, 1915) (NYT Clayton bill signed)

FREE SPEECH

“Don’ts and Be Carefuls”
October 15, 1927: almost from the time motion pictures appeared there were strong social and political pressures to censure their treatment of sexuality. In the 1920s, Hollywood made several efforts to head off official censorship through voluntary self-censorship efforts. The list of “Don’ts and Be Carefuls,” issued on this day, was one part of that effort. The list prohibited “pointed profanity,” including the use of “God,” “Jesus,” “hell,” “damn,” and others; trafficking in drugs; miscegenation; “suggestive nudity;” scenes of actual child birth; and “willful offense to any nation, race, or creed.” The “be carefuls,” included use of the flag; use of firearms; “attitude toward public characters and institutions;” rape or attempted rape; “first night scenes” [presumably the] first night of marriage; surgical operations; “excessive or lustful kissing;” surgical operations; and others.

The “Don’ts and Be Carefuls” were voluntary and had little impact. Many of the early talkies (which were just beginning to develop in 1927) in the 1930–1933 years were pretty racy. Under pressure from a Catholic-led boycott of “objectionable” films, Hollywood, on June 13, 1934, adopted the infamous 1934 Production Code, which put a heavy hand of censorship on Hollywood until the late 1960s. (see November 25, 1930)
Nazis in America
October 15, 2005: a riot broke out in Toledo, Ohio provoked by the plans of a group of neo-Nazis to march through a predominantly black neighborhood.  CBS News report (see Dec 20)

Japanese Internment Camps

October 15, 1943: at the Tule Lake Segregation Center internment camp in  California – which held over 18,000 Japanese Americans during World War II – a truck carrying agricultural workers tips over, resulting in the death of an internee. Ten days later, the agricultural workers went on strike; the internment camp director fired all of the workers and brought in strikebreakers from other internment camps. After several outbreaks of violence, martial law was declared and 250 internees were arrested and incarcerated in a newly constructed prison within the prison. (see December 17, 1944)

October 15 Music et al

Beatles in recording studio
October 15, 1960: in a small Hamburg recording studio, the Akustik, The Beatles (minus Pete Best) and two members of Rory Storm's Hurricanes (Ringo Starr and Lou "Wally" Walters) recorded a version of George Gershwin's "Summertime", which is cut onto a 78-rpm disc. This was the first session that included John, Paul, George, and Ringo together. Two other songs were recorded, but Ringo played on those without John, Paul, or George. Nine discs were cut, but only one is known to have survived.  (see Nov 1)
Four Tops
October 15 - 28, 1966: “Reach Out I’ll Be There” by the Four Tops #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
October 15, 1967 the first Sacramento Pop Festival took place which featured Spirit, Jefferson Airplane, Nutty Gritty Dirt Band, Strawberry Alarm Clock and Sunshine Company. (see May 18 – 19, 1967)
October 15 Peace Love Activism, 

Vietnam

DRAFT CARD BURNING
October 15, 1965: after draft card burning was made illegal, David Miller, a Catholic pacifist, became the first person to publicly burn his draft card to protest the Vietnam War (although in truth it may well have been simply the first draft card-burning incident to be widely publicized). Anti-war demonstrations were held in 40 cities, with a combined attendance of 100,000 people. (Draft Card, see Oct 18)
Marry Pranksters
October 15, 1965 : among that day’s protests, the Vietnam Day Committee organized a sit in at the San Francisco State College, which saw a performance by Country Joe and the Fish. The Merry Pranksters attended and Ken Kesey spoke. (Vietnam, see Oct 16; LSD see November 21)
Peace Day

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1969: Peace Day. 500,000 protesters nationwide. First Vietnam Moratorium. Pete Seeger sings “Give Peace a Chance,” a song he originally didn’t think much of but afterwards said, “The high point of the afternoon came...when a short phrase from a record by Beatle John Lennon was started up...” (see Oct 19)
October 15 Peace Love Activism

IRAQ

October 15, 1994: Iraq withdrew troops from its border with Kuwait. (see August 31, 1996)

Voting Rights

October 15, 2014:  Arkansas' highest court struck down a state law that required voters to show photo identification before casting a ballot, ruling the requirement unconstitutional.

The state Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling that determined the law unconstitutionally added a requirement for voting. The high court noted that the Arkansas Constitution lists specific requirements to vote: that a person be a citizen of both the U.S. and Arkansas, be at least 18 years old, and be lawfully registered. Anything beyond that amounts to a new requirement and is therefore unconstitutional, the court ruled. (see March 23, 2015)

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October 7 Peace Love Activism

October 7 Peace Love Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights

October 7 Peace Love Activism

October 7, 1918: National Women’s Party picketed with banners in front of U.S. Capitol and Senate Office Building. Pickets arrested daily and released without charges. Throughout rest of Oct. and Nov., pickets harassed by unruly crowds and manhandled by police. (see Dec 2)
Women in service academies
October 7, 1975: President Ford approved a public law granting women entrance into Army, Navy, and Air Force academies for the first time beginning in the fall of 1976. (see Oct 15)

The Red Scare, McCarthyism, and the Cold War

October 7, 1949: less than five months after Great Britain, the United States, and France established the Federal Republic of Germany in West Germany, the Democratic Republic of Germany was proclaimed within the Soviet occupation zone. The  West criticized the Republic as an un-autonomous Soviet creation, (see Nov 2)
Windscale nuclear reactor (UK)
October 7, 1957: a fire in the graphite-core reactor in Cumbria results in a limited release of radioactivity (INES Level 5). The sale of milk from nearby farms was banned for a month. The reactor could not be salvaged and was buried in concrete. A second reactor on the site is also shut down and the site decontaminated. Subsequently part of the site is renamed Sellafield and new nuclear reactors are built. (NYT article) (see Dec 17)
Cuban Missile Crisis
October 7, 1962: Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticós spoke at the UN General Assembly: "If ... we are attacked, we will defend ourselves. I repeat, we have sufficient means with which to defend ourselves; we have indeed our inevitable weapons, the weapons, which we would have preferred not to acquire, and which we do not wish to employ." (see Cuban Missile Crisis for full story)
Nuclear test ban treaty

October 7 Peace Love Activism

October 7, 1963: President John F. Kennedy signed the documents of ratification for a nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union. (CW, see Nov 18; NN, see January 29, 1964)
October 7 Peace Love Activism

October 7 Music et al

Howl

October 7 Peace Love Activism

October 7, 1955: Allen Ginsberg read his poem “Howl” for the first time to an audience at the Six Gallery in San Francisco. "Howl" is considered to be one of the great works of American literature. It came to be associated with the group of writers known as the Beat Generation, which included Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs. (see November 1, 1956)

WNEW-FM
October 7, 1967: WNEW-FM’s Pete Fornatelle interviewed Rosko regarding his Oct 2 resignation from WOR-FM. [see Oct 29]
see John Can Stay for more

October 7 Peace Love Activism

October 7, 1975, The Beatles post break-up: the NY State Supreme Court voted to reverse John’s deportation order.  Judge Irving Kaufman wrote "The courts will not condone selective deportation based upon secret political grounds...Lennon's four-year battle to remain in our country is testimony to his faith in this American dream." (see April 24, 1976)

BLACK HISTORY

Freedom Day

October 7 Peace Love Activism

October 7, 1963: in what would be known as "Freedom Day," about 350 blacks line up to register to vote at the Dallas County (Alabama) Courthouse. Registrars go as slowly as possible and take a two-hour lunch break. Few manage to register, most of those are denied, but the protest is considered a huge victory by civil rights advocates. (see Oct 8)
United States versus Cecil Price et al.
October 7, 1967: trial in the case of United States versus Cecil Price et al. began in the Meridian courtroom of Judge William Cox.  Chief Prosecutor John Doar and other government attorneys had reason to be concerned about Cox.  Cox, appointed as an effort to appease powerful Judiciary Committee Chairman (and former roommate of Cox at Ole Miss) Senator James Eastland, had been a constant source of problems for Justice Department lawyers (especially John Doar) who were seeking to enforce civil rights laws in Mississippi.  In one incident, Judge Cox referred to a group of African Americans set to testify in a voting rights case as "a bunch of chimpanzees."

A jury of seven white men and five white women, ranging in ages from 34 to 67, was selected. Defense attorneys exercised peremptory challenges against all seventeen potential black jurors.  A white man, who admitted under questioning by Robert Hauberg, the U.S. Attorney for Mississippi, that he had been a member of the KKK "a couple of years ago," was challenged for cause.  Judge Cox denied the challenge. (Wikipedia entry) (see Oct 20)
Emmett Till
October 7, 2008: President Bush signed the Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act of 2007 It tasked theJustice Department’s Civil Rights Division and the FBI with reviewing, investigating and assessing for prosecutive merit more than 100 unsolved civil rights era homicides. (BH, see Nov 4; ET, see Emmett Till)

1964 World Series

October 7 - 15 , 1964: World Series St. Louis Cardinals against N Y Yankees,  Cardinals defeated the Yankees in seven games. It was the last Yankee World Series appearance until 1976

War in Afghanistan

October 7, 2001: the armed forces of the US, the UK, Australia, and the Afghan United Front launched Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. (see Oct 22)

Iraq War II

October 7, 2004:  a CIA report concluded that Saddam Hussein did not possess stockpiles of illicit weapons at the time of the U.S. invasion in March 2003 and had not begun any program to produce them. [CNN, 10/7/04] (see January 12, 2005)

Sexual Abuse of Children

October 7, 2002: a commission appointed by Cardinal Bernard F. Law to help prevent sexual abuse by priests recommended that the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston compile a registry of accused priests and pass information about them to employers. The commission also recommended monitoring accused priests after they were removed from their jobs and reporting information about their work, living situations and any new complaints of abuse to an independent review board of lay experts. (see Nov 3)

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